The Investigative Data Warehouse (IDW) is a searchable database operated by the FBI . It was created in 2004. Much of the nature and scope of the database is classified . The database is a centralization of multiple federal and state databases, Including criminal records from various law enforcement agencies , the US Department of the Treasury ‘s Financial Crimes Enforcement Network (FinCEN), and public records databases. According to Michael Morehart’s testimony before the House Committee on Financial Services in 2006, the “IDW is a centralized, web-enabled, Closed system repository for intelligence and investigative data. This system, maintained by the FBI, permits the appropriately trained and authorized personnel throughout the country to query for information of relevance to investigative and intelligence matters. ”  Continue Reading “Investigative Data Warehouse”
The interviewer effect is also used to describe the interrelations between the interviewer and the interviewer . The use of fixed-wording questions is one method of reducing interviewer bias. Anthropological research and case-studies sont également affected by the problem, qui est Exacerbated by the self-fulfilling prophecy, When the researcher est aussi the interview it est aussi Any effect on data Gathered from interviewing celebrities That Is Caused by the behavior or characteristics ( Real or perceived) of the interviewer. Continue Reading “Interviewer effect”
Across the Many fields Concerned with interactivity , Including information science , computer science , human-computer interaction , communication , and industrial design , there is little agreement over the meaning of the term interactivity , ALTHOUGH all are related to interaction with computers and other equipment with A user interface . Continue Reading “interactivity”
Integrated Operations in the High North ( Iohn , IO High North gold IO in the High North ) is a unique collaboration project That During a four-year period starting May 2008 is working is designing, Implementing and testing a Digital Platform for what in the Upstream Oil and Gas Industry is called the next or second generation of Integrated Operations .  The work on the digital platform is focussed on capturing, transferring and integrating real-time data from the remote production facilities to the decision makers. A risk assessment across the entire chain is also included. The platform is based are open standards and has Enables Higher degree of interoperability . Requirements for the digital platform come from use cases defined dans le Drilling and Completion , Reservoir and Production and Operations and Maintenance domains. The platform will be demonstrated through pilots within these three domains.  Continue Reading “Integrated Operations in the High North”
Informing science is a transdiscipline that has been established to promote the study of informing processes across a set of academic disciplines, including management information systems, education, business, instructional technology, computer science, communications, psychology, Many others. Its main unit of analysis is the informing system , a collection of informers , clients and channels that has been designed or has evolved to serve a particular informing need. The organization created to advance the science Informing transdiscipline is the Informing Science Institute (ISI), Whose founder, Eli Cohen, the need for field Proposed In His article ” Continue Reading “Informing science”
Informetrics is the study of quantitative aspects of information.  This includes the production, dissemination, and use of all forms of information, regardless of its form or origin. Informetrics encompasses the following fields:   Continue Reading “Informetrics”
The Informedia Digital Library is an ongoing research program at Carnegie Mellon University to build search engines and information visualization technology for many types of media.   Continue Reading “Informedia Digital Library”
Informative modeling is an interdisciplinary methodological approach to linking information technologies with architectural analysis and modeling (at various scales, from architectural elements to buildings and structures). Informative modellings to improve the way information and evidences about how architectural objects evolved through time can be visually displayed. Continue Reading “Informational modeling”
An Informationist (or Information Specialist in Context) provides research and knowledge management services in the context of clinical care or biomedical research . This article is part of a series of articles on the state of healtheducation in the United States. Goes beyond on-the-job osmosis. Medical librarians and other biomedical professional organizations have been exploring the possibilities for evaluating how information is being used and whether their activities supplement or replace medical library activity. Continue Reading “Informationist”
Information: The New Language of Science is a 2003 book by Hans Christian von Baeyer , Chancellor Professor of Physics at the College of William and Mary , examining contemporaryinformation science .  Continue Reading “Information: The New Language of Science”
An information strategist analyzes the information flows within an organization and directs its information resources to better serve the organization’s strategic goals.  They work with information technology to direct high quality information from a variety of sources to users, based on their profiles and needs.  In warfare, information strategists not only seek to improve information flows for their own side but also to disrupt the information flows of the enemy in order to demoralize and deceive them.  Continue Reading “Information strategist”
The information search process ( ISP ) is a six-step process of information seeking behavior in library and information science . The ISP was first suggested by Carol Kuhlthau in 1991. Continue Reading “Information search process”
The term information scientist Developed in the lath portion of the Twentieth Century to describe an individual, usually with a relevant subject degree (Such As one in CIS ) or high level of subject knowledge, providing good Focused information to scientific and technical research staff in industry, A role quite distinct from and complementary to that of a librarian . Developments in end-user searching, together with some convergence between the roles of librarian and information scientist, have led to a decrease in its use in this context, and the term information officer or information professional are also now used. Continue Reading “Information scientist”
An Information School (sometimes abbreviated I-school or iSchool ) is a university- level institution committed to understanding the role of information in nature and human endeavors. Synonyms include “School of Information”, “Department of Information Studies”, or “Information Department”. Information Schools faculty conduct research into The fundamental aspects of information and related technologies . In addition to granting academic degrees , information schools educate information professionals, researchers, and scholars for an increasingly information-driven world . Continue Reading “Information school”
Information Rules is a 1999 book by Carl Shapiro and Hal Varian applying traditional economics to modern information-based technologies .  The book business strategies examined Appropriate to companies That deal in information, Given the high “first copy” and low “subsequent copy” costs of commodities information, Such As Music CDs original texts gold. Continue Reading “Information Rules”
Information quality (IQ) is the quality of the content of information systems . It is often pragmatically defined as: “The fitness for use of the information provided.” Continue Reading “Information quality”
