Human-computer interaction

Human-computer interaction (Commonly Referred to as HCI ) researches the design and use of computer technology, Focused on the interfaces entre people ( users ) and computers. Researchers in the field of HCI both observe the ways in which humans interact with computers and design technologies that interact with computers in novel ways.

As a field of research, human-computer interaction is situated at the intersection of computer science , behavioral sciences , design , media studies , and several other fields of study . The term was popularized by Stuart K. Card , Allen Newell and Thomas P. Moran in their seminal 1983 book, The Psychology of Human-Computer Interaction , although the authors first used the term in 1980 [1] and the first known use was In 1975. [2] The term connotes that, unlike other tools with only limited uses (such as a hammer, useful for driving nails but not much else) A computer has many uses and this takes place as an open-ended communication between the user and the computer. The concept of dialogue likens human-computer interaction to human-to-human interaction, an analogy which is crucial to theoretical considerations in the field. [3] [4]


Humans interact with computers in many ways; The interface between humans and computers is crucial to facilitating this interaction . Desktop applications, internet browsers, handheld computers, and computer kiosks make use of the prevalent graphical user interfaces (GUI) of today. [5] Voice user interfaces (VUI) are used for speech recognition and synthesizing systems, and the emerging multi-modal and gestalt user interfaces (GUI) allow users to interact with other interface paradigms . The growth in human-computer interaction has been impaired. Instead of designing regular interfaces, The different research branches have a different focus on the concepts of multimodality rather than unimodality, intelligent adaptive interfaces rather than command / action based ones, and finally active rather than passive interfaces. Citation needed ]

The Association for Computing Machinery (ACM) defines human-computer interaction as a discipline concerned with the design, evaluation and implementation of interactive computing systems for human use and with the study of major phenomena surrounding them. [5] An important facet of HCI is the securing of user satisfaction (or simply End User Computing Satisfaction). “Because human-computer studies interaction human and has machines in communication, it draws from Supporting knowledge on Both the engine and the human side. On the engine side, technical in computer graphics , operating systems , programming languages , and development environments are falling On the human side, communication theory , graphic and industrial design disciplines, linguistics , social sciences , cognitive psychology , social psychology , and human factors Such As computer user satisfaction are falling. And, of course, engineering and design methods are covered. ” [5] Due to the Multidisciplinary Nature of HCI, people with a variety of different backgrounds contribuer to icts success. HCl est Sometimes termed human-machine interaction (HMI), man -machine interaction (MMI) or computer-human interaction (CHI). graphic and industrial design disciplines, linguistics , social sciences , cognitive psychology , social psychology , and human factors Such As computer user satisfaction are falling. And, of course, engineering and design methods are covered. ” [5] Due to the Multidisciplinary Nature of HCI, people with a variety of different backgrounds contribuer to icts success. HCl est Sometimes termed human-machine interaction (HMI), man -machine interaction (MMI) or computer-human interaction (CHI). graphic and industrial design disciplines, linguistics , social sciences , cognitive psychology , social psychology , and human factors Such As computer user satisfaction are falling. And, of course, engineering and design methods are covered. ” [5] Due to the Multidisciplinary Nature of HCI, people with a variety of different backgrounds contribuer to icts success. HCl est Sometimes termed human-machine interaction (HMI), man -machine interaction (MMI) or computer-human interaction (CHI). cognitive psychology , social psychology , and human factors Such As computer user satisfaction are falling. And, of course, engineering and design methods are covered. ” [5] Due to the Multidisciplinary Nature of HCI, people with a variety of different backgrounds contribuer to icts success. HCl est Sometimes termed human-machine interaction (HMI), man -machine interaction (MMI) or computer-human interaction (CHI). cognitive psychology , social psychology , and human factors Such As computer user satisfaction are falling. And, of course, engineering and design methods are covered. ” [5] Due to the Multidisciplinary Nature of HCI, people with a variety of different backgrounds contribuer to icts success. HCl est Sometimes termed human-machine interaction (HMI), man -machine interaction (MMI) or computer-human interaction (CHI).

Poorly designed human-machine interfaces can lead to many unexpected problems. A classic example of this is the Three Mile Island accident , a nuclear meltdown accident, where investigations were carried out in which the design of the human machine was partly responsible for the disaster. [6] [7] [8] Similarly, accidents in aviation have resulted from manufacturers’ decisions to use non-standard flight instrument or throttle quadrant layouts: even though the new designs were proposed to be superior in basic human-machine interaction, pilots Had already ingrained the “standard” layout and thus the conceptually good idea actually had undesirable results.


Human-computer interaction studies the ways in which humans make, or do not make, use of computational artifacts, systems and infrastructures. In doing so, much of the research in the field seeks to Improve human-computer interaction by Improving the usability of computer interfaces. [9] How is it possible to be precisely understood, how is it possible to desirable property of computer interfaces is increasingly debated. [10] [11]

Much of the research in the field of human-computer interaction takes an interest in:

  • Methods for designing a novel computer interfaces.
  • Methods for implementing interfaces, eg, by means of software libraries .
  • Methods for evaluating and comparing interfaces with respect to their usability and other desirable properties.
  • Methods for studying human computer use and its sociocultural implications more broadly.
  • Models and theories of human computer use as well as conceptual frameworks for the design of computer interfaces, such as, eg, cognitivist user models, Activity Theory or ethnomethodological accounts of human computer use. [12]
  • HCI research and practice. [13]

Visions of what researchers in the field. When pursuing a cognitivist perspective, HCI researchers may seek to align computer interfaces with the mental model that humans have of their activities. When pursuing a post-cognitivistperspective, HCI researchers may seek to align computer interfaces with existing social practices or existing sociocultural values.

Researchers in HCI are interested in developing new methodologies, experimenting with new devices, prototyping new software and hardware systems, exploring new interaction paradigms, and developing models and theories of interaction.

Differences with related fields

HCI differs from human factors and ergonomics as HCI focuses on computers, rather than other types of machines or designed artifacts. There is also a focus in HCI on how to implement the computer software and hardware mechanisms to support human-computer interaction. Thus, human factors are a broader term; HCI could be described as the human factors of computers – although some experts try to differentiate these areas.

HCI aussi differs from human factors fait que there is less of a focus is repetitive work-oriented tasks and procedures, and much less emphasis on physical stress and the physical form or industrial design of the user interface, Such As keyboards and mouse devices .

Three areas of study have substantial overlap with HCI even as the focus of inquiry shifts. In the study of personal information management (PIM), human interactions with the computer are placed in a larger informational context, some computer-based, many not (eg, whiteboards, notebooks, sticky notes, Refrigerator magnets) in order to understand and effect changes in their world. In computer-supported cooperative work (CSCW), emphasis is placed on the use of computing systems in support of the collaborative work of a group of people. The principles of human interaction management (HIM) extend the scope of CSC to an organizational level and can be implemented without use of computers.



The user interacts directly with hardware for the human input and output such as displays , eg through a graphical user interface . The user interacts with the computer over this software interface using the given input and output ( I / O ) hardware.
Software and hardware must be matched, so that the processing of the user input is fast enough, the latency of the computer output is not disruptive to the workflow .

When evaluating a current user interface , or designing a new user interface, it is important to keep in mind the following experimental design principles:

  • Early focus on user (s) and task (s): The user will be able to use the interface, and will not use the interface. In addition, define the task (s) the users will be performing and how often the task (s) need to be performed.
  • Empirical Measurement: Test the interface. Keep in mind that results may vary with the performance level of the user and may not be accurate depiction of the typical human-computer interaction. Establish Quantitative usability specifics such as: the number of users performing the task (s), the time to full the task (s), and the number of errors made During the task (s).
  • Iterative design : After determining the users, tasks, and empirical measurements to include, perform the following iterative design steps:
    1. Design the user interface
    2. Test
    3. Analyze results
    4. Repeat

Repeat the iterative design process until a sensitive, user-friendly interface is created. [14]


A number of methodologies outlining techniques for human-computer interaction design have emerged since the rise of the field in the 1980s. Most design methodologies for designers, designers, and technical systems interact. Early methodologies, for example, treated users’ cognitive processes as predictable and quantifiable and encouraged designers to look at cognitive science. Modern models tends to focus one has constant feedback and conversation entre users, designers, and engineers and push for technical systems to be wrapped around the kinds of experiences users want to have, Rather than wrapping user experience around a completed system.

  • Activity theory : used in HCI to define and study the context in which human interactions with computers take place. Activity theory provides a framework to reason about actions in these contexts, analytical tools with the format of checklists of items that researchers should consider, and informs design of interactions from an activity-centric perspective. [15]
  • User-centered design : user-centered design (UCD) is a modern, widely practiced design philosophy rooted in the idea that users should take center-stage in the design of any computer system. Users, designers and technical practitioners work together to articulate the wants, needs and limitations of the user and create a system that addresses these elements. Often, user-centered design projects are informed by ethnographic studies of the environments in which users will be interacting with the system. This practice is designed to facilitate the participation of participants in the design and implementation of workshops.
  • Principles of user interface design : the principles of user interface design, the simplicity, visibility, affordance, consistency, structure and feedback. [16]
  • Value Sensitive Design : Value Sensitive Design (VSD) is a method for building technology that directly or indirectly. VSD uses an iterative design process that involves three types of investigations: conceptual, empirical and technical. Conceptual investigations in the context of the use of technology. Empirical investigations are qualitative or quantitative design research studies used to inform the designers ‘understanding of the users’ values, needs, and practices. This paper presents the results of the study of the conceptual and empirical investigations of the concept of the social sciences. [17]

Display designs

Displays are human-made artifacts designed to support the perception of the system. (Eg navigating, controlling, decision making, learning, entertaining, etc.). A user or operator must be able to process whatever information that a system generates and displays; Therefore, perception, situation awareness, and understanding.

Thirteen principles of display design

Christopher Wickens et al. defined 13 principles of design display In Their book An Introduction to Human Factors Engineering . [18]

These principles of human perception and information processing can be used to create an effective display design. A reduction in errors, a reduction in required training time, an increase in efficiency, and an increase in user satisfaction are a few of the many potential benefits that can be achieved through utilization of these principles.

Certain rules may not be applicable to different displays or situations. Some principles may seem to be conflicting, and there is more to it than just another. The principles may be tailored to a specific design or situation. Striking a functional balance is essential for effective design. [19]

Perceptual principles

1. Make displays legible (or audible) . A display’s legibility is critical and necessary for designing a usable display. If the characters or objects are displayed can not be discernible, then the operator can not make use of them.

2. Avoid absolute judgment limits . Do not ask the user to determine the level of a variable on the basis of a single sensory variable (eg color, size, loudness). These sensory variables can contain many possible levels.

3. Top-down processing . Signals are likely to be perceived and interpreted in accordance with what is expected from a user’s experience. If a signal is submitted to the user’s expectation, more physical evidence of that signal may be given to ensure that it is understood correctly.

4. Redundancy gain . If a signal is given more than once, it is more likely that it will be properly. This can be done by presenting the signal in alternative physical forms (eg color and shape, voice and print, etc.), as redundancy does not imply repetition. A traffic light is a good example of redundancy, as color and position are redundant.

5. Similarity causes confusion: Use distinguishable elements . Signs that appear to be similar will likely be confused. The ratio of similar features to different features causes signals to be similar. For example, A423B9 is more similar to A423B8 ​​than 92 is to 93. Unnecessarily similar features should be removed and dissimilar features should be highlighted.

Mental model principles

6. Principle of pictorial realism . A display should look like the variable that it represents (eg high temperature on a thermometer shown as a higher vertical level). If there are multiple elements, they can be configured in a manner that looks like it would in the represented environment.

7. Principle of the moving part . Moving elements should move in a pattern and direction compatible with the user’s mental model of how it actually moves in the system. For example, the moving element on an altimeter should move upward with increasing altitude.

Principles based on attention

8. Minimizing information access cost . When the user’s attention is diverted from one location to another to access necessary information, there is an associated cost in time or effort. A display design should minimize this cost by allowing for frequently accessed sources to be located at the nearest possible position. However, adequate legibility should not be sacrificed to reduce this cost.

9. Proximity compatibility principle . Divided attention between two information sources may be necessary for the completion of one task. These sources must be mentally integrated and are defined to have close mental proximity. (Eg proximity, linkage by common colors, patterns, shapes, etc.). However, close display proximity can be harmful by causing too much clutter.

10. Principle of multiple resources . A user can more easily process information across different resources. For example, visual and auditory information can be presented simultaneously rather than presenting all or all auditory information.

Memory principles

11. Replace memory with visual information: knowledge in the world . A user should not need to retain important information in working memory or retrieve it from long-term memory. A menu, checklist, or another display can help the user by easing the use of their memory. However, the use of memory may make it possible for the user to be able to use the information stored in the computer. The use of knowledge in a user’s head and knowledge in the world must be balanced for an effective design.

12. Principle of predictive aiding . Proactive actions are usually more effective than reactive actions. A display should attempt to eliminate resource-demanding cognitive tasks and replace them with simpler perceptual tasks to reduce the use of the user’s mental resources. This will allow the user to focus on future conditions. An example of a predictive aid is a road sign showing the distance to a certain destination.

13. Principle of consistency . Old habits from other displays will be transferable. A user’s long-term memory will trigger actions that are expected to be appropriate. A design must accept this fact and use consistency among different displays.

Human-computer interface

Main article: User interface

The human-computer interface can be described as a communication between the human user and the computer. The flow of information between the human and the computer is defined as the loop of interaction . The loop of interaction has several aspects to it, including:

  • Visual Based: The Human Computer Interaction (HCI).
  • Audio Based: The audio-based interaction between a computer and a human being is an important area of ​​HCI systems. This area deals with information acquired by different audio signals.
  • Task environment : The conditions and goals set on the user.
  • Machine environment : The environment that the computer is connected to, eg a laptop in a college student’s dorm room.
  • Areas of the interface : Non-overlapping areas involve processes of the human and computer not pertaining to their interaction. Meanwhile, the overlapping areas only concern themselves with the processes pertaining to their interaction.
  • Input flow : The flow of information that begins in the task environment.
  • Output : The flow of information that originates in the machine environment.
  • Feedback : Loops through the interface that evaluate, moderate, and confirm processes as they pass from the human through the interface to the computer and back.
  • Fit : This is the match between the computer design, the user and the task to optimize the human resources needed to accomplish the task.

Current research

Topics in HCI include:

User customization

End-user development studies how to use their own applications and applications. With their deeper knowledge of their own knowledge domains, users could increasingly be important sources of new applications at the expense of generic systems programmers.

Embedded computation

Computation is a computationally computable system. Embedded systems make the environment alive with little computations and automated processes, from computerized cooking appliances to lighting and plumbing fixtures. To some extent, this development is already taking place. The expected difference in the future is the addition of networked communications which will allow many of these embedded computations to coordinate with each other and with the user. Human interfaces to these embedded devices will in many cases be very different from those appropriate to workstations.

Augmented reality

Main article: Augmented reality

A common staple of science fiction, augmented reality refers to the notion of layering. Existing projects show real-time statistics to users performing difficult tasks, such as manufacturing. Future work could include increasing our social interactions by providing additional information about those we converse with.

Social computing

In recent years, there has been an explosion of social science research focusing on interactions as the unit of analysis. Much of this research draws from psychology, social psychology, and sociology. For example, a person who has a job with a woman or a family member. [20] Other research finds that individuals perceive their interactions with computers more positively than humans, despite behaving the same way towards these machines. [21]

Knowledge-driven human-computer interaction

In human and computer interactions, there is usually a semantic gap between human and computer. Ontology (information science) , as a formal representation of domain-specific knowledge, can be used to address this problem through solving the semantic ambiguities between the two parts. [22]

Factors of change

Traditionally, as explained in a newspaper article discussing user modeling and user-adapted interaction, as used on a human-computer dyad in which the two were connected by a narrow explicit communication channel, such as text-based terminals. Much work has been done to make the interaction between a computing system and a human being more reflective of the multidimensional nature of everyday communication. However, as stated in the introduction, there is much room for mishaps and failure. Because of these potential issues, human-computer interaction shifted focus beyond the interface to respond to observations as articulated by D. Engelbart: “If ease of use was the only valid criterion, people would stick to tricycles and never try bicycles.” [23]

The means by which humans interact with computers to evolve rapidly. Human-computer interaction is affected by the forces shaping the nature of future computing. These forces include:

  • Decreasing hardware costs
  • Miniaturization of hardware leading to portability
  • Reduction in power requirements leading to portability
  • New display technologies leading to the packaging of computational devices in new forms
  • Specialized hardware to new functions
  • Increased communication and distributed computing
  • Increasingly widespread use of computers, especially by people who are outside the computing profession
  • Increasing innovation in technical input (eg, voice, gesture , pen), combined with Lowering cost, leading to rapid computerization by people formerly left out of the computer revolution .
  • Social Wider Issues by Disadvantaged Groups

The future for HCI, based on current promising research, is expected [24] to include the following characteristics:

  • Ubiquitous computing and communication . Computers are expected to communicate through high speed local networks, nationally over wide-area networks, and portably via infrared, ultrasonic, cellular, and other technologies. Data and computational services will be portably accessible to many travelers.
  • High-functionality systems . Systems can have large numbers of functions associated with them. There are so many systems that most users, technical or non-technical, do not have time to learn them in the traditional way (eg, through thick manuals).
  • Mass availability of computer graphics . Computer graphics capabilities such as image processing, graphics transformations, rendering, and interactive animation are becoming widespread as inexpensive chips become available for inclusion in general workstations and mobile devices.
  • Mixed media . Commercial systems can handle images, voice, sounds, video, text, formatted data. These are exchangeable over communication links among users. The separate fields of consumer electronics (eg, stereo sets, VCRs, televisions) and computers are merging partly. Computer and print fields are expected to cross-assimilate.
  • High- bandwidth interaction . The rate at which the computer is used to calculate the rate of change of the input and output signals. This can lead to some qualitatively different interfaces, such as virtual reality or computational video.
  • Large and thin displays . New display technologies are finally maturing, enabling very wide displays and displays that are thin, lightweight, and low in power use. This is a very powerful and easy-to-use desktop-based workstation.
  • Information utilities . Public information utilities (eg, weather for pilots) are expected to proliferate. The rate of proliferation can accelerate with the introduction of high-bandwidth interaction and the improvement in quality of interfaces.

Scientific conferences

One of the main conferences for new research in human-computer interaction is the annually held Association for Computing Machinery ‘s (ACM) Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems , usually referred to by its short name CHI (pronounced kai , or khai ). CHI is organized by ACM Special Interest Group on Computer-Human Interaction ( SIGCHI ). CHI is a large conference, with thousands of attendants, and is quite broad in scope. It is expected by academics, practitioners and industry people, with company sponsors such as Google, Microsoft, and PayPal.

HCI-related conferences held around the world each year, including: [25]

  • ASSETS: ACM International Conference on Computers and Accessibility
  • CSCW: ACM Conference on Computer Supported Cooperative Work
  • CC: Aarhus decennial conference on Critical Computing
  • DIS: ACM Conference on Designing Interactive Systems
  • ECSCW: European Conference on Computer-Supported Cooperative Work
  • GROUP: ACM conference on supporting group work
  • HRI: ACM / IEEE International Conference on Human-robot interaction
  • HCII: Human-Computer Interaction International
  • ICMI: International Conference on Multimodal Interfaces
  • ITS: ACM Conference on Interactive Tabletops and Surfaces
  • Mobilehci : International Conference on Human-Computer Interaction with Mobile Devices and Services
  • NIME: International Conference on New Interfaces for Musical Expression
  • OzCHI: Australian Conference on Human-Computer Interaction
  • TEI: International Conference on Tangible , Embedded and Embodied Interaction
  • Ubicomp: International Conference on Ubiquitous Computing
  • UIST: ACM Symposium on User Interface Software and Technology
  • I-USEr: International Conference on User Science and Engineering
  • INTERACT: IFIP TC13 Conference on Human-Computer Interaction

See also

  • Outline of human-computer interaction
  • Information design
  • Experience design
  • Information architecture
  • Physiological interaction
  • User experience design
  • Mindfulness and technology
  • HCI Bibliography , a web-based project to provide a bibliography of Human Computer Interaction literature


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  2. Jump up^ Carlisle, James H. (June 1976). “Evaluating the impact of automation on top management communication”. Proceedings of the June 7-10, 1976, National Computer Conference and Exposition . pp. 611-616. Doi : 10.1145 / 1499799.1499885 . Use of ‘human-computer interaction’ appears in references
  3. Jump up^ Suchman, Lucy (1987). Plans and Situated Action. The Problem of Human-Machine Communication . New York, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press . Retrieved 7 March 2015 .
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  5. ^ Jump up to:a b c Hewett; Baecker; Card; Carey; Gasen; