Intelligent transportation system

An intelligent transportation system ( ITS ) is an advanced application which, without embodying intelligence as such, aims to provide innovative services to different modes of transport and traffic management, Smarter ‘use of transport networks.

Although ITS may refer to all modes of transport, the Directive of the European Union 2010/40 / EU, made on the 7 July, 2010, Infrastructure, vehicles and users, and in traffic management and mobility management, as well as interfaces with other modes of transport. [1]

Background

Recent when? ] Governmental which? ] Activity in the area of ​​ITS – is further motivated by an increasing focus on homeland security . Many of the proposed ITS systems also involve surveillance of the roadways, which is a priority of homeland security. [2] Funding of many systems comes either directly through homeland security organizations or with their approval. Further, ITS can play a role in the rapid mass evacuation of people in urban centers after large casualty events such as a result of a natural disaster or threat. Much of the infrastructure and planning involved with ITS parallels the need for homeland security systems.

In the developing world , the migration from rural to urbanized habitats has progressed differently. Many areas of the developing world have urbanized without motorization and the formation of suburbs. A small portion of the population can afford automobiles , but the automobiles greatly increase congestion in these multimodal transportation systems. They also produce considerable air pollution , pose a significant safety risk, and exacerbate feelings of inequities in the society. High population density could be supported by a multimodal system of walking, bicycle transportation, motorcycles , buses , and trains .

Other parts of the developing world, such as China , India and Brazil remain largely rural but are rapidly urbanizing and industrialising. In these areas a motorized infrastructure is being developed alongside motorization of the population. Great disparity of wealth means clustering That only a fraction of the population can motorized, and therefore the highly dense multimodal transportation system for the poor is cross-cut by the highly Motorized transportation system for the rich.

Intelligent transportation technologies

Intelligent transportation systems vary in technologies applied, from basic management systems Such As for navigation ; Traffic signal control systems; Container management systems; Variable message signs; Automatic number plate recognition or speed cameras to monitor applications, Such As security CCTV systems; And to more advanced applications that integrate data and feedback from a number of other sources, such as parking and informationsystems; Weather information ; Bridge de-icing (US deicing ) systems; And the like. Additionally, predictive techniques are being developed to allow advanced modeling and comparison with historical baseline data. Some of these technologies are described in the following sections. [3]

Wireless communications

Various forms of wireless communications technologies have been proposed for intelligent transportation systems. Radio communication modems on UHF and VHF frequencies are widely used for short and long communication communication within ITS.

Short-range communications of 350 m can be accomplished using IEEE 802.11 protocols, specifically WAVE or the Dedicated Short Range Communications standard being promoted by the Intelligent Transportation Society of America and the United States Department of Transportation . Theoretically, the range of these protocols can be extended using mobile ad hoc networksor mesh networking .

Longer Range Communications-have beens Proposed using infrastructure networks Such As WiMAX ( IEEE 802.16 ), GSM (GSM) or 3G . Long-range communications using these methods are well established, but unlike the short-range protocols, these methods require extensive and very expensive infrastructure deployment. There is a lack of consensus as to what business model should support this infrastructure.

Auto Insurance companies have used ad hoc solutions to support eCall and behavioural tracking functionalities in the form of Telematics 2.0 .

Computational technologies

Recent advances in vehicle electronics have led to a move towards fewer, more capable computer processors on a vehicle. A typical vehicle in the early 2000s would have between 20 and 100 individual networked microcontroller/ programmable logic controller modules with non-real-time operating systems . The current trend is towards fewer, more costly microprocessor modules with hardware memory management and real-time operating systems . The new embedded system platforms allow for more sophisticated software applications to be implemented, including model-based process control , Artificial intelligence , and ubiquitous computing . Perhaps the most important of these for Intelligent Transportation Systems is artificial intelligence . Citation needed ]

Floating data / floating cellular data

RFID E-ZPass reader attached to the pole and its antenna (right) used in traffic monitoring in New York City by using vehicle re-identification method

“Floating car” or “probe”. Broadly speaking, four methods have been used to obtain the raw data:

  • Triangulation method. In developed countries a high proportion of mobile phones . The phones periodically transmit their presence information to the mobile phone network, even when no voice connection is established. In the mid-2000s, attempts were made to use mobile phones as anonymous traffic probes. As a moves, so does the signal of any mobile phones that are inside the vehicle. By measuring and analyzing network data using triangulation , pattern matching or cell-sector statistics (in an anonymous format), the data was converted into traffic flow information. With more congestion, there are more cars, more phones, and thus, more probes. In metropolitan areas, the distance between antennas is shorter and in accuracy increases. An advantage of this method is that it does not need to be built along the road; Only the mobile phone network is leveraged. (A) a motorway (freeway) and a commuter rail line, two Or more parallel streets, or a street that is also a bus line). By the early 2010s, the popularity of the triangulation method was declining [ citation needed ] . (A) a motorway (freeway) and a commuter rail line, two or more parallel streets, or a street that is Also a bus line). By the early 2010s, the popularity of the triangulation method was declining [ citation needed ] . (A) a motorway (freeway) and a commuter rail line, two or more parallel streets, or a street that is Also a bus line). By the early 2010s, the popularity of the triangulation method was declining [ citation needed ] .
  • Vehicle re-identification. Vehicle re-identification methods require sets of detectors mounted along the road. In this technique, a unique serial number for a device in the vehicle is detected and re-identified further down the road. Travel time and speed are calculated by comparing the time at which a specific device is detected by pairs of sensors. This can be done using the MAC addresses from Bluetooth or other devices, [4] or using the RFID serial numbers from electronic toll collection (ETC) transponders (also called “toll tags”).
  • GPS based methods. An increasing number of vehicles are equipped with in-vehicle satnav / GPS (satellite navigation) systems that have two-way communication with a traffic data provider. Position readings from these vehicles are used to compute vehicle speeds. Modern methods May not use dedicated hardware aim INSTEAD Smartphone based solutions using so called Telematics 2.0 approaches. Citation needed ]
  • Smartphone-based rich monitoring. Smartphones having various sensors can be used to track traffic speed and density. The accelerometer data from smartphones is monitored to find out traffic speed and road quality. Audio data and GPS tagging of smartphones This was implemented in Bangalore, India as a part of a research experimental system Nericell . [5]

Floating car data technology provides advantages over other methods of traffic measurement:

  • Less expensive than sensors or cameras
  • More coverage (potentially including all rentals and streets)
  • Faster to set up and less maintenance
  • Works in all weather conditions, including heavy rain

Sensing technologies

Technological advances in telecommunications and information technology, coupled with ultramodern / state-of-the-art microchip, RFID (Radio Frequency Identification), and inexpensive intelligent beacon sensing technologies, Globally . Sensing systems for ITS are vehicle- and infrastructure-based networks, ie, Intelligent vehicle technologies . Infrastructure sensors are indestructible (such as in-road reflectors) devices that are installed or embedded in the road or surrounding the road, And may be manually disseminated during preventive road construction . Vehicle-sensing systems include deployment of infrastructure-to-vehicle and vehicle-to-infrastructure electronic beacons for identification papers and May aussi employee video automatic number plate recognition or vehicle magnetic sign detection technology at Desired intervals pour augmenter sustained monitoring of vehicles operating in critical areas.

Inductive loop detection

Saw cut loop detectors for vehicle detection buried in the pavement at this intersection as seen by the rectangular shapes of loop detector sealant at the bottom part of this picture.

Inductive loops can be placed in a roadbed to detect vehicles as they pass through the loop’s magnetic field. The simplest detectors simply count the number of vehicles during a unit of time (typically 60 seconds in the United States ) that pass over the loop, while more sophisticated sensors estimate the speed, length, and class of vehicles and the distance between them. Loops can be placed in a single lane or across multiple lanes, and they work with very slow or stopped vehicles.

Video vehicle detection

Traffic-flow measurement and automatic incident detection using video cameras is another form of vehicle detection. Since video detection systems Such As Those used in automatic number plate recognition do not Involve Any Installing components Directly into the road roadbed gold surface, this kind of system is Known As a “non-intrusive” method of traffic detection. Video from cameras is fed into processors That analysis the changing characteristics of the video image as vehicles pass. The cameras are typically mounted on poles or structures above or adjacent to the roadway. Most video detection systems require some initial configuration to teach the processor the baseline background image. This usually Involves Known Inputting measurements Such As the distance entre lane lines or the height of the camera above-the roadway. A single video detection processor can detect simultaneously from one to eight cameras, depending on the brand and model. The lane-by-lane vehicle speeds, counts, and lane occupancy readings. Some systems provide additional outputs including gap, headway, stopped-vehicle detection, and wrong-way vehicle alarms. Counts, and lane occupancy readings. Some systems provide additional outputs including gap, headway, stopped-vehicle detection, and wrong-way vehicle alarms. Counts, and lane occupancy readings. Some systems provide additional outputs including gap, headway, stopped-vehicle detection, and wrong-way vehicle alarms.

Bluetooth detection

Bluetooth is an accurate and inexpensive way to measure travel time and make origin and destination analysis. Bluetooth is a wireless standard used to communicate between electrondresses from Bluetooth devices in passing vehicles. If these sensors are interconnected they are able to calculate the travel time and provide data for origin and destination matrices. Compared to other traffic measurement technologies, Bluetooth measurement has some differences:

  • Accurate measurement points with absolute confirmation to provide the second travel times.
  • Is non-intrusive, which can lead to lower-cost facilities for both permanent and temporary sites.
  • Is limited to how many Bluetooth devices are broadcasting in a vehicle so counting and other applications are limited.
  • Systems are quick to set up with little to no calibration needed.