Traditionally, an information professional is someone who collects, records, organized, stores, preserves, retrieves, and disseminates printed or digital information.  Continue Reading “Information professional”
The information processing theory approach to the study of cognitive development Evolved out of the American experimental tradition in psychology . Developmental psychologists who adopt the information-processing perspective for mental development in terms of maturational changes in basic components of a child’s mind. The theory is based on the idea that humans process the information they receive, rather than merely responding to stimuli. This perspective equates the mind to a computer, which is responsible for analyzing information from the environment. According to the standard information-processing model for mental development, Working memory for actively manipulating information, and long-term memory for passively holding information so that it can be used in the future.  This theoretical approach to the development of children in the United States. Theoretical and empirical theoretical and theoretical models. Theoretical and empirical theories. To their advances in their ability to process and respond to the information they have received through their senses. Theoretical and empirical theoretical and theoretical models. Theoretical and empirical theories. To their advances in their ability to process and respond to the information they have received through their senses. Theoretical and empirical theoretical and theoretical models. Theoretical and empirical theories. Continue Reading “Information processing theory”
Information pollution (also referred to as “pollution”) is the contamination of information supply with irrelevant, redundant, unsolicited and low-value information.  The spread of useless and undesirable information can have a detrimental effect on human activities. It is considered one of the adverse effects of the information revolution .  Continue Reading “Pollution Information”
Information Logistics (IL) deals with the flow of information entre human and / or actors Machine Within gold entre Any number of organisms That in turn form a network Creating value (see, eg  ). It is closely related to information management , information operations and information technology . Continue Reading “Information logistics”
The United States National Forum on Information Literacy defines information literacy as “… the ability to know when there is a need for information, to be able to identify, locate, evaluate, and . ”   The American Library Association olefins “information literacy” as a set of abilities Requiring Individuals to “recognize When information is needed and avez la Ability to locate, evaluate-, and use Effectively the needed information.  Other definitions Incorporate aspects of “skepticism, judgment, free thinking, questioning, and understanding …”  or incorporate competencies that an informed citizen of an information society or to possess to participate intelligently and actively in that society.  Continue Reading “Information literacy”
In discourse -based grammatical theory, information flow is any tracking of referential information by speakers. Information may be new, just in the conversation; Given, already active in the speakers’ consciousness; Or old, no longer active.  The various types of activation, and how these are defined, are model-dependent. Continue Reading “Information flow”
Information ethics has been defined as “the governance of human resources in the context of the relationship between the creation, organization, dissemination, and use of information, and the ethical standards and moral codes governing human conduct in society”.  The term information ethics was first edited by Robert Hauptman and used in the book Ethical Challenges in Librarianship . It examines the morality that comes from information as a resource, a product, or as a target.  It provides a critical framework for considering moral issues, such as information, privacy , moral agency, New environmental issues (especially how agents shoulds behave in the infosphere ), problems Arising from the life-cycle (establishment, collection, recording, distribution, processing, etc.) of information (especially ownership and copyright, digital divide , and digital rights ) . It is very vital to understand that librarians, archivists, information professionals among others, really understand the importance of knowing how to disseminate proper information as well as being responsible with their actions when addressing information.  And digital rights ). It is very vital to understand that librarians, archivists, information professionals among others, really understand the importance of knowing how to disseminate proper information as well as being responsible with their actions when addressing information.  And digital rights ). It is very vital to understand that librarians, archivists, information professionals among others, really understand the importance of knowing how to disseminate proper information as well as being responsible with their actions when addressing information.  Continue Reading “Information ethics”
An information center is a “center designed specifically for storing, processing, and retrieving information for dissemination at regular intervals, on request or selectively, according to express needs of users.”  Continue Reading “Information center”
Information Behavior is the set of actions, interactions or behaviors that an individual or group of individuals can do with information and represents an important research area for information science . Continue Reading “Information behavior”
The Information Audit (IA) extends the concept of auditing to the organizational information management system. Information is representative of a resource qui requires effective management and this led to the development of interest in the use of an AI.  Continue Reading “Audit Information”
Information architecture ( IA ) is the structural design of shared information environments; The art and science of organizing and labeling websites , intranets , online communitiesand software to support usability and findability; And an emerging community of practice focused on bringing the principles of design and architecture to the digital landscape. Typically, it Involves a model or concept of Information That Is used and applied to activities qui require explicit details of complex information systems . Continue Reading “Information architecture”
Information and Computer Science (ICS) or Computer and Information Science (CIS) (plural forms, ie Science , May aussi be used) is a field That emphasizes Both computing and informatics , Upholding the strong combination entre les fields of information science and computer science And treating computers as a tool rather than a field. Continue Reading “Information and Computer Science”
Information is that which informs. In other words, it is the answer to a question of some kind. It is therefore related to data and knowledge .  As it looks data, the information’s existence Is not Necessarily coupled year to observe (it exists beyond an event horizon , for example), while in the case of knowledge, the information requires a cognitive observe .  Continue Reading “Information”
Informatics Corporation of America ( ICA ) is a privately held information technology organization headquartered in Nashville , Tennessee . It serves integrated delivery systems(IDNs), health information exchanges (HIEs), individual hospitals, Independent Practice Associations (IPAs) and Regional Health Information Systems (RHIOs). In 2000, some of Vanderbilt University Medical Center’s (VUMC) practicing physicians teamed with informatics professionals to develop two complementary software applications-dubbed StarChart and StarPanel-to aggregate and organize medical data, And to improve communication and clinical decision-making within a single interface.  This technology has allowed VUMC to improve the efficiency and communication processes in order to deliver cohesive care across the medical center and its affiliated clinics and physicians’ practices.  Continue Reading “Informatics Corporation of America”
