Personal knowledge management

Personal Knowledge Management ( PKM ) is a collection of processes That a person uses to gather, classify, store, search, retrieve and share knowledge In Their daily activities ( Grundspenkis 2007 ) and the way in qui thesis processes supporting work activities ( Wright 2005 ) . It is a response to the idea That knowledge workers need to be Responsible for Their Own growth and learning ( Smedley 2009 ). It is a bottom-up approach to knowledge management (KM) ( Pollard 2008 ).

History and background

ALTHOUGH as early as 1998 Davenport wrote on the importance to worker productivity of understanding individual knowledge processes (Cited in Zhang 2009 ), the term personal knowledge management Appears to be Relatively new. Its origin can be traced in a working paper by Frand & Hixon (1999) .

PKM integrals information management personal (PIM), Focused on individual skills, with knowledge management (KM) in addition to input from a variety of disciplines Such As cognitive psychology , management and philosophy ( Pauleen 2009 ). From an organizational perspective, understanding of the field has developed in light of expanding knowledge about human cognitive capabilities and the permeability of organizational boundaries. From a metacognitive perspective, it compares various modalities within human cognition as to their competence and efficacy ( Sheridan 2008 ). It is an underresearched area ( Pauleen 2009 ).


Dorsey (2001) identified information retrieval, assessment and evaluation, organization, analysis, presentation, security, and collaboration as essential to PKM (cited in Zhang 2009 ).

Wright’s model involves interrelated domains: analytical, information, social and learning. Envisioning, application, creation and contextualization. The information dimension includes the sourcing, assessment, organization, aggregation, and communication of information. The social dimension involves finding and collaborating with people, development of both networks and extended networks, and dialogue. The learning dimension is a new approach to the development of knowledge. This model stresses the importance of both bonding and bridging networks ( Wright 2007 ).

In Nonaka and Takeuchi’s SECI model of knowledge creation (see under knowledge management ), knowledge can be tacit or explicit, with the interaction of the two resulting in new knowledge ( Nonaka & Takeuchi 1995 ). Smedley has developed a PKM model based on Nonaka and colleagues’ model in which an expert provides direction and a community of practice provides support for personal knowledge creation ( Smedley 2009 ). Trust is central to knowledge sharing in this model. ( Nonaka & von Krogh 2009 ) Nonaka is a non-profit organization,

Personal knowledge management can also be viewed along two main dimensions, personal knowledge and personal management ( Zhang 2009 ). This paper examines the role of organizational knowledge in organizational development and management. These aspects of organizational and personal knowledge are interconnected through the OAPI process (organizationalize, aggregate, personalize, and individualize), whereby organizational knowledge is personalized and personalized and is knowledge-based and organizational knowledge ( Zhang 2009 ).


It is not clear whether PKM is anything more than a new wrapper around personal information management (PIM). William Jones argued That only personal information as tangible resource can be managed, whereas personal knowledge can not ( Jones 2010 ). Dave Snowden HAS MOST Asserted That Individuals can not manage Their knowledge in the traditional sense of “managing” and advocated HAS thinking in terms of sensemaking Rather than PKM ( Snowden & Pauleen 2008 ). Knowledge is not solely an individual product-it emerges through connections, dialogue and social interaction (see Sociology of knowledge ). However, in Wright’s model, PKM involves the application to problem solving of analytical, information,

An aim of PKM is “helping individuals to be more effective in personal, organizational and social environments” ( Pauleen 2009 , p.221 ), often through the use of technology such as networking software. It has been argued, however, that equation of PKM with technology has limited the value and utility of the concept (eg Pollard 2008 , Snowden & Pauleen 2008 ).

In 2012, Mohamed Chatti introduced the PKN model to KM as an alternative perspective on PKM, based on the concepts of personal knowledge network and knowledge ecology ( Chatti 2012 ).


Skills associated with personal knowledge management include:

  • Reflection. Continuous improvement on how the individual operates.
  • Manage learning. Manage how and when the individual learns.
  • Information literacy . Understanding what information is important and how to find unknown information.
  • Organizational skills. Personal librarianship . Personal categorization and taxonomies .
  • Networking with others. Knowing what your network of people knows. Knowing who can help you
  • Researching, canvassing , paying attention , interviewing and observational “cultural anthropology” skills
  • Communication skills. Perception , intuition , expression , visualization and interpretation .
  • Creative skills. Imagination, pattern recognition , appreciation, innovation, inference. Understanding of complex adaptive systems .
  • Collaboration skills. Coordination, synchronization , experimentation , cooperation and design .


