Information management ( IM ) concerning a cycle of organizational activity: the acquisition of information from one or more sources, the custodianship and the distribution of that information to those who need it, and its ultimate disposition through archiving or deletion.
This cycle of Organizational involvement with information Involves a variety of stakeholders : for example Those Who are responsible for Assuring the quality , accessibility and utility of Acquired information Those Who are responsible for ict safe storage and disposal , and Those Who need it for decision making . Stakeholders may have rights to originate, change, distribute or delete information according to organizational information management policies .
Information management embraces all the generic concepts of management, including: planning , organizing , structuring, processing , controlling , evaluation and reporting of information activities, all of which is needed in order to meet the needs of those with organizational roles or functions that depend on information. These generic concepts allow the information to be presented to the audience or the correct group of people. After individuals are able to put in more value.
Information management is étroitement related to, and overlaps with, the management of data , systems , technology , processes and – Where the availability of information is critical to Organizational Success – strategy . This broad view of the realm of information management contrasts with The Earlier, more traditional view, que la life cycle of managing information is an operational matter That requires specific procedures, Organizational capabilities and That deal with standard information as a product or a Service .
Emergent ideas out of data management
In the 1970s, the management of information Largely Concerned matters Closer to What Would now be called Expired data management : punched cards , magnetic tapes and other record-keeping media , Involving a life cycle of Such formats Requiring origination, distribution, backup, maintenance, and disposal . At this time the huge potential of information technology Began to be Recognized: for example a single chip Storing a whole book , or electronic address moving messages Instantly around the world, remarkable ideas at the time.  With the proliferation of information technology and the extension of information systems in the 1980s and 1990s,  information management on a new form. Progressive businesses Such As British Petroleum Transformed the vocabulary of What Was then ” IT Management “, so that ” systems analysts ” est devenu ” business analysts “, “monopoly supply” est devenu a mixture of ” insourcing ” and ” outsourcing ” and the broad IT function Was Transformed into “lean teams” that Began to allow Some agility in the processes That harness information for business benefit .  The scope of senior management interest in information at British Petroleum extended from the Creation of value through Improved business processes , based upon the effective management of information, Permitting the implementation of Appropriate Information Systems (or ” apps “) That Were operated it IT infrastructure that was outsourced .  In this way, information management was no longer a simple job that could be performed by anyone who had nothing else to do, it became highly strategic and a matter for senior management attention. An understanding of the technologies involved, An ability to manage information systems projects and business changes well, and a willingness to align technology and business strategies all become necessary. 
Positioning information management in the bigger picture
In the transitional period leading up to the strategic view of information management, Venkatraman (a strong advocate of this process of transition and transformation,  proffered a simple arrangement of Ideas that succinctly Brought data management , information management and knowledge management together (see The figure)) argued that:
- Data that is maintained in IT infrastructure has to be interpreted in order to render information.
- The information in our information systems has to be understood in order to emerge as knowledge.
- Knowledge enables managers to take effective decisions .
- Effective decisions-have to lead to Appropriate action .
- Appropriate actions are expected to deliver meaningful results .
This Is Often Referred to as the dikar model: Data, Information, Knowledge, Action and Result,  it Gives a strong clue as to the layers Involved in aligning technology and Organizational strategies, and it can be seen as a pivotal moment in Changing attitudes to information management. The recognition that information management is an investment must mean that it is important for all to succeed. 
Some theoretical background
Behavioral and organizational theories
It is Commonly Believed that good information management is crucial to the smooth working of organizations, and there is no ALTHOUGH Commonly accepted theory of management information per se , behavioral and Organizational theories help. Following the behavioral science theory of management, Mainly Developed at Carnegie Mellon University and prominently supported by March and Simon  MOST of what goes on in modern organisms is Actually information handling and decision making. The situational complexity of a person’s life, his or her personality, Gold Lack of requisite quality in the Information That Is at hand – all of qui est Exacerbated by the rapid advance of technology and the new kinds of system That It Enables, Especially as the social web Emerges as a phenomenon That business can not ignore. And yet, well before There Was Any general recognition of the importance of information management in organizations, March and Simon  argued That organisms-have to be regarded as cooperative systems , with a high level of information processing and a vast need for decision making At various levels. Instead of using the model of the ” economic man “, as advocated in classical theory  they proposed ”
In addition to the organizational factors mentioned by March and Simon, there are other issues that stem from economic and environmental dynamics. There is a lot of money to be spent on making a decision, including the time and effort required.  The transaction cost associated with information processes can be high. In particular, established organizational rules and procedures can prevent the taking of the most appropriate decision, leading to sub-optimum outcomes.   This is an issue that has been presented as a major problem with bureaucratic organizations that lose the economies of strategic change because of entrenched attitudes. 
Strategic Information Management
Selon the Carnegie Mellon School year organization’s Ability to process information is at the core of organizational and managerial competency , and an organization’s strategies must be designed to Improve information processing capability  and have information systems That Provide That capability est devenu formalised and automated, Competencies were severely tested at many levels.  It was recognized that the organizations needed to be able to learn and adapt in ways that were never evident before  and academics began to organize and publish definitive works about the strategic management of information, and information systems.   Concurrently, the ideas of business process management  and knowledge management  ALTHOUGH much of the optimistic early thinking about business process redesign HAS-been since discredited in the information management literature.  In the strategic studies field, it is considered to be the highest priority for the understanding of the information environment, as it relates to the collection, process, dissemination, or act on information. This environment consists of three interrelated dimensions which continuously interact with individuals, organizations, and systems. These dimensions are the physical, informational, and cognitive.  It is considered to be the highest priority in the understanding of the information environment, as it relates to the collection, process, dissemination and dissemination of information. This environment consists of three interrelated dimensions which continuously interact with individuals, organizations, and systems. These dimensions are the physical, informational, and cognitive.  It is considered to be the highest priority in the understanding of the information environment, as it relates to the collection, process, dissemination and dissemination of information. This environment consists of three interrelated dimensions which continuously interact with individuals, organizations, and systems. These dimensions are the physical, informational, and cognitive. 
Aligning technology and business strategy with information management
The DIKAR model (see above). He also worked with others to understand how technology and business strategies could be appropriately aligned in order to identify specific capabilities that are needed.  This work was paralleled by other writers in the world of consulting,  practice  and academia. 
A contemporary portfolio model for information
Bytheway has collected and organized basic tools and techniques for information management in a single volume.  At the heart of his view of information management is a portfolio model that takes account of the need to organize a-structured information (see the figure).
Such an information portfolio as this shows how information can be gathered and usedfully organized, in four courses:
Stage 1 : Taking advantage of public information : recognizes and adopts well-structured external schemes of reference data, such as post codes, weather data, GPS positioning data and travel timetables, exemplified in the personal computing press. 
Stage 2 : Tagging the noise on the world wide web : Use Existing schemes Such As post codes and GPS data or by Adding Typically more “tags”, or construct a formal ontology That Provides structure. Shirky provides an overview of these two approaches. 
Stage 3 : Sifting and analysis: in the wider world the generalized ontologies that are under development extend to the hundreds of entities and hundreds of relations between them and provide the means of elicit meaning from large volumes of data. Structured data in databases works best when that structure reflects a higher-level information model – an ontology, or an entity-relationship model . 
Stage 4 : Structuring and archiving: with the large volume of data available from sources such as the social web and from the miniature telemetry systems used in personal health management . Map-reduce methods, originating from functional programming , are a more recent way of eliciting information from large archival datasets that is becoming interesting to regular businesses that have advanced methods to multi-processor resources. 
Competencies to manage information well
The Information Management Body of Knowledge Was Made available on the world wide web in 2004  and sets out to show que la Competencies required management to real benefits derived from an investment in information are complex and multi-layered. The framework for understanding competence and understanding of the “knowledge” areas and four “process” areas:
- The information management knowledge areas
The IMBOK is based on the argument that there are six areas of required management competency, two of which are “business process management” and “business information management”. 
- Information technology : The pace of change of technology and the pressure to constantly acquire the newest technological products can undermine the stability of the infrastructurethat supports systems, and the optimized business processes and delivers benefits. It is necessary to manage the ” supply side ” and recognizes that technology is, increasingly, becoming a commodity . 
- Information system : While Historically Information Systems Were Developed in-house , over the years It has to be ACQUIRE Become MOST of the software systems That year organization needs from the software package industry. HOWEVER, there is still the potential for competitive advantage from the implementation of new systems Ideas that deliver to the strategic intentions of organizations. 
- Business processes and business information : Information systems are applied to business processes in order to improve them, and they become useful as business information . Business process management is still a relatively new concept because it is not universally adopted, and it has been difficult in many cases; Business information management is even more of a challenge.  
- Business Benefit : What are the benefits that we are seeking? It is necessary not only to be brutally honest about what can be achieved, but also to ensure the active management and assessment of benefit delivery. Since the emergence and popularization of the Balanced scorecard  there has been a great interest in business performance management but not much serious effort has been made to relate business performance to the benefits of information technology investments and the introduction of new information systems until the Turn of the millennium . 
- Business strategy : ALTHOUGH long way from the workaday issues of managing information in organizations, strategy in MOST organizations simply HAS to be Informed by information technology and information systems Opportunities, whether to address poor performance or to Improve differentiation and compétitivité . Strategic analysis tools Such As the value chain and critical success factor analysis are Directly dependent care is proper to the Information That Is (gold Could Be) managed 
- The information management processes
Even with full capability and competency within the six knowledge areas, it is argued that things can still go wrong. The problem lies in the migration of ideas and information management from one area of competency to another. Summarizing what Bytheway explains in some detail: 
- Projects : Information technology is without value until it is engineered into information systems that meet the needs of the business by means of good project management . 
