Management information system ( MIS ). The management information system ( MIS ) refers to the processing of information through computers and other intelligent devices. The concept may include system termed transaction processing system , decision support system , expert system , or executive information system . The term is often used in the academic study of businesses and has connections with other areas, such as information systems , information technology , informatics , e-commerce and computer science ; As a result, the term is used interchangeably with some of these areas.
Management information systems (plural) as an academic discipline studies, people, technology, organizations, and the relationships among them.  This definition defines “MIS” as a course of study in business schools . Many business schools (or colleges of business administration within universities) have an MIS department, alongside departments of accounting, finance, management, marketing, and many awards degrees in Management Information Systems.
MIS professionals help organizations to maximize the benefit from investments in personnel, equipment, and business processes.
There are different areas of concentration with different Duties and Responsibilities in information system managers starting from the chief information officer (CIOs), Chief Technology Officer (CTOs), IT directors and IT securitymanagers. Chief Information Officers (CIOs) are responsible for the overall technology strategy of their organizations. Basically, they are more of the decision makers and action takers when it comes to deciding on the technology or information of the organization.
Chief technology officers (CTOs) are responsible for evaluating how new technology can help their organization. They usually recommend to the IOC. 
IT directors including MIS directors are in charge of their organizations. They are also in charge of implementing the policies chosen by the other top branches (CIOs, CTOs). It is their role to ensure the availability of data and network services by coordinating IT activities.
IT Security Managers oversee the network and security data as the implies. They develop programs to offer information and awareness to their employees about security threats. This team is very important because they must keep up-to-date on IT within their organization. Any security violations need to be investigated and supervised by this specific team.
Kenneth and Aldrich Estel Identify six eras of Management Information System Evolution Corresponding to the five phases in the development of computing technology: 
- Mainframe and minicomputer computing,
- Personal computers ,
- Client / server networks,
- Enterprise computing , and
- Cloud computing .
The first era (mainframe and minicomputer) was ruled by IBM and their mainframe computers; These computers would often take a lot of IBM-supplied hardware and the software. As technology advanced, these computers were able to handle their capacities and therefore reduce their cost. Smaller, more affordable minicomputers allowed to run their own computing centers in-house / on-site / on-premises.
The second era (personal computer) began in 1965 as microprocessors and began to compete with mainframes and minicomputers and accelerated the process of decentralizing computing power from large data centers to smaller offices. In the late 1970s, minicomputer technology gave way to personal computers and relatively low-cost computers to become mass market commodities, allowing businesses to provide their employees access to computing power. This proliferation of computers has a ready market for interconnecting networks and the popularization of the Internet. It is arguable that the microprocessor-based system did not make significant inroads into minicomputer use until 1979, when VisiCalc promptly sold the Apple II on which it ran. The IBM PC introduced in 1981 was more broadly palatable to business, but its limitations gated its ability to challenge minicomputer systems until the late 1980s to early 1990s. It is arguable that the microprocessor-based system did not make significant inroads into minicomputer use until 1979, when VisiCalc promptly sold the Apple II on which it ran. The IBM PC introduced in 1981 was more broadly palatable to business, but its limitations gated its ability to challenge minicomputer systems until the late 1980s to early 1990s.
As technological complexity and costs: Increased Decreased, the need to share information Within an enterprise aussi Grew-giving rise to the third era (client / server), qui in computers was common network access shared information was server. This lets thousands and even millions of people access data simultaneously. The fourth era (enterprise) enabled by high speed networks, tied all aspects of the business enterprise together offering rich information access encompassing the complete management structure. Every computer is utilized.
The fifth era (cloud computing) is the latest and most widely used hardware and software. This, along with high speed cellphone and Wi-Fi networks, Has led to new levels of mobility in May qui managers access the MIS remotely with laptops , tablet computers and smartphones .
Types and terminology
The terms information management system (MIS), information system , enterprise resource planning (ERP), and information technology management (IT) are often confused. Information systems and MIS are broader categories that include ERP. Information technology management and information technology.
- Management information systems , fixed Produce, Regularly scheduled deferrals based on data and Summarized Extracted from the firm’s Underlying transaction processing systems  to middle managers and operational level to Identify and inform semi-structured decision problems.
- Decision support systems (DSS) are computer program applications used by the middle and higher management to compile information from a wide range of sources to support problem solving and decision making. A DSS is used mostly for semi-structured and unstructured decision problems.
- Executive information systems (EIS) is a reporting tool that provides quick access to summarized reports from human resources and operations.
- Marketing Information Systems are management information systems designed specifically for managing the marketing aspects of the business
- Accounting information systems are focused accounting functions.
- Human resource management systems are used for personal aspects.
- Office automation systems (OAS) support for communication and productivity in the enterprise by automating workflow and eliminating bottlenecks. OAS may be implemented at any and all levels of management.
- School Information Management Systems (SIMS) cover school administration, and often including teaching and learning materials.
- Enterprise resource planning facilitates the flow of information between all business functions within the boundaries of the organization. 
The following are some of the benefits that can be attained: 
- Companies are able to identify their strengths and weaknesses due to the presence of revenue reports, employees’ record performance etc. Identifying these aspects can help a company improve its business processes and operations.
- Giving an overall picture of the company.
- Acting as a communication and planning tool.
- The availability of customer data and feedback can help the company to align its business processes according to the needs of its customers. The effective management of customer data can help the company to perform direct marketing and promotion activities.
- MIS can help a company gain a competitive advantage . Competitive advantage is a firm’s ability to do better, faster, cheaper, or uniquely, when compared with rival firms in the market.
- MIS is a tool that allows users to quickly and easily access information about a given object.
- Enterprise systems -also known as Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) systems-provide integrated software modules and a unified database that is used to plan, manage, and control core business processes across multiple locations. Modules of ERP systems may include finance, accounting, marketing, human resources, production, inventory management, and distribution. 
- Supply chain management (SCM) systems. This may include suppliers, manufacturers, wholesalers, retailers, and final customers. 
- Customer Relationship Management (CRM) systems help customers manage relationships with potential and current customers and business partners across marketing, sales, and service. 
- Knowledge management system (KMS) helps organizations to facilitate the collection, recording, organization, retrieval, and dissemination of knowledge. This may include documents, accounting records, unrecorded procedures, practices, and skills. Knowledge management (KM) as a system of the process of knowledge creation and acquisition from internal processes and the external world. The collected knowledge is incorporated into organizational policies and procedures, and then disseminated to the stakeholders. 
“The actions that are taken to create an information system that solves an organizational problem are called system development “.  These include system analysis , system design , computer programming / implementation , testing , conversion, production and finally maintenance .
Conversion is the process of changing or converting the old system into the new. This can be done in three basic ways:
- Direct cut – The new system replaces the old at an appointed time.
- Parallel implementation – both old and new systems run at the same time until developers are certain the new system is operating correctly.
- Pilot study – Introducing the new system to a small portion of the operation to see how it fares. If you are looking for a new product,
- Enterprise information system
- Bachelor of Computer Information Systems
- Business Intelligence
- Business performance management
- Business rule
- Corporate governance of information technology
- Data mining
- Predictive analytics
- Purchase order request
- Enterprise architecture
- Enterprise planning system
- Management by objectives
- Online analytical processing
- Online office suite
- Real-time marketing
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- Jump up^ Transaction processing systems (TPS)collect and record the routine transactions of an organization. Examples of this type of payment.
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