Informatics is a branch of information engineering . It involves the practice of information processing and the engineering of information systems , and as an academic field it is an applied form of information science . The field considers the interaction between humans and information alongside the construction of interfaces, organizations, technologies and systems. As such, the field of informatics has great breadth and encompasses many subspecialties, including disciplines of computer science , information systems , information technology and statistics . Since the advent of computers, Individuals and organizations increasingly process information digitally. This paper presents the results of the study of the social impact of information technologies. Continue Reading “Informatics”
An index (plural: usually indexes , more Rarely indexes ; see below) is a list of words or sentences ( ‘headings’) and associated pointers ( ‘locators’) To Where Useful material Relating To That heading can be found in a paper gold Collection of documents. Examples are an index in the back matter of a book and an index That reserves as a library catalog . Continue Reading “Index (publishing)”
SRI International ‘s Augmentation Research Center ( ARC ) was founded in the 1960s by electrical engineer Douglas Engelbart to develop and experiment with new tools and techniques for collaboration and information processing . Continue Reading “Augmentation Research Center”
The Association for Information Science and Technology ( ASIS & T ) is a non-profit organization for information professionals . Previously Known As the American Society for Information Science and Technology (2000-2013), the organization sponsors an annual conference as well as Several serial publications , Including the Journal of the Association for Information Science and Technology (JASIST) and the Association’s newsletter . The SIGs ; SIGs ; SIGs ; Provides administration for geographically defined chapters; Connects job seekers with potential employers; And provides organizational support for continuing education programs for information professionals.  Continue Reading “Association for Information Science and Technology”
Robert Freeman Asleson was a major contributor to the publishing, library and information industries.  CD-ROM and then web based databases. He has been a professional entrepreneurial library company, without which they could not have succeeded. Some of these organizations are now among the titans of the library industry. Continue Reading “Robert Freeman Asleson”
ARMA International (formerly the Association of Records Managers and Administrators ) is a not-for-profit professional association for records and information managers and related industry practitioners and vendors. The Association Provides Educational Opportunities and educational publications covering the principles of records management . It is also known worldwide for its standards and guidelines. Continue Reading “ARMA International”
The archival bond is a concept in archival theory that has the same archival record as the other records. These bonds are a core component of each individual record and are necessary for transforming a document into a record, as a result of which it acquires a meaning and through its interrelationships with other records.   Continue Reading “Archival bond”
In the field of informatics , an archetype is a formal re-usable model of a domain concept. Traditionally, the term archetype is used in psychology to mean an idealized model of a person, personality or behavior (see Archetype ). The use of the term in informatics is derived from this traditional meaning, but applied to the domain modeling instead. Continue Reading “Archetype (information science)”
The Applied Information Science in Economics is a professional qualification Awarded Generally in Russian Federation. The degree inherited from the USSR education system Also Known As Specialist Degree , qui partner after the Soviet Union Was extended to 5 years. The degree is Awarded after-five years of full-time study and includes Several internships, course-works, thesis writing and defense. Continue Reading “Applied Information Science in Economics”
The Annual Review of Information Science and Technology Was an annual review journal published from 1966 to 2011. It was Established in 1965 by the American Documentation Institute and the National Science Foundation. It publishes articles about the empirical research articles. Its last (2010) impact factor was 2.000.  It was for 45 years “the main forum for scholarly review articles in information science.”  Continue Reading “Annual Review of Information Science and Technology”
The Alice G. Smith Reading , established in 1989, is sponsored by the University of South Florida , School of Information. The reading is an annual of a scholar or author whose achievements have been instrumental in the development of librarianship or information studies. Alice Gullen Smith, Alice Gullen Smith, Alice Gullen Smith.  The Lecture Fund Was created with the purpose of memorializing the visionary work of Dr. Smith, Who Was central to the School’s first accreditation by the American Library Association in 1975.  Florida Library Association archivist, Continue Reading “Alice G. Smith Play”
The Alan Turing Institute is the United Kingdom’s national institute for data science , founded in 2015. It is named after Alan Turing , 
the British mathematician and computing pioneer. Continue Reading “Alan Turing Institute”
Agricultural Information Management Standards , abbreviated to AIMS is a space for accessing and discussing agricultural information management standards, tools and methods. Information management standards, tools and good practices can be found on AIMS: Continue Reading “Agricultural Information Management Standards”
Actionable information logistics is the supply of information to users Continue Reading “Actionable information logistics”
Aboutness is a term used in library and information science (LIS), linguistics , philosophy of language, and philosophy of mind. In LIS, it is often considered synonymous with subject (documents) . In the philosophy of mind it has been much considered synonymous with intentionality , perhaps since John Searle (1983). In the philosophy of language and language it is understood that the subject matter of a subject matter. Continue Reading “aboutness”
Information science – interdisciplinary field data collection, classification , manipulation, storage, retrieval and dissemination of information .  Practitioners within the field study of the application and use of knowledge in organizations , along with the interaction between people, organizations and any existing information systems , with the aim of creating, replacing, improving or understanding information systems. Continue Reading “Outline of information science”
Information history may refer to the history of each of the categories listed below (or to combinations of them). It shoulds be reconnu que le understanding of, for example, libraries have information systems only goes back to about 1950. The implementation of the term information things seized systems or societies is a retronym . Continue Reading “Information history”
- Abstract – a brief set of statements that summarize, classifies, evaluates, or describes the important points of a. An abstract is typically found on the first page of a scholarly article. Because an abstract summarizes an article, it is very useful for either browsing or keyword searching.
