Information is that which informs. In other words, it is the answer to a question of some kind. It is therefore related to data and knowledge . [1] As it looks data, the information’s existence Is not Necessarily coupled year to observe (it exists beyond an event horizon , for example), while in the case of knowledge, the information requires a cognitive observe . [2]

At its most fundamental level, information is any propagation of cause and effect within a system. [3] Information is conveyed Either as the content of a post or through Direct Indirect Golden observation of anything.That qui est Perceived can be construed as a post in icts own right, and fait que sense, information is always conveyed as the content of A message .

Information may be encoded into various forms for transmission and interpretation (for example, information may be encoded into a sequence of signs , or transmitted via a sequence of signals ). It can also be encrypted for safe storage and communication.

Information reduces uncertainty . The uncertainty of an event is measured by its probability of occurrence and is inversely proportional to that. The more uncertainty of that event. The bit is a typical unit of information , but other units such as the nat may be used. For example, the information encoded in one “fair” corner flip is log 2 (2/1) = 1 bit, and in two fair flips is log 2 (4/1) = 2 bits.

The concept that information is the message has different meanings in different contexts. [4] Thus the concept of information is closely related to concepts of constraint , communication , control , data , form , education , knowledge , meaning , understanding , mental stimuli , pattern , perception , representation , and entropy .


See also: History of the word and concept “information”

The English word was apparently derived from the Latin stem ( information ) of the nominative ( informatio ): this noun is derived from the verb informare (to inform) , “Instruct”, “teach”. Inform Itself comes (via French information ) from the Latin verb informare , qui means clustering to give form, or to form an idea of. Furthermore, Latin Itself already contained the word informatio meaning concept or idea, aim to the extent qui cette May-have Influenced the development of the word information in English is not clear.

The ancient Greek word for form was μορφή ( morph ) and also εἶδος ( eidos ) “kind, idea, shape, set”, the last word was used in a technical philosophical sense by Plato (and later Aristotle ) Denote the ideal identity or essence of something (see Theory of Forms ). “Eidos” can also be associated with thought, proposition , or even concept.

The former Greek word for information is πληροφορία , which transliterates ( plērophoria ) from πλήρης ( plērēs ) “fully” and έέρω ( phorein ) frequentative of ( pherein ) to carry-through. It literally means “fully bears” or “conveys fully”. In modern Greek the word Πληροφορία is still in daily use and has the same meaning as the word information in English. In addition to its primary meaning, the word Πληροφορία as a symbol has deep roots in Aristotle’s semiotic triangle . In this regard it can be interpreted to communicate information to the one decoding that specific type of sign . This is something that often occurs with the etymology of many words in ancient and modern. It is a very strong denotative relationship between the signifier and the signified. The interpreter attempts to decode.

Information theory approach

Main article: Information theory

From the stance of information theory , information is taken as an order of sequence of symbols from an alphabet, say an input alphabet χ, and an output alphabet Υ. Χ </s> </s> </s> </s> </s> </s> </s> </s> </s> </s> </s> </s> </s> </s> </s> </s> </s> ー </s> </s> </s> </s> </s> The mapping may be probabilistic or deterministic. It may have memory or be memoryless. [5]

As sensory input

Often information can be viewed as a type of input to an organism or system . Inputs are of two kinds; Some inputs are important to the function of the organism (for example, food) or system ( energy ) by themselves. In his book Sensory Ecology [6] Dusenbery called these causal inputs. Other inputs (information) are important because they are associated with causal inputs and can be used to predict the occurrence of a causal input at a later time. Some information is important because of association with other information but eventually there must be a connection to a causal input. In practice, Information is usually carried out by weak stimuli which must be detected by specialized sensory systems and amplified by energy inputs before they can be functional to the organism or system. For example, light is mainly (but not limited to) a causal input to plants. The colored light, which is the most commonly used flower, has been used in many species of plants. Are causal inputs, serving a nutritional function. A plant in the direction of the light source. The colored light, which is the most commonly used flower, has been used in many species of plants. Are causal inputs, serving a nutritional function. A plant in the direction of the light source. The colored light, which is the most commonly used flower, has been used in many species of plants. Are causal inputs, serving a nutritional function.

As representation and complexity

The cognitive scientist and applied mathematician Ronaldo Vigo argues that information is a concept that involves at least two related entities in order to make quantitative sense. These are, any dimensionally defined category of objects S, and any of its subsets R, in essence, is a representation of S, or, in other words, conveys representational (and hence, conceptual) information about S. Vigo The amount of information that R conveys about S in the complexity of S whenever the objects in R are removed from S. Under “Vigo information”, pattern, invariance, complexity, representation, and information-five Universal science-are unified under a novel mathematical framework.

As an influence which leads to a transformation

Information is any type of pattern that influences the formation or transformation of other patterns. [10] [11] In this sense, there is no need for a conscious mind to perceive, much less appreciate, the pattern. Citation needed ] Consider, for example, DNA . The sequence of nucleotides is a pattern that influences the formation and development of an organism without any need for a conscious mind. One might argue that for a human to consciously define a pattern, for example a nucleotide, naturally involves conscious information processing.

Systems theory at times Seems To Refer to information in this sense, does not Necessarily Assuming information Involve Any conscious mind, and patterns circulating (due to feedback) in the system can be called Expired information. In other words, it can be said that information in this sense is something potentially perceived as representation, though not created or presented for that purpose. For example, Gregory Bateson defines “information” as a “difference that makes a difference”. [12]

If, however, the premise of “influence” implies that information has been perceived by a conscious mind and also interpreted by it, the specific context associated with this interpretation may cause the transformation of the information into knowledge . Complex definitions of both “information” and “knowledge” are given in this paper . In this practice, tools and processes are used to assist a worker in performing research and making decisions, including steps such as:

  • Derive value and meaning
  • Referencing metadata if any is available
  • Establishing a relevant context , Often Selecting from Many contexts as possible
  • Deriving new knowledge from the information
  • Making decisions or recommendations from the resulting knowledge.

Stewart (2001) argues that the transformation of information into knowledge is a critical one, lying at the core of value creation and competitive advantage for the modern enterprise.

The Danish Dictionary of Information Terms [13] Argues That information only Provides an answer to a Question Posed. Whether the answer is knowledge depends on the informed person. So a generalized definition of the concept should be: “Information” = An answer to a specific question “.

When Marshall McLuhan speaks of media and their effects on human cultures, he refers to the structure of artifacts that in turn shape our behaviors and mindsets. Also, pheromones are often said to be “information” in this sense.

As a property in physics

Main article: Physical information

Information has a well-defined meaning in physics. In 2003 JD Bekenstein Claimed That a growing trend in Physics Was to define the physical world as being white made up of information Itself (and THUS information is defined in this way) (see Digital Physics ). Examples of this include the phenomenon of quantum entanglement , where particles can interact without reference to their separation or the speed of light. Material information may be transmitted indirectly. This could lead to all attempts at physically observing a particle with an “entangled” relationship to another being slowed down,

The mathematical universe hypothesis suggests a new paradigm, in which virtually everything, from particles and fields, through biological entities and consciousness, to the multiverse itself, could be described by mathematical patterns of information. By the same token, the cosmic can be conceived of as the absence of material information in space (setting aside the virtual particles that pop in and out of existence due to quantum fluctuations, as well as the gravitational field and the dark energy). Nothingness can be understood as well as within which no matter, energy, space, time, or any other type of information could exist, which would be possible if symmetry and structure within the manifold of the multiverse holes).

Another link is shown by the Maxwell’s demon thought experiment. In this experiment, a direct relationship between information and another physical property, entropy , is demonstrated. A consequence is that it is impossible to destroy information without increasing the entropy of a system; In practical terms. Another philosophical outcome is that it can be interchangeable with energy . Toyabe et al. This is an experimental version of this work. [14] Thus, in the study of logic gates , the theoretical lower bound of thermal energy released by an AND gate is Higher Than for the NOT gate (Because information is destroyed in an AND gate and simply converted in a NOT gate ). Physical information is of particular importance in the theory of quantum computers .

In thermodynamics , information is any kind of event that affects the state of a dynamic system that can interpret the information.

The application of information study

The cycle information (Addressed as a whole or in separate components ict) is of great concern to Information Technology , Information Systems , as well as Information Science . These fields deal with Those processes and technical Pertaining to information capture (through sensors ) and generation (through computation , formulation or composition), processing (Including encoding, encryption, compression, packaging), transmission (Including all telecommunication methods), presentation (Including Visualization / display methods), storage (such as magnetic or optical, Including holographic methods ). The information is not available, it can only get scrambled beyond any possibility of retrieval (within information theory , see lossy compression ; in Physics , the black hole information paradox gets solved with the aid of the holographic principle ).

