A managed lane is a type of highway lane that is operated with a management scheme , such as lane use restrictions or variable tolling , to optimize traffic flow , vehicle throughput, or both. Definitions and goals, among other things, to improve the efficiency of the operation of the air traffic control system. Types of managed lanes include high-occupancy vehicle (HOV) lanes , high-occupancy toll lanes , express toll lanes, reversible lanes , and bus lanes . Most managed lane facilities are located in the United States, although HOV and bus lanes can be found in many other countries; outside of the US, Many countries use active traffic management That manage all lanes of a highway.
The definition of a managed lane among transport agencies. The United States’ Federal Highway Administration describes managed lanes as “highway facilities or a set of lanes where operational strategies are proactively implemented and managed in response to changing conditions.”  The FHWA notes that among US transport agencies, definitions of managed lanes contain three basic elements: 
- “The managed lane concept is typically a ‘freeway-within-a-freeway’ where a set of lanes within the free-cross section is separated from the general-purpose lanes.”
- “The facility incorporates a high degree of operational flexibility so that over time operations can be actively managed to respond to growth and changing needs.”
- “The operation of the facility is managed by a combination of tools and techniques in order to continuously achieve an optimal condition, such as free-flow speeds.”
The Texas Department of Transportation defines a managed lane as “one that increases freeway efficiency by packaging various operational and design actions.” Lane management operations may be adjusted at any time to better match regional goals. ”  Typical goals and objectives for managed lanes are improved traffic efficiency, increased traffic throughput, improved safety, and reduction of pollution to meet regional air quality goals. 
If designed to Improve travel requirements were highway, The Following Types of lanes can be regarded managed lanes: High-occupancy vehicle (HOV) lanes , tolled lanes built Within or along an existing highway (express toll lanes), high-occupancy toll ( HOT) lanes , reversible lanes (British: tidal flow), truck lanes , interchange bypass lanes (usually for HOV, truck, or mass transit only), lanes bus , use of shoulders by traffic in some Circumstances (dynamic shoulder lanes), and Dual / parallel highways of which one is managed. 
Managed lanes are essentially a limited application of active traffic management to a few of the highways of the highway.
Reasons for managed lanes
The most important prerequisite condition for managing the congestion. Managed lanes are by definition a congestion management strategy and have the benefits that are in the context of frequent traffic congestion and uncertainty over trip time reliability. However, it is not permitted to use the term “traffic congestion”. The term “traffic congestion” refers to traffic congestion. These situations generally correspond to a level of service of or less, But this does not mean that other scenarios are not suitable for managed lane strategies. 
The specific characteristics of the traffic in a corridor are particularly important when considering managed lane strategies. Traffic demand on urban roadways is typically variable and changes depending on the time of day, day of the week, and by season. It is common for demand in some radial corridors to be highly directional, with demand for facilities leading into a central business district. These patterns cause an imbalance of demand and require solutions that are flexible in their ability to accommodate variable and directional traffic volumes. Routes that connect suburban trips may exhibit bi-directional demand and be congested for more prolonged periods, So the selected concept needs to recognize this. Demand may exist for one particular mode, say transit for a radial corridor, and not for another. Each type of request should be separately analyzed, even if they will share the managed lane facility. 
Strategies for implementation
Strategies for managing lanes typically fall into one of three categories. These include eligibility restrictions, access control, and pricing. Most managed lane implementation incorporates the application of multiple management strategies. In the United States, managed lanes are almost always located within the right-of-way of freeways , often on the left or “high speed” side of the mainlanes. Agencies often combine lane management strategies and applications of various intelligent transportation systems (ITS) and traffic control devices to address both safety and operation needs. Examples include: 
- Usage static signing to notify drivers of eligibility to use a dedicated lane and times indicating when restrictions are in place.
- Utilizing overhead lane control signals and / or changeable message signs to accommodate highly directional demand on reversible or contraflow lanes.
- The aim of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness of the lanes in the management of lanes.
- Increasing the level of automated and on-site monitoring, enforcement and incident response capabilities.
- Implementing variable pricing through electronic tags that vary tolls.