The Virginia Smart Road , Also Known As simply the Smart Road gold Smart Highway ,  is a short, limited access road in Montgomery County, Virginia , used for the testing of pavement and technologies as a proving ground for new transportation technologies. The Smart Road is currently a 2.2-mile (3.5 km) stretch of road with turn-around loops at either end. Eventually, the road will be extended to a total of 5.7 miles (9.2 km), qui will Directly connect US Route 460 in Blacksburg to Interstate 81 with an interchange near mile marker 121; However, there is no set time frame for completion. The Wilson Creek Bridge was built for the Smart Road and at 175 feet (53 m) tall, is the second tallest bridge in Virginia .  The road and bridge are operated and maintained by the Virginia Department of Transportation .  It is also part of the Proposed Interstate 73 Corridor. Continue Reading “Virginia Smart Road”
Vehicle Infrastructure Integration ( VII ) is an initiative Fostering research and applications development for a series of technologies Directly linking road vehicles to Their physical surroundings, first and foremost in order to Improve road safety . The technology draws on several disciplines, including transport engineering , electrical engineering , automotive engineering , and computer science . VII. (1). (2). Planes , for example, use ground-based beacons for automated guidance, Allowing the autopilot to fly the plane without human interference. In highway engineering , improving the safety of a roadway can improve overall efficiency. VII targets improvements in both safety and efficiency. Continue Reading “Vehicle infrastructure integration”
The Urban Traffic Management Control or UTMC program is the main initiative in the UK for the development of a more open approach to Intelligent Transport Systems or ITS in urban areas . Originating as a government research program, the initiative is now managed by a community forum, the UTMC Development Group, which represents both local transport authorities and the systems industry. Continue Reading “Urban Traffic Management and Control”
Traffic signal preemption (also called traffic signal prioritization ) is a type of system which permits the normal operation of traffic lights to be preempted. The most common use of these systems is to manipulate traffic signals in the path of an emergency vehicle , halting conflicting traffic and allowing the emergency vehicle right-of-way, to help reduce response times and enhance traffic safety.  signal preemption aussi can be used by light railand bus rapid transit systems to allow public transportation priority access through intersections, or by railroad systems at crossings to prevent prevention collisions. Continue Reading “Traffic signal preemption”
Traffic Optimization are the methods by qui time stopped in road traffic (PARTICULARLY, at traffic signals ) is reduced. Continue Reading “Traffic optimization”
Traffic estimation and prediction systems ( TrEPS ) have the potential to improve traffic conditions and reduce travel delays by facilitating better utilization of available capacity. These systems exploit currently available and emerging computer, communication, and control technologies to monitor, manage, and control the transportation system. They also provide various levels of traffic information and trip advisory to system users, including many ITS service providers, so that travelers can make timely and informed travel decisions.
Need for TrEPS
The success of ITS technology deployments is heavily dependent on the availability of timely and accurate estimates of prevailing and emerging traffic conditions. As such, there is a strong need for a traffic prediction system. The needed system is to please use advanced traffic models to analyze data, Especially real-time traffic data, from different sources to estimate and predict traffic conditions na That proactive Advanced Traffic Management Systems(ATMS) and Advanced Traveler Information Systems (ATIS) strategies can be ………………….
In the United States, the FHWA R & D initiated a Dynamic Traffic Assignment (DTA) research project in 1994 to meet the need for a traffic prediction system. The objective of this research is hand to Develop a deployable real-time Traffic Estimation and Prediction System (Treps) to meet the information need in the ITS context. In October 1995 two parallel research contracts Were Awarded to Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) and the University of Texas at Austin (UTX) with a follow-up development and media at the University of Maryland (UMD) respectivement. Each team was required to develop a prototype of TrEPS demonstrating its potential for real-time application capability. After three years of intensive R & D efforts, two prototype TrEPS were developed. The two prototype TrEPS developed by MIT and UTX / UMD are named DynaMIT -R and DYNASMART -X, respectively. Both systems are simulation-based DTA system.
In France, the National Center for Traffic Information (CNIR), coordinators and monitors of the regional traffic and coordination centers (CRICRs). It publishes its website at www.bison-fute.equipement.gouv.fr/en/ and is widely referred to in radio and television broadcasts. The advice of “Bison Futé” as the service is called is well known and has been in place for several decades.
In China, Xi’an Jiaotong University (XJTU) initiated a similar simulation-based DTA research project in 2000 with a follow-up development and support at the Shandong Academy of Sciences after 2004. Dr. Yong Lin is the project leader and Houbing Song Is the earliest project member. After six years of intense R & D efforts, one prototype TrEPS was developed in 2006. The overall prototype TrEPS developed by Dr. Lin and his team has more than 20 members is named DynaCHINA (Dynamic Consistent Hybrid Information Based on Network Assignment).
Singapore Implemented the first practical implementation of congestion pricing in the world in 1975, the Singapore’s Area Licensing Scheme .   Thanks to technological advances in electronic toll collection , detection, and video surveillance, Singapore upgraded ict system in 1998.  (see Singapore’s Electronic Road Pricing )
In an attempt to Improve the pricing mechanism and to Introduce real-time variable pricing ,  Singapore’s Land Transport Authority , together with IBM , ran a pilot from December 2006 to April 2007, with a traffic estimation and prediction tool, qui uses historical Traffic data and real-time feeds with flow conditions from several sources, in order to predict the levels of congestion up to an hour in advance. By accurate estimating prevailing and emerging traffic requirements, this technology is expected to allow variable pricing , together with Improved overall traffic management, Including the provision of information in advanced to alert drivers about the conditions ahead, being white and the prices charged at That Moment.  The pilot results show overall prediction results above 85 percent of accuracy. Furthermore, when more data was available, at peak hours, 
- Jump up^ Cervero, Robert (1998). “The Transit Metropolis”. Island Press, Washington, DC: 169. ISBN 1-55963-591-6 . Chapter 6 / The Master Planned Transit Metropolis: Singapore.
- Jump up^ Road pricing Singapore’s experience
- Jump up^ Land Transport Authority home page. ” What is ERP ?” . Retrieved 2008-04-06 .
- Jump up^ Ken Belson (2008-03-16). “Importing a Decongestant for Midtown Streets” . New York Times . Retrieved 2008-04-06 .
- Jump up^ “Predicting Where The Traffic Will Flow” . Planetizen . Retrieved 2008-04-06 .
