An information infrastructure is defined by Ole Hanseth (2002) as “an awesome shared, evolving, open, standardized, and heterogeneous installed base”  and by Pironti , And technology which supports the creation, use, transport, storage, and destruction of information.  The notion of information infrastructures, introduced in the 1990s and refined during the decade, has proven to be fruitful to the Information Systems (IS) field. It changes the perspective from organizations to networks and from systems to infrastructures, allowing for a comprehensive and emergent perspective on information systems. Information infrastructure is a technical structure of an organizational form, an analytical perspective or a semantic network. The concept of information infrastructure (II) was introduced in the early 1990s, first as a political initiative (Gore, 1993 & Bangemann, 1994). For the IS research community an important inspiration was Hughes’ (1983) accounts of large technical systems, analyzed as socio-technical power structures (Bygstad, 2008).  For the IS research community an important inspiration was Hughes’ (1983) accounts of large technical systems, analyzed as socio-technical power structures (Bygstad, 2008).  For the IS research community an important inspiration was Hughes’ (1983) accounts of large technical systems, analyzed as socio-technical power structures (Bygstad, 2008). 
(Infrastructures should Rather be the Hibernate of Hibernia and Ciborra 2007), and in particular to develop an alternative approach to IS design: (Ciborra and Hanseth, 1998). This paper presents the results of a study of the use of the Ciborra and Hanseth models. It was later developed into a full design theory, focusing on the growth of an installed base (Hanseth and Lyytinen 2008).
Information infrastructures include the Internet, health systems and corporate systems. It is also possible to include innovations such as Facebook , LinkedIn and MySpace as excellent examples (Bygstad, 2008). Bowker has several key terms and concepts that are enormously helpful for analyzing information infrastructure: imbrication, bootstrapping, figure / ground, and a short discussion of infrastructure inversion. “Imbrication” is an analytic concept that helps to ask questions about historical data. ” Bootstrapping ” is the idea that infrastructure must already exist in order to exist (2011).
Definitions of information infrastructure
“Technological and non-technological elements that are linked” (Hanseth and Monteiro 1996).
“Information infrastructures can, as formative contexts, shape not only the work routines, but also the ways people look at practices, consider them ‘natural’ and give them their overarching character of necessity. Infrastructure becomes an essential factor shaping the taken-for-grantedness of organizational practices “(Ciborra and Hanseth 1998).
“The technological and human components, networks, systems and processes that contribute to the functioning of the health information system” (Braa et al., 2007).
(Edwards et al., 2007). The results of this study are presented in the following table.
“A shared, evolving, heterogeneous installed base of IT capabilities developed on open and standardized interfaces” (Hanseth and Lyytinen 2008).
Accordion to the Online Etymology Dictionary (OED) the etymology of the words that make up the phrase ” information infrastructure ” are as follows:
Information late 14c., “Act of informing,” from O.Fr. Informacion, enformacion “information, advice, instruction,” from L. informationem (informatio) “outline, concept, idea,” noun of action from pp. Stem of informare (see inform ). Meaning “knowledge communicated” is from mid-15c. Information technology attested from 1958. Information revolution from 1969. 
Infrastructure 1887, from Fr. Infrastructure (1875); See infra- + structure. The facilities that form the basis for any operation or system. Originally in a military sense. 
Theories of information infrastructure
Dimensions of Infrastructure
According to Star and Ruhleder, there are 8 dimensions of information infrastructures.
- Reach or scope
- Learned as part of membership
- Links with conventions of practice
- Embodiment of standards
- Built on an installed base
- Becomes visible upon breakdown 
Information infrastructure as public policy
Presidential Chair & Professor of Information Studies at the University of California, Los Angeles , Christine L. Borgman Argues information infrastructure, like all infrastructure, are “subject to public policy.”  In the United States, public policy defines information infrastructures as the “physical and cyber-based systems essential to the minimum operations of the economy and government”. 
Global Information Infrastructure (GII)
Borgman said that “the world of telecommunication and computer networks together” would allow the transmission of “every conceivable information and communication application.” 
Currently, the Internet is the default global information infrastructure. ” 
Regional information infrastructure
The Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (TEL) Program for Asian Information and Communications Infrastructure. 