- Business change : The best information systems succeed in delivering benefits through the achievement of change within the business systems, but people do not appreciate change that makes them new. Contrary to common expectations, there is some evidence that the public sector has succeeded with information technology induced business change . 
- Business Operations : With new systems in place, with business processes and business information Improved, and with staff finally ready and reliable to work with new processes, Then The business can get to work, Even When new systems extend far beyond the boundaries of a single business. 
- Performance management : Investments are no follow Solely about financial results, financial success must be balanced with internal efficiency, customer satisfaction , and with Organizational learning and development. 
There are many ways to see a business, and the information management is only one way. It is important to remember that other areas of business activity will also contribute to strategy – it is not only good business management. Corporate governance , human resource management , product development and marketing, will be a key source of strategic success. On the other hand, corporate governance, human resource management, product development and marketing are all dependent on effective information management, and so in the final analysis our competency to manage information well,
Operationalising Information Management
Managing requisite change
Organizations are often confronted with many information management challenges and issues at the operational level , especially when organizational change is engendered. The novelty of new systems architecture and a lack of experience with new styles of information management requires a level of organizational change management that is notoriously difficult to deliver. As a result of a general organizational reluctance to change, to enable new forms of information management, there might be (for example): a shortfall in the required resources, a failure to acknowledge new classes of information and the new procedures that use them, A lack of support from senior management leading to a loss of strategic vision, And even political manoeuvring that undermines the operation of the whole organization.  However, the implementation of new forms of information management should normally lead to operational benefits.
The early work of Galbraith
Jay Galbraith , Jay Galbraith , Jay Galbraith , Jay Galbraith, and others. 
- Developing, implementing, and monitoring all aspects of the “environment” of an organization.
- Creation of slack resources so as to reduce the load on the overall hierarchy of resources and to reduce information processing relating to overload.
- Creation of self-contained tasks with defined boundaries and That can accomplish achieve proper closure, and with all the resources at hand required to perform the task.
- Recognition of lateral relationships That cut across functional units, so as to move decision power to the process INSTEAD of fragmenting it dans le hierarchy .
- Investment in vertical information systems That way information flow for a specific task (or set of tasks) in according to the applied business logic .
The matrix organization
The ” matrix organization ” of the hierarchy . This brings together the vertical (hierarchical) view of an organization and the horizontal (product or project). The creation of a matrix organization is a management response to a persistent fluidity of external demand, avoiding multifarious and spurious responses to episodic demands that tend to be dealt with individually.
- Information Management Body of Knowledge
- Records management
- Knowledge management
- Information technology
- Information system
- Project management
- Business process
- Balanced scorecard
- Strategic management
- Data management
- Content management
- Master of Information Management
- Information Resources Management Journal
- Journal of Global Information Management
- Jump up^ Evans, C., 1979.The Mighty Micro, London: Victor Gollancz.
- Jump up^ Venkatraman, N., 1994. IT-enabled business transformation: from automation to business scope redefinition. Sloan Management Review, 35 (2), pp.73-87
- ^ Jump up to:a b Cross, J. & Earl, M., 1997. Transformation of the IT function at British Petroleum. MIS Quarterly , 21 (4), p. 403
- ^ Jump up to:a b c d e Ward, J. & Peppard, J., 2002. Strategic Planning for Information Systems (3rd Edition), Chichester: Wiley
- Jump up^ Venkatraman, N., 1994. IT-enabled business transformation: from automation to business scope redefinition. Sloan Management Review, 35 (2), pp.73-87.
- Jump up^ Venkatraman, N., 1996. Managing IT resources as a value center,IS Executive Seminar Series, Cranfield School of Management
- ^ Jump up to:a b Bytheway, A., 2015. Investing in Information: the Information Management Body of Knowledge , Geneva: Springer
- ^ Jump up to:a b March, JG & Simon, HA, 1958. Organizations , Wiley
- Jump up^ see Opp, K.-D., 1985. Sociology and economic man. Zeitschrift für die gesamte Staatswissenschaft / Journal of Institutional and Theoretical Economics, pp.213-243
- Jump up^ Winter, SG, 2000. The satisficing principle in capability learning. Strategic Management Journal, 21 (10-11), pp.981-996
- Jump up^ Hedberg, Bo (1981), “How organizations learn and unlearn”, in: Nyström, PC & Starbuck, WH,Handbook of Organizational Design, Oxford University Press
- Jump up^ Mackenzie KD (1978),Organizational Structures, AHM Publishing Corporation
- Jump up^ Mullins, LJ (1993),Management and Organizational Behaviors, 3rd ed., Pitman Publishing
- Jump up^ Wigand, Rolf T., Picot, Arnold and Reichwald, Ralf (1997),Information, Organization and Management: Expanding Markets and Corporate Boundaries, Wiley & Sons
- Jump up^ Cyert, RM & March, JG, 1959. A behavioural theory of organizational objectives. Modern Organization Theory, Wiley, New York, pp.76-90
- Jump up^ Morton, MSS, 1991.The corporation of the 1990s: Information technology and organizational transformation, Oxford University Press
- Jump up^ Senge, PM, 1990.The fifth discipline, Doubleday
- Jump up^ Earl, MJ, 1989.Management Strategies for Information Technology, Upper Saddle River, NJ, USA: Prentice-Hall, Inc.
