Informatics

Informatics is a branch of information engineering . It involves the practice of information processing and the engineering of information systems , and as an academic field it is an applied form of information science . The field considers the interaction between humans and information alongside the construction of interfaces, organizations, technologies and systems. As such, the field of informatics has great breadth and encompasses many subspecialties, including disciplines of computer science , information systems , information technology and statistics . Since the advent of computers, Individuals and organizations increasingly process information digitally. This paper presents the results of the study of the social impact of information technologies.

Etymology

In 1956 the German computer scientist Karl Steinbuch coined the word Informatik by publishing a paper called Expired Informatik: Automatische Informationsverarbeitung ( “Informatics: Automatic Information Processing”). [1] The English term Informatics is understood to mean the same as computer science . The German word Informatik is usually translated to English as computer science .

The French term computer Was coined in 1962 by Philippe Dreyfus [2] together with various translations-informatics (English), aussi Proposed indépendamment Simultaneously and by Walter F. Bauer and Associates Who co-founded Informatics Inc. , and Informatica (Italian, Spanish , Romanian, Portuguese, Dutch), referring to the application of computers to store and process information.

The term was coined as a combination of “information” and “automatic” to describe the science of automating information interactions. The morphology- informat- ion + – ics -uses “, [3] and so, linguistically, the meaning ” the accepted form for names of sciences, as conics, linguistics, optics, or matters of practice, as economics, politics, tactics ” Extends easily to encompass both the science of information and the practice of information processing.

History

The culture of library science promotes policies and procedures for managing information that fosters the relationship between library science and the development of information science to provide benefits for health informatics development; Which is traced to the 1950s with the beginning of computer use in healthcare (Nelson & Staggers p.4). Early practitioners in the field of education and training in the early 1960s and early 1970s. According to Imhoff et al., 2001, healthcare informatics is not only the application of computer technology to problems in healthcare but covers all aspects Of generation, handling, Communication, storage, retrieval, management, analysis, discovery, and synthesis of data and knowledge in the entire scope of healthcare. In addition, they have the ability to provide information and knowledge to the public. To study general principles of processing data and knowledge in medicine and healthcare.

Reference Imhoff, M., Webb. A, & Goldschmidt, A., (2001). Health Informatics. Intensive Care Med, 27: 179-186. doi: 10.1007 // s001340000747.

Nelson, R. & Staggers, N. Health Informatics: An Interprofessional Approach. St. Louis: Mosby, 2013. Print. (P.4,7)

This new term was adopted across Western Europe, and, except in English, developed a meaning roughly translated by the English ‘computer science’, or ‘computing science’. Mikhailov advocated the Russian term informatika(1966), and the English informatics (1967), as names for the theory of scientific information , and argued for a broader meaning ) And of the interaction of technology and human organizational structures.

Informatics is the discipline of science which investigates the structure and properties (not specific content) of scientific information, as well as the regularities of scientific information activity, its theory, history, methodology and organization. [4]

Usage has changed this definition in three ways. First, the restriction to scientific information is removed, as in business informatics or legal informatics. Second, since most information is now digitally stored, computation is now central to informatics. Third, the representation, processing and communication of information are added as objects of investigation, since they have been recognized as fundamental to any scientific account of information. Taking information as the central focus of study distinguishes informatics from computer science . Informatics includes the study of biological and social mechanisms of information processing and computer science. Similarly, in the study of representation and communication, Informatics is indifferent to the substrate that carries information. For example, it encompasses the study of communication using gesture, speech and language, as well as digital communications and networking.

In the English-speaking world the term informatics was first widely used in the complementary medical informatics , taken to include “the cognitive, information processing, and communication of medical practice, education and research, tasks “. [5] Many such compounds are now in use; They can be viewed as different areas of ” applied informatics “. Indeed, “In the US, however, informatics is linked with applied computing, or computing in the context of another domain.” [6]

Informatics encompasses the study of systems that represent , process , and communicate information. HOWEVER, the theory of computation in the specific field of theoretical computer science , qui Evolved from Alan Turing , studies the notion of a complex system Regardless of whether or not information Actually exists. Since both fields process information, there is some disagreement among scientists as to field hierarchy;

A broad interpretation of informatics , as “the study of the structure, algorithms, behavior, and interactions of natural and artificial computational systems,” was introduced by the University of Edinburgh in 1994 when it formed the grouping that is now its School of Informatics . This meaning is now (2006) increasingly used in the United Kingdom . [7]

The 2008 Research Assessment Exercise , of the UK Funding Councils, includes a new, Computer Science and Informatics, unit of assessment (UoA) [8] Whose is scope Described as follows:

The UoA includes the study of methods for acquiring, storing, processing, communicating and reasoning about information, and the role of interactivity in natural and artificial systems, through the implementation, organization and use of computer hardware, software and other resources. The subjects are characterized by the rigorous application of analysis, experimentation and design.

Academic schools and departments

Academic research in the informatics area can be found in a number of disciplines Such As computer science , information technology , Information and Computer Science , information system , business information managementand health informatics .

In France, the first degree level qualifications in Informatics (computer science) appeared in the mid-1960s. Citation needed ]

In English-speaking countries, the first example of a degree qualification in Informatics occurred in 1982 when Plymouth Polytechnic (now the University of Plymouth ) offered a four-year BSc (Honors) degree in Computing and Informatics 35 students. The race still runs today [9] making it the longest available qualification in the subject.

At the Indiana University School of Informatics ( Bloomington , Indianapolis and Southeast ), information is defined as “the art, science and human dimensions of information technology” and “the study, application, and social consequences of technology.” It is also defined in Informatics 101, Introduction to Informatics as “the application of information technology to the arts, sciences, and professions.” These definitions are widely accepted in the United States , and differ from British usage in omitting the study of natural computation.

Texas Woman’s University places its informatics degrees in its department of Mathematics and Computer Science within the College of Arts and Sciences, although it offers interdisciplinary Health Informatics degrees. [10]Informatics is presented in a generalist framework, as evidenced by their definition of informatics (“TWU is also known for Its nursing and health informatics programs.

At the University of California, Irvine Department of Informatics , Information Technology is defined as “the interdisciplinary study of the design, application and use of information technology. A technical matter, a goal to focus on the relationship between the technology and its use in real-world settings. used. ”

At the University of Michigan, Ann Arbor Informatics interdisciplinary major , informatics is defined as “the study of information and the ways information is used by and affects Human Beings and social systems. The Staff Involves coursework from the College of Literature, Science and the Arts , Where the Informatics major is housed, as well as the School of Information and the College of Engineering. Grounding in contemporary computer programming, mathematics, and statistics, combined with study of the ethical and social science aspects of complex information systems.Experts in the field help design new information technology tools for specific scientific, business, and cultural needs “Michigan offers four curricular tracks dans le informatics degree to Provide students with expertise Increased These oven track topics include:.. [11]

  • Internet Informatics : An applied track in which students with Internet-based solutions and Internet-based information systems. This track will replace Computational Informatics in Fall 2013. [12]
  • Data Mining and Information Analysis: Integrates the collection, analysis, and visualization of complex data and its critical role in research, business and government to provide students with practical skills and a theoretical basis for approaching challenging data analysis problems.
  • Life Science Informatics : Examines artificial information systems, which has helped scientists make great progress in identifying core components of organisms and ecosystems.
  • Social Computing: Advances in computing and social interaction and development systems that act as introducers, recommenders, coordinators, and record-keepers. Students, in this track, craft, evaluate, and refine social software applications for engaging technology in unique social contexts. This track will be phased out in Fall 2013 in the new bachelor of science in information. The School of Information has a Master’s program, a doctorate program, and a professional master’s program in conjunction with the School of Public Health. The BS in Information at the University of Michigan will be the first curriculum of its kind in the United States, with the first graduating class to emerge in 2015. Students will be able to apply for this 2014 Fall semester ; The new degree will be a stem off of the most popular Social Computing track in the current Informatics interdisciplinary major in LSA. Applications will be open to upper-classmen, juniors and seniors, along with a variety of information classes available for first and second year students in gauge interest and value in the specific sector of study. The degree was approved by the University on June 11, 2012. [13] Along with a new degree in the School of Information, there is also a chapter of an Informatics Professional Fraternity,

At the University of Washington, Seattle Informatics Undergraduate Program , Informatics is an undergraduate program offered by the Information School . Bachelor of Science in Informatics is described as “a program that focuses on computer systems from a user-centered perspective and studies the structure, behavior and interactions of natural and artificial systems. , Human computer interaction, information system analysis and design, telecommunications structure and information architecture and management. ” Washington offers three options as well as a custom track. [15]