Association of South East Asian Nations , e-ASEAN Framework Agreement of 2000. 
National Information Infrastructure (NII)
The National Research Council Established CA * net in 1989 and the network connecting “all provincial nodes” was operational in 1990.  The Canadian Network for the Advancement of Research, Industry and Education (CANARIE) Was Established in 1992 and CA * net Was upgraded to a T1 connection in 1993 and T3 in 1995.  By 2000, “the commercial basis for Canada’s infrastructure information” was established, 
In 1994, the European Union proposed the European Information Infrastructure:  European Information Infrastructure has evolved further to Martin Bangemann report and projects eEurope 2003+, eEurope 2005 and iIniciaive 2010 
In 1995, American Vince President Al Gore asked USAID to help improve Africa’s connection to the global information infrastructure. 
The USAID Leland Initiative (LI) was designed from June to September 1995, and implemented on September 29, 1995.  The Initiative was “a five-year $ 15 million US Government effort to support sustainable development” by bringing “full Internet connectivity “To approximately 20 African nations. 
The initiative had three strategic objectives:
- Creating and Enabling Policy Environment-to “reduce barriers to open connectivity.”
- Creating Sustainable Supply of Internet Services – help build the hardware and industry need for “full Internet connectivity.”
- Enhancing Internet Use for Sustainable Development – improve the ability of African nations to use these infrastructures. 
- Online Etymology Dictionary
- Jump up^ Hanseth, Ole (2002). “From systems and tools to networks and infrastructure. – From design to cultivation Towards a Theory of ICT solutions and Its Implications design methodologyaccessed 21 September 2004
- Jump up^ Pironti, JP (2006). “Key Elements of a Threat and Vulnerability Management Program” (PDF) . INFORMATION SYSTEMS AUDIT AND CONTROL ASSOCIATION . 3 : 52-56.
- Jump up^ Bygstad, Bendik (2008). “Information infrastructure as a: a critical realist view.” Retrieved fromhttp://heim.ifi.uio.no/~phddays/15thPhDDays/Documents/Paper_Bendik.pdf
- Jump up^ “Inform”OEDRetrieved 24 Oct 2011
- Jump up^ “Information”OEDRetrieved 24 Oct 2011
- Jump up^ “Infrastructure”OEDRetrieved 24 Oct 2011
- Jump up^ Star, Susan Leigh; Karen Ruhleder (March 1996). “Toward an Ecology of Infrastructure: Design and Access for Large Information Spaces”. Information Systems Research . 7 (1): 111-134. Doi : 10.1287 / isre.7.1.111 .
- ^ Jump up to:a b c d Borgman, Christine L (7 August 2000). “The premise and promise of a Global Information Infrastructure”. First Monday [Online] . 5 (8).
- Jump up^ “SearchCIO.com” . Global Information Infrastructure . SearchCIO.com . Retrieved 25 October 2011 .
- ^ Jump up to:a b Soriano, Edwin S. (2003). Nets, Webs and the Information Infrastructure (PDF) . E-ASEAN Task Force and UNDP-APDIP. pp. 35-36.
- ^ Jump up to:a b c Johnston, Donald B. Robert Fabian Keith L. Geurts Donald S. Hicks Andrew Huzar Norman D. Inkster Alan Jaffee Paul McLennan Douglas J. Nash Michael Power Mark Stirling (2004). Critical Information Infrastructure Accountability in Canada (PDF) . Ottawa: Public Safety and Emergency Preparedness Canada. p. 7. ISBN 0-662-38155-6 .
- Jump up^ JUHÁSZ, Lilla. The information strategy of the European Union. In: PINTER, Róbert (Eds.). Information Society: From Theory to Political Practice. Budapest: Gondolat Kiadó, 2008, s. 132.
- ^ Jump up to:a b “USAID” . “USAID Leland Initiative: Leland Activity Update” . USAID . Retrieved 25 October 2011 .
- ^ Jump up to:a b “USAID Leland Initiative” . “Leland Initiative: Africa GII Gateway Project Project Description & Frequently Asked Questions” . USAID . Retrieved 25 October 2011 .