- Jump up^ Hammer, M. & Champy, J., 2009.Reengineering the Corporation: Manifesto for Business Revolution, A, Zondervan
- Jump up^ Nonaka, I. & Takeuchi, H. 1995.The Knowledge Creating company: how Japanese companies create the dynamics of innovation, New York, NY, USA: Oxford University Press
- Jump up^ Belmiro, T., Gardiner, P. & Simmons, J., 1997. Business process re-engineering-A discredited vocabulary? International Journal of Information Management, 17 (1), pp.21-33
- Jump up^ Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, US Army (2012). Information Operations. Joint Publication 3-13. Joint Doctrine Support Division, 116 Lake View Parkway, Suffolk, VA., P. 18.
- Jump up^ Henderson, JC & Venkatraman, N., 1993. Strategic alignment: leveraging information technology for transforming organizations. IBM Systems Journal, 32 (1), pp.4-16
- Jump up^ Zachman, JA (1987). A framework for information systems architecture. IBM Systems Journal, 26 (3), 590-616
- Jump up^ Cross, J., 1995. IT outsourcing: British Petroleum’s competitive approach. Harvard Business Review, 73 (3), p.94
- ^ Jump up to:a b Ward, J. & Daniel, E., 2005. Benefits Management: Delivering Value from IS and IT Investments , Chichester: Wiley
- Jump up^ Ashbrook, D. & Starner, T., 2003. Using GPS to learn significant locations and predict movement across multiple users. Personal and Ubiquitous Computing, 7 (5), pp.275-286
- Jump up^ Shirky, C., 2005. Shirky: Ontology is Overrated – Categories, Links, and Tags. Clay Shirky’s Writings About the Internet. Available at:http://shirky.com/writings/ontology_overrated.html[Accessed May 23, 2013]
- Jump up^ Noy, NF, McGuinness, DL & others, 2001. Ontology development 101: A guide to creating your first ontology,Stanford KSL-01-05 and Stanford medical informatics technical report SMI-2001-0880
- Jump up^ Chu, C. et al., 2007. Map-reduce for machine learning on multicore. Advances in neural information processing systems, 19, p.281
- Jump up^ IMBOK, 2004.The Information Management Body of Knowledge. Available at:http://www.imbok.org[Accessed May 12, 2015]
- Jump up^ Bytheway, A., 2015.Investing in Information: The Information Management Body of Knowledge, Geneva: Springer, p29
- Jump up^ Carr, N., 2003. IT does not matter. InWringing real value from IT. HBR OnPoint, pp. 3-10
- Jump up^ Belmiro, TR et al., 2000. Are BPR practitioners really addressing business processes? International Journal of Operations & Production Management, 20 (10), pp.1183-1203
- Jump up^ Davenport, TH & Short, J., 2003. Information technology and business process redesign. Operations management: critical perspectives on business and management, 1, p.97
- ^ Jump up to:a b Kaplan, R. & Norton, D., 1996. The Balanced Scorecard – Translating Stragegy into Action , Boston MA: Harvard University Press
- Jump up^ Bytheway, A., 2015.Investing in Information: The Information Management Body of Knowledge, Geneva: Springer, p31
- Jump up^ Schwalbe, K., 2013.Information technology project management, Cengage Learning
- Jump up^ Scholl, HJ, 2005. E-government-induced business process change (BPC): An empirical study of current practices. International Journal of Electronic Government Research(IJEGR), 1 (2), pp.27-49
- Jump up^ Saeed, KA, Malhotra, MK & Grover, V., 2005. Examining the Impact of Interorganizational Systems on Efficiency and Sourcing Leverage in Buyer-Supplier Dyads. Decision Sciences, 36 (3), pp.365-396
- Jump up^ Knights, D. & Murray, F., 1994.Managers Divided, Chichester: John Wiley
- Jump up^ Galbraith, JR, 1977.Organization design, Addison Wesley