Some organizations are introducing PKM “systems” with some or all of four components: citation needed ]

  • Just-in-time canvassing : templates and e-mails
  • Knowledge harvesting: software tools that automatically collect knowledge on hard drives
  • Content management : taxonomy processes and desktop search tools that enable employees to subscribe to, find, organize and publish information that resides on their desktops
  • Personal productivity improvement: knowledge and skills in the context of their work

PKM has also been linked to these tools:

  • Social bookmarking and enterprise bookmarking
  • Knowledge logs (k-logs)
  • Email, calendars, task managers
  • Virtual assistants
  • Personal and semantic wikis

Other useful tools include Open Space Technology , cultural anthropology , stories and narrative, mindmaps , concept maps and eco-language, and single frames and similar information visualization techniques. Individuals use these tools to capture ideas, expertise, experience, opinions or thoughts, and this “voicing” will encourage cognitive diversity and promote free exchanges away from a centralized policed ​​knowledge repository. Citation needed ] The goal is to facilitate knowledge sharing and personal content management.

See also

  • Computing portal
  • Adaptive hypermedia
  • Commonplace book – pre-computer technique
  • Mind map
  • Personal wiki
  • Semantic desktop
  • User modeling


  • (2007), “Knowledge management: a personal knowledge network perspective”, Journal of Knowledge Management , 16 (5): 829-844, doi : 10.1108 / 13673271211262835 .
  • Jones, William (6 September 2010), “No knowledge but through information” , First Monday , 15 (9)
  • Razmerita, L .; Kirchner, K .; Sudzina, F. (2009), “Personal Knowledge Management: The Role of Web 2.0”, Online Information Review , 33 (6): 1021-1039, doi : 10.1108 / 14684520911010981 .
  • Pauleen, David (2009), “Personal knowledge management: putting the person back into the knowledge equation”, Online Information Review , 33 (2): 221-224, doi : 10.1108 / 14684520910951177 .
  • Smedley, Jo (2009), “Modeling personal knowledge management”, OR Insight , 22 (4): 221-233, doi : 10.1057 / ori.2009.11 .
  • Zhang, Zuopeng (Justin) (2009), “Personalising organizational knowledge and organizationalizing personal knowledge”, Online Information Review , 33 (2): 237-256, doi : 10.1108 / 14684520910951195 .
  • Nonaka, Ikujiro ; Von Krogh, Georg (2009), “Tacit Knowledge and Knowledge Conversion: Controversy and Advancement in Organizational Knowledge Creation Theory” (PDF) , Organization Science , 20 (3): 635-652, doi : 10.1287 / orsc.1080.0412 .
  • Pollard, Dave (2008), PKM: A bottom-up approach to knowledge management. In Knowledge Management in Practice: Connections and Context, ed. TK Srikantaiah and MED Koenig , Information Today, p. 95-114
  • Sheridan, William (2008), How to think like a knowledge worker (PDF) , United Nations Public Administration Network
  • Snowden, David; Pauleen, David J. (2008), Knowledge management and the individual: it’s nothing personal-an interview with Dave Snowden by David J. Pauleen
  • Völkel, Max; Abecker, Andreas (2008), Cost-Benefit Analysis for the Design of Personal Knowledge Management Systems , Proc. Of 10th International Conference on Enterprise Information Systems
  • Grundspenkis, J. (2007), “Agent based approach for organization and personal knowledge modeling”, Journal of Intelligent Manufacturing , 18 (4): 451-457, doi : 10.1007 / s10845-007-0052-6 .
  • Max Völkel (2007) ” From Documents to Knowledge Models ” in Proc. Of the 4th Conference on Professional Knowledge Management, Volume 2, pp. 209-216. GITO mbh, Berlin, March 2007
  • Wright, Kirby (2007), Rethinking Knowledge Work: Knowledge Management , KRW Knowledge Resources
  • Wright, Kirby (2005), Knowledge Management Research and Practice , 3 (3): 156-165, doi : 10.1057 / palgrave.kmrp.8500061 .
  • Dace Apshvalka, Peter Wendorff: A Framework for Personal Knowledge Management in the Context of Organizational Knowledge Management. ECKM 2005: 34-41
  • Apshvalka, Dace; Wendorff, Peter (2005), A Framework of Personal Knowledge Management in the Context of Organizational Knowledge Management (PDF) , ECKM 2005, pp. 34-41
  • Dorsey, Paul A. (2001), Personal Knowledge Management: Educational Framework for Global Business , Tabor School of Business, Millikin University, archived from the original is 6 September 2008
  • Avery, Susan; Brooks, Randy; O’Conner, Michael (2001), Personal Knowledge Management: Framework for Integration and Partnerships , ASCUE 2001, archived from the original on 18 September 2008
  • Frand, Jason; Hixon, Carol (1999), “Personal Knowledge Management: Who, What, Why, When, Where, How?” , Working paper, UCLA Anderson School of Management
  • Nonaka, Ikujiro ; Takeuchi, Hirotaka (1995), The New York: Oxford University Press, p. 284, ISBN  978-0-19-509269-1

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