Although managed lanes have traditionally been added as new capacity, the concept does not explicitly require capacity expansion. Instead, the focus of managed lanes is to preserve a comfortable trip that is considered as a preferred alternative over congestion that exists in the general purpose lanes. Therefore, the correct objective for managed lanes is not necessarily congestion relief, but rather, improved management of congestion that provides relief to users and non-users. 
The rationale of implementation should not be a stand-alone strategy. Indeed, the best applications are those in which the integral component of a comprehensive congestion management program incorporates an array of other treatments and strategies. These treatments may include ramp metering , incident management, traffic demand management (TDM) as well as regional programs. For example, for example, a car park or a car park or a car park. Ramp and connector metering offers the opportunity to provide bypass lanes for transit and other rideshare modes to attract demand. 
The rationale for application is predicated on an understanding of the specific operational problem. The design should not define the operational need, but rather the answer to the intended operation and attempt to fit within the specific corridor constraints that are often present. For example, highly directional congestion (ie, inbound in the morning and outbound in the evening) may be addressed by a variety of different treatments such as competitor, reversible or contraflow operations, and Within the corridor. The presence of congestion in both directions in the same day may be considered as a bi-directional, concurrent flow operation (eg, one dedicated lane operating in each direction) is appropriate. Similarly, The specific operational attributes of how many hours the managed lane is active, 
Types of managed lanes
One of the most commonly used lane management tools for the past 40 years is restricted use on eligibility. Eligibility can be defined in terms of vehicle type (ie nozzles, trucks, motorcycles, or hybrids) or by the number of occupants in a passenger vehicle, or three or more (HOV 3+) In a vehicle. The latter definition represents the vast majority of managed lanes found in the US and Canada: HOV lanes. 
High-occupancy vehicle (HOV) lanes provide preferential treatment for transit, vanpools, carpools, and other designated vehicles by typically dedicating a lane or portion of the roadway for their exclusive use. The primary goal of HOV is to increase the number of occupants per vehicle. This is accomplished by means of transit and the use of transit. 
HOV lanes are more than 1200 North American freeway-miles (1900 route-kilometers), and are by far the most common form of managed lane. All HOV lanes accommodate buses, and sometimes other vehicles, such as motorcycles and hybrids. The majority of HOV facilities are concurrent with general purpose freeway lanes. Most commonly, HOVs are separated from mixed use by a painted stripe or buffer, but some are separated by a physical barrier, either fixed or moveable. Depending on the design, HOV lanes may have continuous access to competitor to lanes or traffic may only be able to enter and exit at designated access locations. Some HOV lanes are reversible to serve directional demands at different times of the day; These facilities are separated by a permanent barrier and are accessed via exclusive ramps. Contraflow HOV lanes borrow an off-peak direction lane for peak commute purposes, and they use placement of pylons or moveable barriers to safely segregate oncoming traffic flow. 
HOV lanes have also been added to highway onramps to bypass ramp meters , allowing HOV vehicles and buses to access the highway without queuing for the ramp meter. Such ramp lanes are known as HOV bypass ramps. 
Bus lanes are lanes exclusively reserved for nozzles. The term busway is used exclusively for buses. A bus lane, more Commonly Located on a major arterial gold roadway is separate right-of-way, is usually a component of a Bus Rapid Transit (BRT) system and as a result the terms bus-lane busway, and BRT are Sometimes used synonymously. However, there is a distinction between a buses and a BRT, which may include various operational improvements and a high quality service for express bus trips. The type of service may also be substantially different, focused on limited express stops en route or point-to-point nonstop service. 
HOV lanes on freeway corridors that experience high levels of congestion and high potential for bus transit services. The purpose of bus lanes and supporting facilities (eg, transit stations, park-and-ride lots and direct access treatments) is to provide more reliable bus service. Service efficiency by allowing more peak trips by the same bus and providing patrons a faster trip. Bus-lanes on freeway corridors are usually shared with HOVs and other designated vehicles. An example is the I-110 Harbor Transitway which carries buses and HOV-2 + vehicles in the median of the freeway. There are six bus stops along the Transitway which serve many roads including a BRT road. Although the Transitway serves all types of HOVs and will soon incorporate solo vehicle pricing, it includes several sections where bus-only lanes and separate roadways into stations for buses exist. Houston, TX, United States of America.  Houston, TX, United States of America.  Houston, TX, United States of America. 
Truck lanes and lane restrictions
Separated roadways for trucks are uncommon. One example is the New Jersey Turnpike , the northern part of which features completely separated dual roadways, one reserved for passenger cars only, and the other open to both commercial and non-commercial traffic. Access ramps are provided to both roadways and major interchanges (Figure 12). Light trucks are considered to be eligible vehicles. Restricted geometries on many existing competitors are used to provide a wide range of lanes and lanes. There are truck lanes on European motorways leading in and out of the ports in Rotterdam in the Netherlands. In the US, dedicated roadways for trucks are being studied and in at least several cases. Missouri is currently considering using dedicated roadways for trucks on I-70 across the state, and several US cities are examining truck lanes and roadways. Climbing lanes for trucks are typically built to improve safe operations on grades by separating slow moving heavy vehicles from the rest of traffic.  Missouri is currently considering using dedicated roadways for trucks on I-70 across the state, and several US cities are examining truck lanes and roadways. Climbing lanes for trucks are typically built to improve safe operations on grades by separating slow moving heavy vehicles from the rest of traffic.  Missouri is currently considering using dedicated roadways for trucks on I-70 across the state, and several US cities are examining truck lanes and roadways. Climbing lanes for trucks are typically built to improve safe operations on grades by separating slow moving heavy vehicles from the rest of traffic. 
Interchange bypass lanes for trucks have been implemented in Southern California and Portland, Oregon, to improve by routing trucks around a major interchange typically containing left hand ramps. This design approach improves the merge condition affecting traffic operations at the interchange. Similar ramp options are provided for trucks on this separate roadway system as are provided for the mainlanes. 
Far more common on US highways are lane restrictions which prohibit trucks from driving in certain lanes of a highway, typically the left-most lane. At least three restrictions apply. Many US states have adopted this type of lane restriction because it promotes a more orderly mix of traffic and improvises, and improves safety, and still permits the orderly movement of trucks. 
Toll managed lanes
Toll managed lanes use tolling, with electronic toll collection , to manage the traffic flow of the managed lane. The most general form of toll managed lanes are express toll lanes (ETL), which have variable tolls to maintain a higher throughput or speed in the ETL lane compared with the other lanes of the highway. ETLs are essentially access restricted tollroads within the freeway right-of-way that are actively managed to preserve free-flow operating conditions.  The tolls are often changed to maintain a steady flow of traffic; In some cases, the goal of toll fluctuations is to maintain a minimum speed on the ETLs (eg 55 mph / 85 km / h).  As the lanes approach their capacity, tolls are increased to discourage vehicles from entering the ETLs.
A common variant of ETLs are high-occupancy toll (HOT) lanes . HOT lanes are free for high-occupancy vehicles, while vehicles with fewer passengers pay a toll. Some kinds of vehicles May be exempt from tolls, Such As hybrid vehicles (Including single-occupant hybrid vehicles in HOT lanes), registered carpools (you ETLS), and motorcycles. Some toll managed lanes may only be tolerated at certain times or load different rates for high-occupancy vehicles.
Toll lanes are managed Sometimes included in a highway reconstruction project to not only Improve traffic, goal aussi to fund the building project Itself (Including improvements to Existing lanes) through public-private partnerships (P3). In such highway reconstruction projects, the government transport agency tends to P3 projects in which a private consortium of companies designs, finances, and rebuilds a section of highway after which they are given a concession (eg 40 years) (1) (1) (1) (1) (1) (1) (1) (1) (1) (1) (1) (1) (1) (1) the performance of the government transport agency for meeting performance requirements These payments are used to repay the loans made by the private consortium, which keeps any excess as profit.
The number and directionality of freeway lanes and shoulders can be dynamically managed to serve variable traffic patterns.
Reversible and contraflow lanes
Reversible lanes and contraflow lanes are commonly employed when there is little or no available right-of-way for the width of a highway to be increased. These types of managed lanes increase the highway’s capacity in the direction of the flow of these lanes, which is typically the direction of travel of the majority of traffic during peak hours. afternoons / evenings). Reversible lanes along expressways are typically separated from other traffic lanes by concrete barriers and incorporate multiple gates or barriers to prevent traffic. Contraflow lanes are typically one or two lanes on one side of a dual-carriageway on which the direction of travel is reversed during certain hours.
A limitation of implementing a reversible flow design is that it can not be congestion that may be present in the off-peak traffic direction. If this is the case, then some users, such as deadheading transit buses that need to be able to make a second peak direction during the commute period, will be adversely impacted. All freeway reversible lanes must be separated by “Jersey” barriers in a high-speed roadway setting (which is not the case on arterial treatments). They are typically constructed in the median of freeway facilities and may be one, two or more lanes wide. These characteristics have several associated advantages and disadvantages. A facility that changes direction to serve the morning and afternoon traffic can be an efficient solution since it allocates capacity to the most congested direction of travel. Reversible lanes for the transit of the. Some local, notably Houston, implemented reversible lanes to address the peak direction both directions of travel. A bridges with center columns. A disadvantage of reversible lanes is the ongoing cost of daily surveillance and lane / ramp reversal activities. These treatments must be designed to prevent wrong movements, Requiring extensive and redundant ITS and traffic control devices for each opening, plus a staff compliment which must visually inspect the roadway prior to each opening period. Tolling and enforcement is made easy by the barrier environment in which a single field can be identified to monitor and / or toll all traffic flow. 
Use of shoulders
The use of a highway’s shoulder during peak hours has been implemented in some locations, both in the US and Europe. HOV lane, use for all vehicles, and use as an ETA / HOT lane.
On Massachusetts State Route 3 and I-93 and I-95 in the Boston area, all vehicles are permitted on peak periods only. Similarly, in Virginia on I-66 , the shoulder carries general purpose traffic from 5: 30-11: 00 AM (eastbound) and 2: 00-8: 00 PM (westbound); However, during this time, the interior general purpose is open to HOV traffic only. I-66 uses extensive traffic signals and signage in order to communicate the active times of service. In the Seattle area, the right shoulder on the US 2 trestle near Everett is open to all traffic in the eastbound direction during the afternoon peak period. A similar operation is provided on H1 in Honolulu in the morning peak on the right shoulder. 
The use of freeway right side breakdown shoulders by buses is permitted in several states. The Minneapolis / St. Paul metropolitan area has the most bus-only shoulders in the United States. Early implementations of bus-only use of shoulders in the region were limited to arterial roads, but the concept was soon expanded to freeways after they were shown to be safe and hugely successful. As of 2006, there were 271 miles (436 km) Minneapolis / St. Paul metropolitan area. The Minnesota Department of Transportation has instituted a series of guidelines for the use of freeway shoulders by buses. These guidelines allow buses to be used only when the speed of the road is more than 15 mph (24 km / h), up to a Maximum speed of 35 mph (56 km / h). 
- Jump up^ “Managed Lanes” . Freeway Management Program . Federal Highway Administration (US Department of Transportation) . Retrieved 7 July 2015 .
- Jump up^ “Managed Lanes: A Primer” . Federal Highway Administration . Retrieved 7 July 2015 .
- Jump up^ Parham, Angelia; Eisele, William; Cothron, A. Scott (January 2002). Guidance for Managed Lane Facilities in Texas (PDF) (Report). Texas Transportation Institute (Texas A & M University). p. 1. TxDOT research project (0-4160), TxDOT developed the following official definition of a managed lane: ‘A managed lane facility. Lane management operations may be better at regional matches. ‘ Based on this definition, managed lanes include HOV lanes, trucks lanes, toll highways, priced lanes, single-occupant vehicle (SOV) express lanes, or any combination of these strategies.
- ^ Jump up to:a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t “Chapter 8: Managed Lanes”. Freeway Management and Operations Handbook . Federal Highway Administration . January 2011 . Retrieved 7 July 2015 .
- Jump up^ “FAQs” . I-4 Ultimate . Florida Department of Transportation . Retrieved 7 July 2015 .
- Jump up^ Fortunas, Jennifer (March 2013). “Providing Opportunities through Managed Lanes” (PDF) . Florida Department of Transportation . Florida Department of Transportation – Traffic Engineering and Operations Office . Retrieved 7 July 2015 .
- Jump up^ “Chapter 2: Context and Findings”. Efficient Use of Highway Capacity Summary Report to Congress (Report). Federal Highway Administration. May 2010 . Retrieved 2015-07-07 . Line feed character inat position 42 (help ) |title=