- Jump up^ “IBM and Singapore’s Land Transport Authority Pilot Innovative Traffic Prediction Tool” . IBM Press release. 2007-08-01 . Retrieved 2008-04-06 .
A traffic camera is a video camera qui observe vehicular traffic was road . Typically, thesis are put along major roads Such As highways , freeways , motorways , highways and expressways , as well as arterial roads , and are connected with optical fiber buried Alongside or Even under the road, with electrical power Either provided by hand power in urban areas, Continue Reading “Traffic camera”
The Sydney Coordinated Adaptive Traffic System , abbreviated SCATS , is an intelligent transportation system that manages the dynamic (on-line, real-time) timing of signal phases to traffic signals , Phase splits and offsets) for a traffic situation (for individual intersections as well as for the whole network). SCATS is based on the loop detectors or other road traffic sensors. Continue Reading “Sydney Coordinated Adaptive Traffic System”
STREAMS® Integrated Intelligent Transport System is an enterprise traffic management system designed to operate in the Microsoft Windows environment. Like most traffic management systems, STREAMS® is an array of high-quality, intuitive, interactive, ITS ( intelligent transport systems ). ITS is an umbrella term referring to the implementation of information and communications technology to transportation operations in order to Reduce operating costs,  Improve safety and maximizes the capacity of Existing infrastructure. STREAMS® provides traffic signal management,  traveler information, flood monitoring  and parking guidance within a single integrated system.  STREAMS® is developed by Transmax® . Continue Reading “STREAMS Integrated Intelligent Transport System”
A speed sign is a special traffic light , variable traffic sign or variable-message sign giving drivers a recommended speed to approach the next traffic light in icts green stage  and Avoid a stop due reaching the intersection in a time of a red traffic light.  Continue Reading “Speed sign”
Scalable URban TRAffic Control  (SURTRAC) is an adaptive traffic control system developed by researchers at the Robotics Institute , Carnegie Mellon University . SURTRAC dynamically optimizes the control of traffic signalsto Improve traffic flow for urban Both grids and corridors; optimization goals include less waiting, reduced traffic congestion , go short trips, and less pollution. The core control engine combines schedule-driven intersection control (SchIC)  with decentralized coordination mechanisms.  Since June 2012, A pilot implementation of the SURTRAC system  has been deployed on nine intersections in the East Liberty neighborhood of Pittsburgh , Pennsylvania . SURTRAC has been reduced to an average of 40%.   A second phase of the pilot program for the Bakery Square district has been running since October 2013. 
The SURTRAC system design has three characteristics. [ Citation needed ] First, decision making in SURTRAC proceeds in a decentralized manner. Decentralized control of individual intersections allows greater responsiveness to local real-time traffic conditions. Decentralization facilitates scalability by allowing the incremental addition of controlled intersections over time with little change to the existing adaptive network. It also reduces the possibility of a centralized computational bottleneck and avoids a single point of failure in the system.
A second characteristic of the SURTRAC design is an emphasis on real-time responsiveness to changing traffic conditions. SURTRAC Adopts the real-time view of prior model-based control methods intersection  qui attempt to compute intersection control Plans That optimize traffic actual inflows. By reformulating the optimization problem as a single engine scheduling problem, the core optimization algorithm, termed a schedule-driven intersection control algorithm,  is reliable to compute optimized intersection control planes over an extended horizon was second-by-second basis.
A third characteristic of the SURTRAC design is to manage urban (grid-like) road networks, Where there are multiple (Typically competing) dominating flows That shift dynamically through the day, and Where specific dominant flow can not be Predetermined (as in arterial or major Crossroad applications). The intersection controllers. The combination of competing dominant flows and densely spaced intersections presents a challenge for all adaptive traffic control systems. SURTRAC determines dominant flows dynamically by continually communicating projected outflows to downstream neighbors.
The SURTRAC system uses closed-circuit television cameras to sense traffic conditions.  Surveillance of public places with CCTV networks has been criticized as an enabling totalitarian forms of government by undermining people’s ability to move about anonymously . Images Gathered by CCTV cameras Can Be Analyzed by automatic number plate recognition software, Permitting fully automated tracking of vehicles by the license plates (number plates) They carry. Similarly, facial sensors can be analyzed to determine whether or not they are the same.
It has been suggested that the benefits of traffic optimization have never been scientifically justified. It inherently favors motorized traffic over alternate modes such as pedestrians, bicyclists, and transit users.   It is suggested that an alternate approach could involve traffic calming , and a conceptual focus on the movement of people and goods rather than vehicles.
The WATERWAY system is designed to provide a warning signal that will not cause a warning signal. WALK signal, or else the pedestrian will be given a continuous “DO NOT WALK” signal, despite having a green light. Pedestrians are unlikely to ever reach an intersection that has already had a walk. This results in the same intersection, essentially making pedestrians second-class citizens of the streets. Also, many pedestrians are unaware that pushing the button is mandatory in order to receive a walk, and are confused when an entire light cycle occurs without ever being allowed to cross.
Because they require a continuous supply of electricity, automatic traffic signals are not suitable for use in places where the electric supply is sporadic or nonexistent. For example, traffic in Pyongyang, North Korea is guided by government workers who stand in the intersections under umbrellas.  
When drivers become accustomed to automated traffic signals, they may forget how to properly yield the right of way, so that when the electric supply is interrupted, as when a disaster occurs, the traffic has never been used .  [ original research? ] This effect Could conceivably delay evacuation or Impede the movement of emergency vehicles.
The introduction of traffic signals and associated laws may undermine democracy by means of citizens to reflexively obey the signal lights.   [ original research? ]
Roundabouts are an alternative to signaling systems. At a roundabout, motor traffic may not be able to come to a stop (so that drivers’ time and fuel may be saved), and crossing for pedestrians may be easier. Studies of intersections converted to roundabouts have found reductions in the frequency and severity of accidents.  However, these benefits may not be realized if a roundabout is poorly designed. Roundabouts typically require a concave demolition of adjacent structures, so doing such conversions in heavily built-up areas.
- Traffic optimization
- Adaptive traffic control
- Smart traffic signals
- Traffic light control and coordination
- Intelligent transportation system
- Transportation demand management
- Automated planning and scheduling
Other adaptive traffic control systems
- Sydney Coordinated Adaptive Traffic System
- InSync adaptive traffic control system
- Jump up^ Xiao-Feng Xie, S. Smith, G. Barlow. Smart and Scalable Urban Signal Networks: Methods and Systems for Adaptive Traffic Signal Control. US Patent No. 9,159,229, 2015.
- ^ Jump up to:a b Xiao-Feng Xie, Stephen F. Smith, Liang Lu, Gregory J. Barlow. Schedule-driven intersection control . Transportation Research Part C: Emerging Technologies, 2012, 24: 168-189.
- ^ Jump up to:a b Xiao-Feng Xie, Stephen F. Smith, Gregory J. Barlow. Schedule-driven coordination for real-time traffic network control . International Conference on Automated Planning and Scheduling (ICAPS), Sao Paulo, Brazil, 2012: 323-331.
- ^ Jump up to:a b Stephen F. Smith, Gregory J. Barlow, Xiao-Feng Xie, Zachary B. Rubinstein. Smart urban signal networks: Initial application of the SURTRAC adaptive traffic signal control system . International Conference on Automated Planning and Scheduling (ICAPS). Rome, Italy, 2013.
- Jump up^ Stephen F. Smith, Gregory Barlow, Xiao-Feng Xie, and Zack Rubinstein. SURTRAC: Scalable Urban Traffic Control. Transportation Research Board 92nd Annual Meeting Compendium of Papers, 2013.
- Jump up^ Walters, Ken (October 16, 2012). “Pilot Study on Traffic Lights Reduces Pollution, Traffic Clogs” . CMU website . Carnegie Mellon University . Retrieved January 31, 2013 .
- Jump up^ “Real-World Deployments – Bakery Square” .
- Jump up^ M. Papageorgiou, C. Diakaki, V. Dinopoulou, A. Kotsialos, and Y. Wang. Review of road traffic control strategies. Proceedings of the IEEE, 2003, 91 (12): 2043-2067.
- Jump up^ Walters, Ken (2012-10-16). “Smart Signals: Pilot Study on Traffic Lights Reduces Pollution, Traffic Clogs” . CMU Piper . Retrieved 2013-01-28 .
- Jump up^ Michael J. Vandeman,”Is Traffic Signal Synchronization Justifiable?” , April 15, 1994
- Jump up^ Meyer, Robinson. “Sorry, Los Angeles: Synchronizing Traffic Lights May Not Reduce Emissions” . Theatlantic.com . Retrieved 28 January 2013 .
- Jump up^ “Traffic Control Platform beneath Umbrella Installed at Intersections of Pyongyang” . KCNA. 2009-08-13 . Retrieved 2013-01-29 .
- Jump up^ “Meet The Ladies Of The Pyongyang Traffic Bureau” . Jalopnik.com. 2010-03-05 . Retrieved 2013-01-29 .
- Jump up^ Remaly, Jake (2012-10-29). “Fallen Trees, Wires, Poles Wreak Havoc on I-287, Local Roads in Morris County – Jefferson, NJ Patch” . Jefferson.patch.com . Retrieved 2013-01-29 .
- Jump up^ “Houghton Mifflin Textbook – Chapter Outline” . College.cengage.com . Retrieved 2013-01-29 .
- Jump up^ U. Houston: PSYCH 1300: Chptr_07 ” . Coursehero.com . Retrieved 2013-01-29 .
- Jump up^ “Q & A: Roundabouts” . Iihs.org . Retrieved 2013-01-29 .
Founded in 2008, Safe Drive Systems (SDS) is a privately held corporation headquartered in New York City That designs, manufacturers and markets collision avoidance , radarcollision avoidance, spot blind radar , and lane departure warning systems  for Both driver-operated And driverless autonomous vehicles. SDS is certified by, among others, BMW , Cadillac , Ford , Jeep , Lexus , and Maserati to install its products in their vehicles.  Continue Reading “Safe Drive Systems”
A Road Weather Information System ( RWIS ) included automatic weather stations (technically Referred to as Environmental Sensor Stations (ESS)) in the field, a communication system for data transfer, and central systems to collect field data from Numerous ESS. These stations measure real-time atmospheric parameters, pavement conditions, water level conditions, and visibility. Central RWIS hardware and software are used to process comments from ESS to Develop nowcasts gold forecasts , and display gold Disseminate road weather information in a size That Can Be Easily interpreted by a manager. RWIS is a vehicle for the decision making.  Real-time RWIS data is also used by Automated Warning Systems (AWS). The spatial and temporal resolution can be of a mesonet . The data is often considered proprietary although it is often ingested into numerical weather prediction models . Continue Reading “Road Weather Information System”
The Road Emergency Services Communications Unit (RESCU) is a traffic management system used by the City of Toronto on city managed highways. The system is used to monitor traffic on: Continue Reading “Road Emergency Services Communications Unit”
The Public Transport Information and Priority System , abbreviated PTIPS , is a computer-based system that brings together information about public transport entities, such as buses. Where applicable, PTIPS may also provide. Continue Reading “Public Transport Information and Priority System”
PoliScan speed is a system for traffic enforcement made by Vitronic . The measurement is based on lidar (light radar). By time-of-flight measurement, a laser scanning determines speeds and positions of all vehicles in the measurement area. Continue Reading “PoliScan speed”
Octo Telematics Ltd. Was founded in 2002 by Fabio Sbianchi, who is now CEO.  Octo is a telematics company That Provides tailored solutions for the insurance and automotive industries  by collecting contextual vehicle, location and crash data, as well as driver behavior information to media usage-based insurance (UBI) policies – Also Known As pay-as-you-drive. Continue Reading “Octo Telematics”
The National Roads Telecommunications Services is the fiber-optic network of communication and control that highways England uses to monitor England’s roads. Its highly complex design has an active traffic management , which has led to managed motorways . Continue Reading “National Roads Telecommunications Services”
The National ITS Architecture is a guideline of the United States Government , for future transportation systems. It was established in 1994 by the United States Department of Transportation . It was funded at a cost of $ 20 million. The main goal was the definition of a national interoperable intelligent transportation system (ITS) structure. Continue Reading “National ITS Architecture”
Mobileye is an Israeli technology company that develops vision-based advanced-assisting systems (ADAS) providing warnings for collision prevention and mitigation. Mobileye NV headquarters and main R & D center is located in Jerusalem operating under the company name Mobileye Vision Technology Ltd.  The company also has sales and marketing offices in Jericho, New York ; Shanghai, China ; Tokyo, Japan and Düsseldorf, Germany . Continue Reading “Mobileye”
A managed lane is a type of highway lane that is operated with a management scheme , such as lane use restrictions or variable tolling , to optimize traffic flow , vehicle throughput, or both. Definitions and goals, among other things, to improve the efficiency of the operation of the air traffic control system. Types of managed lanes include high-occupancy vehicle (HOV) lanes , high-occupancy toll lanes , express toll lanes, reversible lanes , and bus lanes . Most managed lane facilities are located in the United States, although HOV and bus lanes can be found in many other countries; outside of the US, Many countries use active traffic management That manage all lanes of a highway. Continue Reading “Managed lane”
ITS Platform is a Danish project which will develop and test the next generation of technologies in the field of ITS equipment in the years from 2010 to 2013. ITS is the abbreviation for “intelligent transport systems”, and it covers systems and services which can contribute to make the traffic of the future safer, more efficient, and more sustainable. Continue Reading “ITS Platform”
IRIS ( Intelligent Roadway Information System ) is an open-source Advanced Traffic Management System (ATMS) developed by the Minnesota Department of Transportation. It is used by transportation agencies to monitor and manage interstate and highway traffic. IRIS uses the GPL license. Continue Reading “IRIS (transportation software)”
Internavi is a vehicle telematics services offert by the Honda Motor Company to drivers in Japan. In the United States, the service is known as HondaLink, or sometimes MyLink. It provides mobile connectivity for on-demand traffic and information services. The service began August 1997 and was first offered in the 1998 Honda Accord and the Honda Torneo sold only in Japan starting July 1998. The service received a revision to services offered October 2002, adding traffic information delivery capabilities to the Internavi Premium Club, And was optional on most Honda vehicles sold in Japan. Continue Reading “Internavi”
The Intelligent Transportation Systems ( ITS ) Institute is a national University Transportation Center headquartered at the University of Minnesota .  The ITS Institute provides information on how to improve the safety and mobility of road-based and transit-based transportation , particularly in rural environments.  The ITS Institute focuses on human-centered technology, such as computing, sensing, communications, and control systems.  Continue Reading “Intelligent Transportation Systems Institute”
Intelligent Speed Adaptation (ISA), Also Known As Alerting, and Intelligent Authority,  is Any system That Ensures That vehicle speed does not Exceed Safe gold has Legally enforced speed . In case of potential speed, a human driver can be alerted, or the speed reduced automatically. Continue Reading “Intelligent speed adaptation”
A high-occupancy toll lane (or HOT lane ) is a type of traffic lane or roadway that is available to high-occupancy vehicles and other exempt vehicles without load; Other vehicles are required to pay a variable fee that is adjusted in response to. Unlike toll roads , drivers have an option to use general purpose lanes, on which a fee is not charged. Express toll lanes , which are not common, operate along similar lines, but do not exempt high-occupancy vehicles. Continue Reading “High-occupancy toll lane”
Georgia Navigator (also known as Georgia NaviGAtor ) is an Advanced Traffic Management System used in the US state of Georgia . It was operated by the Georgia Department of Transportation (GDOT), and was first activated in April 1996, just before the 1996 Summer Olympics in Atlanta . Continue Reading “Georgia Navigator”
COMPASS , aussi Referred to as Freeway Traffic Management System , is a system run by the Ministry of Transportation of Ontario (MTO) to monitor and manage the flow of traffic are various roads (Including 400-series highways ) in Ontario. Continue Reading “Freeway Traffic Management System”
Floating car data (FCD), also known as floating cellular data , is a method to determine the traffic speed on the road network . It is based on the collection of localization data, speed, direction of travel and time information from mobile phones in vehicles that are being driven. These data are the most important source for traffic information and for most intelligent transportation systems (ITS). This means that every vehicle with its active mobile phone acts as a sensor for the road network. Based on these data, traffic congestion can be calculated, and traffic reports can be rapidly generated. Continue Reading “Floating car data”
Fei-Yue Wang (Chinese: 王飞跃; 1961-) is a systems engineer in the State Key Laboratory for Management and Control for Complex Systems of the Chinese Academy of Sciences and editor-in-chief of the IEEE Transactions on Computational Social Systems  and the IEEE / CAA Journal of Automatica Sinica .  Previously he was a Professor of Systems and Industrial Engineering at the University of Arizona , president of the IEEE Intelligent Transportation Systems Society ,  and editor-in-chief of IEEE Intelligent Systems .  Continue Reading “Fei-Yue Wang”
ERTICO – ITS Europe is Europe’s Intelligent Transportation System (ITS) organization that promotes research  and defines ITS industry standards. It is a network of ITS and Services stakeholders in Europe. It connects together public authorities, industry players, infrastructure operators, users, national ITS associations and other organizations. The organization was founded in 1991 at the initiative of the European Commission, Ministries of Transport and the European Industry. [ Citation needed ] Continue Reading “ERTICO”
Electronic Route Guidance System ( ERGS ) was a 1970s government sponsored in-vehicle navigation and route guidance system used in the United States . ERGS was the first stage of a larger research and development effort called the Intelligent Transportation System (ITS). Other programs include Japan’s CACS and similar projects in Europe. Continue Reading “Electronic Route Guidance System”
