Interviewer effect

The interviewer effect is also used to describe the interrelations between the interviewer and the interviewer . The use of fixed-wording questions is one method of reducing interviewer bias. Anthropological research and case-studies sont également affected by the problem, qui est Exacerbated by the self-fulfilling prophecy, When the researcher est aussi the interview it est aussi Any effect on data Gathered from interviewing celebrities That Is Caused by the behavior or characteristics ( Real or perceived) of the interviewer.

Interviewer effects can also be associated with the characteristics of the interviewer, such as race. Whether black respondents are interviewed by white interviewers or black interviewers have a strong impact on their responses to both questions and behavioral ones. In the latter case, for example, if they are interviewed by black interviewers in pre-election surveys, they are more likely to actually vote in the upcoming election than they are interviewed by white interviewers. [1]

Moreover, the race of the interviewer can also affect the answers to those questions. Black respondents in a survey of political knowledge, for example, get fewer correct answers to factual questions about politics when interviewed by white interviewers. This is consistent with the research literature is stereotype threat , qui finds diminished performance test of Potentially Stigmatized groups When the interview or test supervisor is from a Higher Perceived status group.

Interviewer can be mitigated somewhat by randomly assigning subjects to different interviewers, or by using tools such as computer-assisted telephone interviewing (CATI). [2]

See also

  • Observer-expectancy effect
  • Experimenter’s bias



  1. Jump up^ Barbara A. Anderson; Brian D. Silver & Paul R. Abramson (Spring 1988). “The Effects of Race of the Interviewer on Measures of Electoral Participation by Blacks in SRC National Election Studies”. Public Opinion Quarterly . 52 (1): 53-83. Doi : 10.1086 / 269082 .
  2. Jump up^ Groves, Robert M .; Lou J. Magilavy (1986). “Measuring and Explaining Interviewer Effects in Centralized Telephone Surveys”. Public Opinion Quarterly . 50 (2): 251. ISSN  0033-362X . Doi : 10.1086 / 268979 .


  • Anderson, Barbara A., Brian D. Silver and Paul R. Abramson. “The Effects of Race of the Interviewer on Measures of Electoral Participation by Blacks in SRC National Election Studies,” Public Opinion Quarterly 52 (Spring 1988): 53-83.
  • Anderson, Barbara A., Brian D. Silver and Paul R. Abramson, “The Effects of the Race of Interviewer on Race-Related Responses in SRC / CPS National Election Studies,” Public Opinion Quarterly 52 (August 1988) : 289-324.
  • Davis, Darren W., and Brian D. Silver. “Stereotype Threat and Race of Interviewer Effects in a Survey on Political Knowledge,” American Journal of Political Science, 47 (December 2002): 33-45.
  • Davis, RE; et al. (Feb 2010). “Interviewer effects in public health surveys” . Health Education Research . 25 (1): 14-26. PMC  2805402  . PMID  19762354 . Doi : 10.1093 / her / cyp046 .
  • Stokes, Lynn; Yeh, Ming-Yih (October 2001). “Chapter 22: Searching for Causes of Interviewer Effects in Telephone Surveys”. In Groves, Robert M .; et al. Telephone Survey Methodology . Wiley. pp. 357-110. ISBN  978-0-471-20956-0 .
  • Sudman, Seymour, and Norman Bradburn. Response Effects in Surveys. National Opinion Research Center: Chicago, 1974.

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