Information and Computer Science

Information and Computer Science (ICS) or Computer and Information Science (CIS) (plural forms, ie Science , May aussi be used) is a field That emphasizes Both computing and informatics , Upholding the strong combination entre les fields of information science and computer science And treating computers as a tool rather than a field.

Information science is one with a long history , unlike the – relatively – very young field of computer science, and it is a concern concerned with gathering, storing, disseminating, sharing and protecting any and all forms of information. It is a broad field, covering a myriad of different areas but is often referenced alongside computer science because of the incredibly useful nature of computers and computer programs in helping those studying and doing research in the field . And in spotting patterns too broad for a human to intuitively piercing. While information science is sometimes confused with information theory the two have vastly different subject matter.

Computer science , on the other hand, is more focused on the use of computers. Of information during the different states described above. It has strong foundations in the field of mathematics, as the very first acknowledged practitioners of the field were renowned mathematicians such as Alan Turing .

Information Science and computing began to converge in the 1950s and 1960s, as information scientists began to realize the many ways computers would improve information storage and retrieval.

Terminology

Due to the distinction between computers and computing, some research groups refer to “computing” or “Datalogy”. The French refer to computer science as computer . The term “information and communications technology”, or ICT, refers to how humans communicate with machines and computers, making a distinction from “information and computer science”, which is how computers use and gain information.

Informatics is also distinct from “computer science,” which encompasses the study of low-level computing issues.

Education

Universities may confer degrees of ICS and CIS, not to be confused with a more specific Bachelor of Computer Science or respective graduate Computer Science degrees.

The QS World University Rankings is one of the most widely recognized and distinguished university comparisons. They ranked the top 10 universities for Computer Science and Information Systems in 2015.

They are:

  • Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT)
  • Stanford University
  • University of Oxford
  • Carnegie Mellon University
  • Harvard University
  • University of California, Berkeley (UCB)
  • University of Cambridge
  • The Hong Kong University of Science and Technology
  • ETH Zurich – Swiss Federal Institute of Technology
  • Princeton University [2]

A Computer Information Science degree provides students both network and computing knowledge which is needed to design, develop, and assist information systems which helps to solve business problems and to support business and support business operations and decision making at a managerial level also. [3]

Areas of information and computer science

Due to the nature of this field, many topics are also shared with computer science and information systems .

The discipline of Information and Computer Science spans a vast ranks of areas from basic theory Computer Science (Algorithms and Computational Logic) to in depth analysis of data manipulation and use Within technology. [4]

Programming theory

The process of taking a given algorithm and encoding it into a language that can be understood and executed by a computer. There are many different types of programming languages, but they all have the same goal: to turn algorithms into machine code. [5]

Popular programming languages ​​used within the academic study of CIS include, but are not limited to;

  • Java
  • Python
  • C #
  • C ++
  • Perl
  • Ruby
  • Pascal
  • Swift
  • Visual Basic

Information and information systems

The academic study of software and hardware systems that large quantities and data can be used. [6] This is where the field is unique from the standard study of Computer Science. The area of ​​information systems focuses on the manipulation and distribution of data.

Computer systems and organizations

The process of analyzing computer architecture and various logic circuits. This involves low level computing. This is an in-depth look at the hardware processing of a computational system, involving the basic structure of a computer and designing such systems. [7] This can also involve evaluating complex circuit diagrams, and being able to construct these to solve a main problem.

The main purpose behind this area of ​​study is to achieve an understanding of how computers function on a basic level, often through tracing machine operations.

Machines, languages ​​and computation

This is the study of fundamental computer algorithms, which are the basis for computer programs. Without algorithms, there would be no computer programs. [8] This also involves the process of looking into various mathematical functions behind computational algorithms, basic theory and functional (low level) programming.

In an academic setting this area would introduce the fundamental mathematical theorems and functions behind theoretical computer science which are the building blocks for other areas in the field. Complex topics such as; Proofs, algebraic functions and sets will be introduced during studies of CIS.