Information Visualization (shortened as InfoVis) depends on the computation and digital representation of data, and assists users in pattern recognition and anomaly detection.

  • Partial map of the Internet, with nodes

  • Galactic (including dark) matter distribution in a cubic section of the Universe

  • Information embedded in an abstract mathematical object with symmetry breaking nucleus

  • Visual representation of a strange attractor, with converted data of its fractal structure

Information Security (shortened as InfoSec) is the ongoing process of exercising due diligence to protect information, and information systems, from unauthorized access, use, disclosure, destruction, modification, disruption or distribution, through algorithms and procedures. Well as incident response and repair.

Information Analysis is the process of inspecting, transforming, and modeling information, by converting raw data into actionable knowledge, in support of the decision-making process.

Information quality (shortened as InfoQ) is the potential of a dataset to achieve a specific (scientific or practical) goal using a given empirical analysis method.

Information Communication represents the convergence of informatics, telecommunication and audio-visual media.

Technologically mediated information

CD-ROM per person (539 MB per person) – to 295 (optimally compressed) exabytes in 1986 – what is the information that the information is about ? compressed) exabytes in 2007. [15] This is the informational equivalent of Almost 61 CD per person in 2007. [16]

[15] The world’s combined technological capacity to receive information through one-way broadcast networks was the informational equivalent of 174 newspapers per person per day in 2007. [15]

The world’s combined effective capacity to exchange information through two-way telecommunication networks Was the informational equivalent of 6 newspapers per person per day in 2007. [16]

As records

Records are specialized forms of information. Essentially, records are information produced consciously or as by-products of business activities or transactions and retained because of their value. Primarily, their value is as evidence of the activities of the organization but they may also be retained for their informational value. Sound records management ensures that the integrity of records is preserved for as long as they are required.

The International Standard on Records Management, ISO 15489, defines records as “information created, received, and maintained as evidence and information by an organization or person, in pursuance of legal obligations or in the transaction of business”. [17] The International Committee on Archives (ICA) Committee on Electronic Records, “a specific piece of recorded information, taken or received in the initiation, conduct or completion of an activity Structure to provide proof or evidence of that activity “. This quote needs a quote ]

Records may be maintained to retain corporate memory of the organization or to meet legal, fiscal or accountability requirements imposed on the organization. Willis expressed the view on the sound management of business records and information delivered “… six key requirements for good corporate governance … transparency; accountability; due process; compliance; . ” [18] [ citation not found ]


Michael Buckland has had “information as information”, “information as knowledge”, and “information as thing”. [19]

Beynon-Davies [20] [21] explains the multi-faceted concept of information in terms of signs and signal-sign systems. Signs Themselves can be regarded in terms of inter-dependent oven levels, layers or branches of semiotics : pragmatics, semantics, syntax, and empirics. These four layers serve to connect the social world on the other hand.

Pragmatics is concerned with the purpose of communication. Pragmatics links the issue of signs with the context within which signs are used. The focus of pragmatics is on the intentions of living agents underlying communicative behavior. In other words, pragmatics link language to action.

Semantics is concerned with the meaning of a message conveyed in a communicative act. Semantics considers the content of communication. Semantics is the study of the meaning of signs – the association between signs and behavior. Semantics can be considered as the link between symbols and their referents or concepts.

Syntax is concerned with the formalism used to represent a message. Syntax as an area studies the form of communication in terms of the logic and grammar of sign systems. Syntax is devoted to the study of the form rather than the content of signs and sign-systems.

Nielsen (2008) discusses the relationship between semiotics and information in relation to dictionaries. The concept of lexicographic information costs is the first step in the development of the concept of lexicographic information.

Communication normally exists within the context of some social situation. The social situation sets the context for the intentions conveyed (pragmatics) and the form in which communication takes place. In a communicative situation, it is understood that a person who is not a citizen of the United States, Syntactics and semantics (syntactics) and semantics. The sender codes the message in the language and sends the message as signals along some communication channel (empirics). The chosen communication channel will have inherent properties which determine outcomes such as the speed with which communication can take place and over what distance.

