Information system

An information system ( IS ) is an organized system for the collection, organization, storage and communication of information . More specifically, it is the study of complementary networks that people and organizations use to collect, filter, process, create and distribute data. According to whom? ]

“An information system (IS) is a group of components that interact to produce information.” [1]

A computer system is a system composed of computers that processes or interprets information. [2] [3] [4] [5] The term is also used in a computer system.

Information Systems is an academic study of systems with a specific reference to information and the complementary networks of equipment and software to collect, filter, process, create and also distribute data . An emphasis is placed on an information system with a definitive boundary, users, processors, storage, inputs, outputs and the aforementioned communication networks. [6]

Any specific information system to support operations, management and decision-making . [7] [8] An information system is the information and communication technology (ICT) that interacts with this technology in support of business processes. [9]

Some authors make a clear distinction between information systems, computer systems , and business processes . Information systems typically include an ICT, but focus on the use of information technology. Information systems are also different from business processes. Information systems help to control the performance of business processes. [10]

Alter [11] [12] argues for advantages of viewing an information system as a special type of work system . A working system is a system in which humans or machines perform processes and activities. An information system is a work system which is devoted to capturing, transmitting, storing, retrieving, manipulating and displaying information. [13]

As such, information systems inter-relate with data systems on the other hand. An information system is a form of social communication . An information system can be regarded aussi a semi formal language qui supports human decision making and action.

Information systems are the primary focus of study for organizational informatics . [14]


Silver et al. (1995) provided two views on software, hardware, data, people, and procedures. [15] Zheng Provided Reviews another system view of information system qui aussi adds processes and essential system Elements like environment, boundary, purpose, and interactions. The Association for Computing Machinery defines “information systems specialists [as] focus on integrating information technologies and business processes to meet the needs of businesses and other enterprises.” [16]

There are various types of information systems, such as transaction processing systems , decision support systems , knowledge management systems , management information systems , database management systems and information systems. It is also used to calculate the number of simultaneous processes and the number of simultaneous processes.

Information technologies are a very important and malleable resource available to executives. [17] Many companies-have created a position of chief information officer (CIO) That sits on the executive board with the chief executive officer (CEO), chief financial officer (CFO), Chief Operating Officer (COO) and chief technical officer ( CTO). The CTO may also serve as CIO, and vice versa. The chief information security officer (CISO) focuses on information security management.

(IE, an accounting system in the 1400’s using ledger and ink utilities An information system)

  1. Hardware: The term hardware refers to machinery. This category includes the computer itself, which is generally referred to as the central processing unit (CPU), and all of its support equipment. Among the support, equipment are input and output devices, storage devices and communications devices.
  2. Software: The term software refers to computer programs and the manuals (if any) that support them. Computer programs are machine-readable instructions that direct the circuitry within the hardware. Programs are often stored on some input / output medium, often a disk or tape.
  3. Data: Data that are used by programs to produce useful information. Like programs, data are stored in machine-readable form on disk or tape until the computer needs them.
  4. Procedures: Procedures are the procedures that govern the operation of a computer system. “Procedures are to people what is hardware” is a common analogy that is used to illustrate the role of procedures in a system.
  5. People: Everybody needs to be useful. Often the most overlooked element of the system is the people who have the most influence on the success or failure of information systems. This includes “not only the users, but those who maintain the computers, those who maintain the data, and those who support the network of computers.” <Kroenke, DM (2015). MIS Essentials. Pearson Education>
  6. Feedback: it is a component of the IS, that defines that an is not necessarily a function.

Data is the bridge between hardware and people. This means that we can only collect data for the future. At that point, data is now information.

Types of information system

The “classic” view of Information systems found in the textbooks [18] in the 1980s Was a pyramid of systems That reflected the hierarchy of the organization, usually transaction processing systems at the bottom of the pyramid, Followed by management information systems , decision supporting Systems , and ending with executive information systems at the top. Although the pyramid model has been used since the beginning of the last century,

Some examples of such systems are:

  • Data warehouses
  • Enterprise resource planning
  • Enterprise systems
  • Expert systems
  • Search engines
  • Geographic information system
  • Global information system
  • Office automation .

computer (-based) information system is essentially an IS using computer technology to carry out some or all of its planned tasks. The basic components of computer-based information systems are:

  • Hardware – the processor, printer and keyboard, all of which work together to accept, process, show data and information.
  • Software – are the programs that allow the hardware to process the data.
  • Databases – are the gathering of associated files or tables containing related data.
  • Networks – a network of computers to distribute resources.
  • Procedures – are the commands for combining the components above to process information and produce the preferred output.

