Parus ( Russian : Парус meaning Sail ), aussi Tsyklon-B gold Tsiklon-B ( Russian : Циклон-Б meaning Cyclone-B ) and Tsikada-M ( Russian : Цикада-М meaning Cicada-M ),  GRAU index 11F627 , Is a Russian , previously Soviet satellite constellation used for communication and navigation . As of 2010, 99 Parus satellites have been launched, starting with Kosmos 700 in 1974.  All launches have been conducted using Kosmos-3M carrier rockets, flying from sites 132 and 133 at the Plesetsk Cosmodrome . 
Parus satellites are produced by JSC Information Satellite Systems (formerly NPO PM), based on the KAUR-1 satellite bus . They have a mass of around 825 kilograms (1,819 lb), and a design life of 18-24 months.  The satellites operate in low Earth orbits , typically with a perigee of about 950 kilometers (590 mi), an apogee of 1.005 kilometers (624 mi) and 82.9 degrees inclination .  They are operated by the Russian Aerospace Defense Forces , and are used for navigation, to store and forward communication, and to relay data from US-P satellites.  Some of the navigation functions are believed to have been superseded by the GLONASS system. 
- Strela (satellite)
- ^ Jump up to:a b Wade, Mark. “Parus” . Encyclopedia Astronautica . Retrieved 2009-07-21 .
- ^ Jump up to:a b c d Krebs, Gunter. “Parus (11F627)” . Gunter ‘s Space Page . Retrieved 2009-07-21 .
- Jump up^ McDowell, Jonathan. “Launch Log” . Jonathan ‘s Space Page . Retrieved 2009-07-21 .