  • Data Science Option: Data Science is an emerging interdisciplinary field that works to extract knowledge or insight from data. It combines fields such as information science, computer science, statistics, design, and social science.
  • Human-Computer Interaction: The iSchool’s work in human-computer interaction (HCI) The Informatics HCI option allows you to blend your technical skills and expertise with a broader perspective on how to design and develop work impacts users. Routes explores the design, construction, and evaluation of interactive technologies for use by individuals, groups, and organizations, and the social implications of these systems. This work encompasses user interfaces, accessibility concerns, new design techniques and methods for interactive systems and collaboration. Coursework also examines the values ​​implicit in the design and development of technology.
  • Information Architecture: Information architecture (IA) is a crucial component in the development of web sites, software, intranets, and online communities. Architects structure the underlying information and its presentation in a logical and intuitive way so that people can put information to use. As an Informatics major with an IA option, one will master the skills needed to organize and label information for improved navigation and search. One will build frameworks to effectively collect, store and deliver information. One will also learn to design the databases and XML storehouses that drive complex and interactive websites, including the navigation, content layout, personalization, and transactional features of the site.
  • Information Assurance and Cybersecurity: Information Assurance and Cybersecurity (IAC) is the practice of creating and managing safe and secure systems. It is crucial for public and private organizations, large and small. In the IAC option, one will be equipped with the knowledge to create, deploy, use and manage systems that preserve individual and organizational privacy and security. This tri-campus concentration raises the strengths of the Information School, the Computing and Software Systems program at UW Bothell, and the Institute of Technology at UW Tacoma. After a course in the technical, policy, and management foundations of IAC, one may take electives to any campus to learn such information as insurance policy, secure coding, or networking and systems administration.
  • Custom (Student-Designed Concentration): Students may choose to develop their own concentration, with approval from the academic adviser. Student-designed Concentrations are also available in the Bachelor of Science degree.

Applied disciplines

Organizational informatics

One of the most significant areas of application of informatics is that of organizational informatics. Organizational informatics is fundamentally interested in the application of information, information systems and ICT within organizations of various forms including private sector, public sector and voluntary sector organizations. [16] [17] As such, organizational informatics can be seen to be a sub-category of social informatics and a super-category of business informatics .

See also

  • Artificial Intelligence
  • Behavior informatics
  • biomimetics
  • Cognitive science
  • Computer Science
  • Communication studies
  • Information science
  • Information systems
  • Information theory
  • Information technology
  • Knowledge Management
  • Robotics
  • Urban informatics

Notes

  1. Jump up^ Karl Steinbuch Eulogy – Bernard Widrow, Reiner Hartenstein, Robert Hecht-Nielsen
  2. Jump up^ Dreyfus, Phillipe. Computing. Management, Paris, June 1962, pp. 240-41
  3. Jump up^ Oxford English Dictionary1989
  4. Jump up^ Mikhailov, AI, Chernyl, AI, and Gilyarevskii, RS (1966) “Informatika – novoe nazvanie teorii naučnoj informacii.” Naučno tehničeskaja informacija, 12, pp. 35-39.
  5. Jump up^ Greenes, RA and Shortliffe, EH (1990) “Medical Informatics: An emerging discipline with academic and institutional perspectives.” Journal of the American Medical Association , 263 (8) pp. 1114-1120.
  6. Jump up^ [1]
  7. Jump up^ For example, atUniversity of Reading,Sussex,City University,Ulster,Bradford,ManchesterandNewcastle
  8. Jump up^ UoA 23 Computer Science and Informatics, Panel working methods
  9. Jump up^ BSc (Hons) Computing Informatics – University of PlymouthLink
  10. Jump up^ “Informatics – Texas Woman’s University” .
  11. Jump up^ “Curriculum – Informatics – University of Michigan” . University of Michigan . Retrieved 6 February 2013 .
  12. Jump up^ “Concentration: Informatics” . University of Michigan . Retrieved 8 February 2013 .
  13. Jump up^ “UMSI plans new undergraduate degree” . University of Michigan School of Information . Retrieved 11 February 2013 .
  14. Jump up^ “Kappa Theta Pi (KTP)” . Retrieved 19 February 2013 .
  15. Jump up^ “Degree Options” . University of Washington Information School . Retrieved 6 April 2015 .
  16. Jump up^ Beynon-Davies P. (2002). Information Systems: an introduction to informatics in Organizations. Palgrave, Basingstoke, UK. ISBN 0-333-96390-3
  17. Jump up^ Beynon-Davies P. (2009). Business Information Systems. Palgrave, Basingstoke, UK. ISBN 978-0-230-20368-6

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