The first four components (hardware, software, database, and network) Information technology workers can then use these components to create information systems that can be used to monitor, measure and evaluate data. These actions are known as information technology services. [19]

Certain information systems support organizations, organizations and organizations. Recall that each department has its own collection of application programs or information systems. These functional areas information systems (FAIS) are supporting pillars for more general knowledge, business intelligence systems and dashboards citation needed ] . (ISP) IS, IS marketing, and human resources IS. In finance and accounting, managers use IT systems to forecast revenues and business activity, To determine the best sources and uses of funds, and to perform audits to ensure that the organization is fundamentally sound and accurate. Other kinds of organizational information systems are FAIS, processing systems Transaction , enterprise resource planning , office automation system, management information system , decision support system , expert system , executive dashboard, supply chain management system , and electronic commerce system. Dashboards are a special form of IS that support all managers of the organization. They provide rapid access to timely information and direct access to structured information in the form of reports. Experts in the field of human resources management.

Information system development

Information technology in the organization of the organization. A series of methodologies and processes can be used to develop and use an information system. Many developers now use an engineering approach Such As the system development life cycle (SDLC), qui is a systematic procedure of Developing an information system through internships That Occur in sequence. Recent research aims at enabling [20] and measuring [21] the ongoing, collective development of such systems within an organization by the entirety of human actors themselves. An information system can be developed in house (within the organization) or outsourced. This can be accomplished by outsourcing certain components or the entire system. [22] A specific case is the geographical distribution of the development team ( offshoring , global information system ).

A computer-based information system, following a definition of Langefors , [23] is a technologically-

  • Recording, storing, and disseminating linguistic expressions,
  • As well as for drawing conclusions from such expressions.

Geographic information systems , information systems, and disaster information systems are examples of emerging information systems, but they can be broadly considered as spatial information systems. System development is done in stages which include:

  • Problem recognition and specification
  • Information gathering
  • Requirements specification for the new system
  • System design
  • System construction
  • System implementation
  • Review and maintenance. [24]

As an academic discipline

See also: Information science , Information technology , and Information management

The field of study called information systems. Information and communication technologies, applications and programming, electronic commerce, digital media production, data mining, and decision support. Communications and networking deals with telecommunication technologies. Bridges Information systems business and computer science using the theoretical foundations of information and computation to study various business models and related algorithmic processes [25] is building the IT systems [26] [27] Within a computer science discipline. [28] [29] [30] [31] [32] [33] [34] [35] [36] [37] [38] [39] [40] Computer information system (s) ( CIS ) is a Field studying computers and algorithmic processes, including their principles, Their applications, and their impact on society, [41] [42] [43] whereas IS emphasizes functionality over design. [44]

Several scholars IS-have debated the Nature and Foundations of Information Systems qui ict-have roots in other disciplines reference Such As Computer Science , Engineering , Mathematics , Management Science , Cybernetics , and others. [45] [46] [47] [48] Information systems can be defined as a collection of hardware, software, data, people and procedures that work together to produce quality information.

Differentiating IS from related disciplines

Information Systems relationship to Information Technology , Computer Science , Information Science , and Business .

Similar to computer science, other disciplines can be seen as both related and foundation disciplines of IS. The domain of study of social and technological phenomena, which determines the development, use, and effects of information systems in organization and society. [49] Aim, while there may be considerable overlap of the disciplines at the boundaries, the disciplines are still differentiated by the focus, purpose, and orientation of their activities. [50]

In a broad scope, the term Information Systems is a scientific field of study that addresses the range of strategic, managerial, and operational activities involved in the gathering, processing, storing, distributing, and using information and its associated technologies in society and organizations . [50] The term information systems is also used to describe an organizational function that is applied in industry, government agencies, and not-for-profit organizations. [50] Information Systems often refers to the interaction between algorithmic processes and technology. This interaction can occur within or across organizational boundaries. An information system is the technology of the organization and the way in which the organizations interact with the technology and the way in which the technology works with the organization’s business processes. Information systems are distinct from information technology (IT) in that an information system has an information technology component that interacts with the processes’ components.

ICT is a non-organizational use of ICT, such as social networking, computer gaming, mobile personal use, and so on. A different way of differentiating the IS field from its neighbors is to ask, “Which aspects of reality are most meaningful in the IS field and other fields?” [51] This approach, based on philosophy, helps to define not just the focus, purpose and orientation, but also the dignity, destiny and, responsibility of the field among other fields. International Journal of Information Management , 30, 13-20.

Career pathways

Information Systems have a number of different areas of work:

  • IS strategy
  • IS management
  • IS development
  • IS iteration
  • IS organization

There is a wide variety of career paths in the information systems discipline. “Workers with specialized technical knowledge and strong communication skills will have the best prospects. Workers with management skills and an understanding of business practices and principles will have excellent opportunities, as companies are increasingly looking to technology to drive their revenue.” [52]

Information technology is important to the operation of contemporary businesses, it offers many employment opportunities. The information systems that are used in the design and construction of information systems, the people who use these systems, and the people responsible for managing those systems. The demand for traditional IT staff is as important. Many well-paid jobs exist in Information Technology. At the top of the list is the chief information officer (CIO).

The CIO is the executive who is in charge of the IS function. In most organizations, the CIO works with the Chief Executive Officer (CEO), the Chief Financial Officer (CFO), and other senior executives. Therefore, he or she is actively involved in the organization’s strategic planning process.


Information systems research on the interdisciplinary study of the effects of information on the behavior of individuals, groups, and organizations. [53] [54] Hevner et al. (2004) [55] categorized research in IS in two scientific paradigms including behavioral science which is to develop and verify the theories that explain or predict human or organizational behavior and design which extends the boundaries of human and organizational capabilities by creating new and innovative artifacts .

Salvatore March and Gerald Smith [56] proposed a framework for researching different aspects of Information Technology, including outputs of research and research activities. They identified research outputs as follows:

  1. Constructs which form the vocabulary of a domain. They constitute a conceptualization used to describe problems within the domain and to specify their solutions.
  2. model which is a set of propositions or statements expressing relationships among constructs.
  3. method which is a set of steps (an algorithm or guideline) used to perform a task. Methods are based on a set of underlying constructs and a representation of the solution space.
  4. An instantiation is the realization of an artifact in its environment.

Also research activities including:

  1. Build an artifact to perform a specific task.
  2. Evaluate the artifact to determine if any progress has been achieved.
  3. Given an artifact whose performance has been evaluated, it is important to determine why and how the artifact worked or did not work within its environment. Therefore, theorize and justify theories about IT artifacts.

Although information systems as a discipline has been evolving for over 30 years now, [57] the core focus or identity of IS research is still subject to debate among scholars. [58] [59] [60] There are two main aspects of this debate: a narrow view focusing on the IT artifact as the core subject matter of IS research, and a broad view that focuses on the interplay between social and technical aspects of IT is embedded into a dynamic evolving context. [61] A third view [62] calls on IS scholars to pay attention to both the IT artifact and its context.

Since the study of information systems is an applied field, industry practitioners expect information systems to be carried out in practice. However, this is not always the case, as information systems researchers often explore behavioral issues in much more depth than practitioners would expect them to do. This may make information systems research results difficult to understand, and has led to criticism. [63]

In the last ten years, the business trend is represented by the increasing information systems function (ISF). It became a key factor to increase productivity and to support new value creation. [64] To study an information system itself, rather than its effects, information systems models are used, such as EATPUT .

The International Association for Information Systems (AIS), and its Senior Scholars Forum Subcommittee on Journals (23 April 2007), proposed a ‘basket of journals that the AIS deems as’ excellent’, and nominated: Management Information Systems Quarterly (MISQ), Information Systems Research (ISR), the Journal of the Association for Information Systems (JAIS), Journal of Management Information Systems (JMIS), European Journal of Information Systems (EJIS) and Information Systems Journal (ISJ ). [65]

A number of annual information systems are available in various parts of the world. The AIS Directly runs the International Conference on Information Systems (CIHI) and the Americas Conference on Information Systems (AMCIS), while AIS affiliated conferences [66] include the Pacific Asia Conference on Information Systems (PACIS), European Conference on Information Systems (ECIS ), The Conference on Information Systems (MCIS), the International Conference on Information Resources Management (Conf-IRM) and the Wuhan International Conference on E-Business (WHICEB). AIS chapter conferences [67] include Australasian Conference on Information Systems (ACIS), Information Systems Research Conference in Scandinavia (IRIS), Information Systems International Conference (ISICO) Conference of the Italian Chapter of AIS (Itais), Annual Mid-Western AIS Conference (MWAIS) and Annual Conference of the Southern AIS (SAIS). EDSIG, [68] qui is the special interest group is education of the TPIA, [69] Organizes the Conference on Information Systems and Computing Education [70] and the Conference on Information Systems Applied Research [71] qui are Both Held Annually in November . Information Systems Research Conference in Scandinavia (IRIS), Information Systems International Conference (ISICO), Conference of the Italian Chapter of AIS (AIS), Annual Mid-Western AIS Conference (MWAIS) and Annual Conference of the Southern AIS. EDSIG, [68] qui is the special interest group is education of the TPIA, [69] Organizes the Conference on Information Systems and Computing Education [70] and the Conference on Information Systems Applied Research [71] qui are Both Held Annually in November . Information Systems Research Conference in Scandinavia (IRIS), Information Systems International Conference (ISICO), Conference of the Italian Chapter of AIS (AIS), Annual Mid-Western AIS Conference (MWAIS) and Annual Conference of the Southern AIS. EDSIG, [68] qui is the special interest group is education of the TPIA, [69] Organizes the Conference on Information Systems and Computing Education [70] and the Conference on Information Systems Applied Research [71] qui are Both Held Annually in November . Annual Mid-Western AIS Conference (MWAIS) and Annual Conference of the Southern AIS (SAIS). EDSIG, [68] qui is the special interest group is education of the TPIA, [69] Organizes the Conference on Information Systems and Computing Education [70]and the Conference on Information Systems Applied Research [71] qui are Both Held Annually in November . Annual Mid-Western AIS Conference (MWAIS) and Annual Conference of the Southern AIS (SAIS). EDSIG, [68] qui is the special interest group is education of the TPIA, [69] Organizes the Conference on Information Systems and Computing Education [70] and the Conference on Information Systems Applied Research [71] qui are Both Held Annually in November .

The impact on economic models

  • Microeconomic theory model clarification needed ]
  • Transaction cost theory clarification needed ]
  • Agency theory clarification needed ]

See also

Related studies
  • Information management
  • Computer Science
  • Human-computer interaction
  • Bioinformatics
  • Health informatics
  • Business informatics
  • Cheminformatics
  • Disaster informatics
  • Geoinformatics
  • Information science
  • Web Science
  • Management information system (MIS)
  • Formative context
  • Data processing
  • Data architect
  • Data modeling
  • Data processing system
  • Data Reference Model
  • Database
  • metadata
  • Predictive Model Markup Language
  • Semantic translation
  • Three schema approach
  • Enterprise information system
  • Environmental Modeling Center
  • Information processing system


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  55. Jump up^ Hevner; March; Park; Ram (2004). “Design Science in Information Systems Research”. MIS Quarterly . 28 (1): 75-105.
  56. Jump up^ March, S .; Smith, G. (1995). “Design and natural science in Information Technology (IT)”. Decision Support Systems . 15 : 251-266. Doi : 10.1016 / 0167-9236 (94) 00041-2 .
  57. Jump up^ Avgerou, C (2000). “Information systems: what is science?”. Omega . 28 : 567-579. Doi : 10.1016 / s0305-0483 (99) 00072-9 .
  58. Jump up^ Benbasat, I .; Zmud, R. (2003). “The identity crisis within the IS discipline: defining and communicating the discipline’s core properties”. MIS Quarterly . 27 (2): 183-194.
  59. Jump up^ Agarwal, R .; Lucas, H. (2005). “The information systems identity crisis: focusing on high-visibility and high-impact research”. MIS Quarterly . 29(3): 381-398.
  60. Jump up^ El Sawy, O (2003). “The IS core -IX: The 3 faces of IS identity: connection, immersion, and fusion”. Communications of AIS . 12 : 588-598.
  61. Jump up^ Mansour O. Ghazawneh, A. (2009) Research in Information Systems: Implications of the constant changing kind of IT capabilities in the social computing era, in Molka-Danielsen, J. (Ed.):Proceedings of the 32nd Information Systems Research Seminar in Scandinavia, IRIS 32, Inclusive Design, Molde University College, Molde, Norway, August 9-12, 2009.ISBN 978-82-7962-120-1.
  62. Jump up^ Orlikowski, W .; Iacono, C. (2001). “Research commentary: desperately seeking the” IT “in IT research-a call to theorizing about the IT artifact”. Information Systems Research . 12 (2): 121-134. Doi : 10.1287 / isre. .
  63. Jump up^ Kock, N .; Gray, P .; Hoving, R .; Klein, H .; Myers, M .; Rockart, J. (2002). “Information Systems Research Relevance Revisited: Subtle Accomplishment, Unfulfilled Promise, or Serial Hypocrisy?” . Communications of the Association for Information Systems . 8 (23): 330-346.
  64. Jump up^ Casalino, N., Mazzone, G. (2008): Externalization of a banking information systems function. The results of the study are presentedin the following sections of thepaper: Physical-Verlag, Springer, Heidelberg, Germany, pp. 89-96,ISBN 978-3-7908-2009-6,doi:10.1007 / 978-3-7908-2010-2_12
  65. Jump up^ Senior Scholars (2007). “AIS Senior Scholars Forum Subcommittee on Journals: A basket of six (or eight) A * journals in Information Systems”(PDF) . Archived from the original (PDF) on October 3, 2007.
  66. Jump up^ “AIS affiliated conferences” .
  67. Jump up^ AIS chapter conferences
  68. Jump up^ “EDSIG Information Systems Educators” .
  69. Jump up^ “Association of Information Technology Professionals” .
  70. Jump up^ EDSIG, ISCAP and. “ISCAP Conferences – EDSIGCON & CONISAR”.
  71. Jump up^ EDSIG, ISCAP and. “ISCAP Conferences – EDSIGCON & CONISAR”.

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