Since Bluetooth devices become more prevalent on board vehicles and with more portable electronics broadcasting, the amount of data collected over time becomes more accurate and valuable for travel time and estimation purposes.

Audio detection

It is also possible to measure traffic density on a road using the audio signal which consists of the cumulative sound from noise noise, noise-engine noise, and turbulence noise. A roadside-installed microphone picks up the audio that includes the various vehicle noise and audio signal processing techniques can be used to estimate the traffic state. The accuracy of such a system compares well with the other methods described above. [6]

Information fusion from multiple traffic sensing modalities

The data from the different sensing technologies can be combined in intelligent ways to determine the traffic accurately. A data fusion based approach that utilizes the road side collected acoustic, image and sensor data has been shown to combine the advantages of the different individual methods. [7]

Intelligent transportation applications

Emergency vehicle notification systems

The in-vehicle eCall is either a manually operated vehicle or an accident vehicle. When activated, the in-vehicle eCall device will provide an emergency call carrying both voice and data directly to the nearest emergency point (normally the E1-1-2 public-safety answering point , PSAP). The voice call enables the occupant to communicate with the trained eCall operator. At the same time, a minimum of data will be sent to the eCall operator receiving the voice call.

The minimum set of data includes information about the incident, including time, precise location, and the identification. The pan-European eCall aims to be operative for all new type-approved vehicles as a standard option. Depending on the manufacturer of the eCall system, it could be mobile phone based, an integrated eCall device, or a functionality of a broader system like navigation, Telematics device, or tolling device. ECall is expected to be offered, at earliest, by the end of 2010, pending standardization by the European Telecommunications Standards Institute .

Congestion pricing gantry at North Bridge Road, Singapore .

The EC funded project SafeTRIP citation needed ] is developing an open satellite communication system. This platform will allow for greater coverage of the Emergency Call Service within the EU.

Automatic road enforcement

Automatic speed enforcementgantry or ” Lombada Eletrônica ” with ground sensors at Brasilia, DF .

A traffic enforcement camera system, consistant of a camera and a vehicle -monitoring device, is used to detect and Identify vehicles Disobeying a speed limit or Some Other road legal requirement and automatically ticket offenders based on the license plate number. Traffic tickets are sent by mail. Applications include:

  • Speed ​​cameras that identify vehicles traveling over the legal speed limit . Many such devices use radar to detect a vehicle’s speed or electromagnetic loops in each lane of the road.
  • Red light cameras that detect a traffic light or a traffic light .
  • Bus lane for buses . In Some jurisdictions, bus lanes can be used by taxis aussi gold vehicles engaged in car pooling .
  • Level crossing cameras that identify crossing railways at grade illegally.
  • Double white line cameras that identify vehicles crossing these lines.
  • High-occupancy vehicle lane cameras that identify vehicles violating HOV requirements.

Variable speed limits

Recently some jurisdictions have begun experimenting with variable speed limits that change with road congestion and other factors. Typically such speed limits only change to decline during poor conditions. One example is Britain’s M25 motorway , which circumnavigates London. On the most heavily traveled 14-mile (23 km) section (junction 10 to 16) of the M25 variable speed limits combined with automated enforcement have been in force since 1995. The results of the trials on the M25 have been so far inconclusive. [8]

Collision avoidance systems

Japan has installed sensors on its highways to notify motorists that a car is stalled ahead. [9]

Dynamic traffic light sequence

A 2008 paper was written about using RFID for dynamic traffic light sequences. It circumvents or avoids problems that usually arise with systems that use image processing and beam interruption techniques. RFID technology with Appropriate algorithm and database Were applied to a multi-vehicle, multi-lane and multi-road junction area to Provide Efficient time management scheme year. A dynamic time schedule was worked out for the passage of each column. The simulation showed the dynamic sequence algorithm could adjust itself even with the presence of some extreme cases. The paper said the system could emulate the judgment of a police officer on duty, by considering the number of vehicles in each column and the routing proprieties. [10]

Cooperative systems on the road

Communication cooperation on the road includes car-to-car, car-to-infrastructure, and vice versa. Data are available from the company for central processing and processing. These data can be used to detect such frequent braking activities. The server processes a driving recommendation assigned to a single or a specific group of drivers and transmits it wirelessly to vehicles. The objective of cooperative systems is to use and plan communication and sensor infrastructure to increase road safety. The definition of cooperative systems in road traffic is according to the European Commission : [11] [12]

“The road vehicles, infrastructure, vehicles, their drivers and other road users will cooperate to deliver the most efficient, safe, secure and comfortable journey. With stand-alone systems. “

ITS World Congress. ERTICO – ITS Europe, ITS America and ITS AsiaPacific sponsor the annual ITS World Congress and exhibition. Each year the event takes place in a different region (Europe, Americas or Asia-Pacific). [13]The first ITS World Congress was held in Paris in 1994.

Europe

The Network of National ITS Associations is a grouping of national ITS interests. It was officially announced 7 October 2004 in London. The secretariat is at ERTICO – ITS Europe. [14]

ERTICO – ITS Europe is a public / private partnership promoting the development and deployment of ITS. They connect public authorities, industry players, infrastructure operators, users, national ITS associations and other organizations together. The ERTICO work program focuses on initiatives to improve transport safety, security and network efficiency.

United States

In the United States, each state has an ITS chapter that holds a yearly conference to promote and showcase ITS technologies and ideas. Representatives from each Department of Transportation (state, cities, towns, and counties) within the state expects this conference.

See also

  • Automated planning and scheduling
  • Automatic parking
  • Driverless car
  • Intelligent speed adaptation
  • Intelligent Transportation Systems Institute
  • Map database management
  • National Transportation for Intelligent Transportation System Protocol
  • Road Weather Information System
  • SCATS
  • Scalable Urban Traffic Control
  • STREAMS Integrated Intelligent Transport System
  • Telematics
  • Telematics 2.0
  • Traffic estimation and prediction system
  • Traffic Message Channel
  • Traffic optimization
  • Vehicular communication systems
  • Vehicular Ad Hoc Network
  • Freeway Traffic Management System or COMPASS
  • RESCU – similar to COMPASS system used by the City of Toronto

References

  1. Jump up^ DIRECTIVE 2010/40 / EU OF THE EUROPEAN PARLIAMENT AND OF THE COUNCIL of 7 July 2010. eur-lex.europa.eu
  2. Jump up^ Monahan, Torin (2007). ” ” War Rooms “of the Street: Surveillance Practices in Transportation Control Centers” (PDF) . The Communication Review . 10 (4): 367-389. Doi : 10.1080 / 10714420701715456 .
  3. Jump up^ “Frequently Asked Questions” . Intelligent Transportation Systems Joint Program Office . United States Department of Transportation . Retrieved 10 November 2016 .
  4. Jump up^ Tarnoff, Philip John, Bullock, Darcy M, Young, Stanley E, et al. “Continuing Evolution of Travel Time Data Collection and Processing,” Transportation Research Board Annual Meeting 2009 Paper # 09-2030. TRB 88th Annual Meeting Compendium of Papers
  5. Jump up^ Mohan, Prashanth, Venkata N. Padmanabhan, and Ramachandran Ramjee. Nericell: mobile phone and mobile phone. Proceedings of the 6th ACM Conference on Embedded Network Sensor Systems. ACM, 2008.
  6. Jump up^ Tyagi, V., Kalyanaraman, S., Krishnapuram, R. (2012). “Vehicular Traffic Density State Estimate Based on Cumulative Road Acoustics”. IEEE Transactions on Intelligent Transportation Systems .
  7. Jump up^ Joshi, V., Rajamani, N., Takayuki, K., Prathapaneni, N., Subramaniam, LV, (2013). Information Fusion Based Learning for Frugal Traffic State Sensing . Proceedings of the Twenty-Third International Joint Conference on Artificial Intelligence.
  8. Jump up^ Report (HC 15, 2004-05): Tackling congestion by making better use of England’s motorways and trunk roads (Full Report) (PDF) , National Audit Office , 26 November 2004 , retrieved 2009-09-17
  9. Jump up^ Trend in Road Accidents, Japan. nilim.go.jp
  10. Jump up^ Khalid AS Al-Khateeb; Jaiz AY Johari; Wajdi F. Al-Khateeb (2008). “Dynamic Traffic Light Sequence, Science Publications”. Journal of Computer Science . 4 (7): 517-524. Doi : 10.3844 / jcssp.2008.517.524 .
  11. Jump up^ 3rd eSafety Forum, 25 March 2004
  12. Jump up^ European Commission, Directorate-General “Information Society”, Directorate C “Miniaturization, Embedded Systems and Societal Applications” C.5 Unit “ICT for Transport and the Environment”, “Towards Cooperative Systems for Road Transport” Transport Clustering Meeting, Nov. 8, 2004.
  13. Jump up^ “ITS World Congress” . Promotional web site . Retrieved 10 November2016 .
  14. Jump up^ “Introducing the Network of National ITS Associations!” . Promotional web site . Retrieved 10 November 2016 .

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