Congestion pricing and congestion charges are a system of overcharging users of public goods that are subject to congestion through excessive demands such as higher peak charges for use of bus services , electricity , metros , railways , telephones , and road pricing to reduce traffic congestion ; Airlines and shipping companies may be charged higher fees for slots at airports and through canals at busy times. This pricing strategy regulates demand, Making it possible to manage congestion without increasing supply . Market economicstheory, which encompasses the congestion pricing concept, postulates that users will be forced to pay for the negative externalities they create, making them conscious of the costs they impose upon each other when consuming during peak demand, and more aware of their impact On the environment . Continue Reading “Congestion pricing”
Communications access for mobile land (CALM)  is an initiative by the ISO TC 204 / Working Group 16 to define a set of wireless communication protocols and air for interfaces has variety of multiple scenarios spanning communication modes of communication and multiple methods of transmission In Intelligent Transportation System (ITS). The CALM architecture is based on an IPv6 convergence layer that decouples applications from the communication infrastructure. A standardized set of inter-protocol protocols is used for short, medium and long-range communications, using multiple multipoint (mesh) transfer. Continue Reading “Communications, Air-interface, Long and Medium range”
Brisbane Linked Intersection Signal System or BLISS is Brisbane City Council’s ITS infrastructure platform. This system incorporates large scale Traffic Signal control, a Real Time Passenger Information System (RAPID), and other infrastructure for managing and monitoring the road network for the Greater Brisbane Area. Continue Reading “Brisbane Linked Intersection Signal System”
Automatic parking is an autonomous car-maneuvering system that moves a vehicle from a traffic lane into a parking spot to perform parallel , perpendicular or angle parking . The car park is a short walk from the hotel. The parking maneuver is achieved by means of coordinated control of the steering angle and speed which takes into account the collision-free motion within the available space.  Continue Reading “Automatic parking”
The Advanced Transportation Controller (ATC) is a standardization effort by the United States Department of Transportation as part of their Intelligent Transportation System (ITS) efforts. The ATC is being developed to provide an open platform for hardware and software applications for a wide variety of applications. ATC has been identified as the highest priority standardization effort within the ITS community. It is being developed by the Institute of Transportation Engineers . Continue Reading “Advanced transportation controller”
The Advanced Traffic Management System (ATMS) is a subfield within the Intelligent Transportation System (ITS) domain. The ATMS view is a top-down management perspective that integrates technology to improve the flow of traffic and improve safety. Real-time traffic data from cameras, speed sensors, etc. flows into a Transportation Management Center (TMC) where it is integrated and processed (eg for incident detection), and May result in action taken (eg traffic routing, DMS messages) with the goal of Improving traffic flow. The National ITS Architecture defines the following primary objectives and metrics for ITS: Continue Reading “Advanced Traffic Management System”
Active traffic management (also managed lanes , smart lanes , managed / smart motorways ) is a method of increasing peak capacity and traffic flows on busy major highways . Techniques include variable speed limits, hard-shoulder running and ramp-metering controlled by overhead variable message signs . It has been implemented in several countries, including Germany , the United Kingdom , and the United States . Continue Reading “Active traffic management”
An intelligent transportation system ( ITS ) is an advanced application which, without embodying intelligence as such, aims to provide innovative services to different modes of transport and traffic management, Smarter ‘use of transport networks. Continue Reading “Intelligent transportation system”
D-Sight is a company That Specializes in software decision support and associated services in the domains of project prioritization, selection beg and collaborative decision-making. It was founded in 2010 as a spin-off from the Université Libre de Bruxelles (ULB). Their headquarters are located in Brussels , Belgium . Continue Reading “D-Sight”
Intelligent Decision System , or IDS, is a software package for multiple criteria decision analysis . It can handle hybrid type of uncertainty [ wave ] , Including probability uncertainty, missing data,  subjective Judgments, interval data,  and Any Combination Of Those kinds of uncertainty.  It uses belief function  for problem modeling and the Evidence Reasoning Approach  for attribute aggregation. The outcomes of the analysis include not only ranking of alternative courses of action based on average scores, Continue Reading “Intelligent Decision System”
The health management system (HMS) is an evolutionary medicine regulated by Nicholas Humphrey   in which actuarial assessment of fitness and economic-type cost-benefit analysis determines the body’s regulation of its physiology and health . This incorporation of cost-benefit calculations into regulation body Provides a science grounded approach to mind-body phenomena Such As placebos That Otherwise are not explainable by low level, noneconomic, and Purely based feedback homeostatic gold allostatic theories. Continue Reading “Health management system”
Clinical Quality Management Systems ( CQMS ) are used in the life sciences sector (in the pharmaceutical, biological and medical device industries). A CQMS system is designed to manage all the documents, activities, tasks, processes, quality events, relationships, audits and training that must be administered and controlled throughout the life of a clinical trial. The Clinical Quality and Clinical Operations, Clinical Quality and Clinical Operations, Continue Reading “Clinical quality management system”
A business rules engine is a software system that executes one or more business rules in a runtime production environment. The rules might come from legal regulation ( “An employee can be fired for Any reason or no reason but not for an illegal reason”), company policy ( “All customers That Spend more than $ 100 at one time Will receive a 10% discount” ), Or other sources. A business rule system allows these company policies and other operational decisions to be defined, tested, executed and maintained separately from application code . Continue Reading “Business rules engine”