See also

  • Abstraction
  • Accuracy and precision
  • Anti-information reduces certainty
  • Classified information
  • Complex adaptive system
  • Complex system
  • Cybernetics
  • Data storage device # Recording medium
  • Exformation
  • Free Information Infrastructure
  • Freedom of information
  • Information and communication technologies
  • Information architecture
  • Information broker
  • Information continuum
  • Informatics
  • Information geometry
  • Information inequity
  • Infrastructure Information
  • Information management
  • Information mapping
  • Overload information
  • Information processor
  • Information sensitivity
  • Information superhighway
  • Information Quality (InfoQ)
  • Information warfare
  • InfoSphere
  • Lexicographic information cost
  • Library Science
  • Philosophy of information
  • Propaganda model
  • Quantum information
  • Receiver operating characteristic
  • satisficing


  1. Jump up^ “Information Definition of Information by Merriam-Webster” . . Retrieved 2017-05-01 .
  2. Jump up^ “epistemology – Can there be information without a” knower “?” . Philosophy Stack Exchange. 2017-01-05 . Retrieved 2017-05-01 .
  3. Jump up^ [1] [ dead link ]
  4. Jump up^ A short overview is found in:Luciano Floridi (2010). Information – A Very Short Introduction . Oxford University Press. ISBN  0-19-160954-4 . The objective of this book is to provide an outline of what information is …
  5. Jump up^ Stephen B. Wicker, Saejoon Kim (2003). Fundamentals of Codes, Graphs, and Iterative Decoding . Springer. pp. 1 ff . ISBN  1-4020-7264-3 .
  6. Jump up^ Dusenbery, David B. (1992). Sensory Ecology. WH Freeman, New York. ISBN 0-7167-2333-6.
  7. Jump up^ Vigo, R. (2011). “Representational information: a new general concept and measure of information”. Information Sciences . 181 : 4847-4859. Doi: 10.1016 / j.ins.2011.05.020 .
  8. Jump up^ Vigo, R (2013). “A Structure-Sensitive General Theory of Information (GRIT)”. Information . 4 (1): 1-30. Doi : 10.3390 / info4010001 .
  9. Jump up^ Vigo, R. (2014). Mathematical Principles of Human Conceptual Behavior: The Structural Nature of Conceptual Representation and Processing. Scientific Psychology Series, Routledge, New York and London; ISBN 0415714362.
  10. Jump up^ Shannon, Claude E. (1949). The Mathematical Theory of Communication .
  11. Jump up^ Casagrande, David (1999). “Information as verb: Re-conceptualizing information for cognitive and ecological models” (PDF) . Journal of Ecological Anthropology . 3 (1): 4-13. Doi : 10.5038 / 2162-4593.3.1.1 .
  12. Jump up^ Bateson, Gregory (1972). ^ Form, Substance, and Difference, in Steps to an Ecology of Mind . University of Chicago Press. pp. 448-466.
  13. Jump up^ Bo Krantz Simonsen, “Informationsordbogen – vis begreb” . . Retrieved 2017-05-01 .
  14. Jump up^ Zeeya Merali. “Demonic device converts information to energy: Nature News” . . Retrieved 2017-05-01 .
  15. ^ Jump up to:a b “The World’s Technological Capacity to Store, Communicate, and Compute Information” , Martin Hilbert and Priscila López (2011), Science (journal) , 332 (6025), 60-65; Free access to the article via here:
  16. ^ Jump up to:a b “World_info_capacity_animation” . YouTube . 2011-06-11 . Retrieved 2017-05-01 .
  17. Jump up^ ISO 15489
  18. Jump up^ Willis 2005.
  19. Jump up^ Buckland, Michael K. (June 1991). “Information as thing”. Journal of the American Society for Information Science . 42 (5): 351-360. Doi : 10.1002 / (SICI) 1097-4571 (199106) 42: 5 <351 :: AID-ASI5> 3.0 · CO; 2-3 .
  20. Jump up^ Beynon-Davies P. (2002). Information Systems: an introduction to informatics in Organizations. Palgrave, Basingstoke, UK. ISBN 0-333-96390-3
  21. Jump up^ Beynon-Davies P. (2009). Business Information Systems. Palgrave, Basingstoke. ISBN 978-0-230-20368-6

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