Developments

Information and Computer Science is a field that is rapidly developing with job prospects for students being extremely promising with 75.7% of graduates gaining employment. [9] Also the IT industry employees one in twenty of the workforce with it Predicted pour augmenter Nearly five times faster than the average of the UK and entre 2012 and 2017 more than half a million people will be needed dans le industry and the fact That nine out of ten tech firms are Suffering from candidate Shortages qui est Having a negative impact on Their companies as it delays the development of new products being white created [10] and it’s Predicted in the US That in the next decade there will be more than one Million jobs in the technology sector. [11] Because of this programming is now being taught at an early age. For example, children in England will now be exposed to computer programming at the age of 5 due to a national curriculum. [12]

Employment

Due to the wide variety of jobs that involve computing and information science related tasks it is difficult to provide a comprehensive list of possible jobs in this area, but some of the key areas are artificial intelligence, software engineering and computer networking / communication. Work in this area also tends to require sufficient understanding of mathematics and science. [13] Moreover, jobs that have a CIS degree can lead to, include- systems analyst, network administrator, system architect, information systems developer, web programmer, or software developer. [14]

The earning potential for CIS graduates is quite promising. A 2013 survey from the National Association of Colleges and Employers (NACE) found that the average starting salary for graduates was $ 59,977, up 4.3% from the previous year. ($ 54,234), education ($ 40,480), and Math and Science ($ 42,724). [15] In addition , Payscale ranked 129 college degrees based on their graduates earning potential with engineering, math, science and technology fields dominating the ranking. With eight computer related degrees appearing among the top 30. With the lowest starting salary for these jobs being $ 49,900. [16] A Rasmussen College article describes various jobs CIS graduates may obtain applications to develop a median income of $ 98,260. [17]

According to the National Careers Service an Information Scientist can expect to earn £ 24,000 + per year as a starting salary. [18]

References

  1. Jump up^ http://www.anderson.ucla.edu/faculty/jason.frand/teacher/technologies/palace/datamining.htm
  2. Jump up^ “QS World University Rankings by Subject 2015 – Computer Science & Information Systems” .
  3. Jump up^ “The Best Online Bachelor in Computer Information Systems Degree Programs” . Best Schools . Retrieved 2015-11-19 .
  4. Jump up^ “What is Computer Science?” .
  5. Jump up^ “What Is Programming?” – Problem Solving with Algorithms and Data Structures . Interactivepython.org . Retrieved 2015-11-19 .
  6. Jump up^ “information system” . Encyclopædia Britannica . Retrieved 2015-11-19 .
  7. Jump up^ “What is Computer Architecture? – Definition from Techopedia” . Techopedia.com . Retrieved 2015-11-19 .
  8. Jump up^ “What is a computer algorithm?” . HowStuffWorks . Retrieved 2015-11-19 .
  9. Jump up^ “What can I do with my Degree?” . Prospects . Retrieved 2015-11-19 .
  10. Jump up^ “Computer science graduates: why do they top unemployment tables?” . The Guardian . Retrieved 2015-11-19 .
  11. Jump up^ “A Push to Boost Computer Science Learning Even at an Early Age” . NPR . Retrieved 2015-11-19 .
  12. Jump up^ “Teaching our children to code: a quiet revolution” . The Telegraph . Retrieved 2015-11-19 .
  13. Jump up^ “What is Computer Science” . Retrieved 2015-11-19 .
  14. Jump up^ “The Best Online Bachelor in Computer Information Systems Degree Program” . The Best Schools . Retrieved 2015-11-19 .
  15. Jump up^ “Starting Salaries for New College Graduates” (PDF) . Retrieved 2015-11-26 .
  16. Jump up^ “Computer science major ranks No. 8 for salary potential” . Network World . Retrieved 2015-11-19 .
  17. Jump up^ “8 Entry-Level Computer Science Jobs that are ACTUALLY Hiring!” . Www.rasmussen.edu . Retrieved 2017-02-28 .
  18. Jump up^ “Job Titles – Information Scientist” . Retrieved 2015-12-10 .

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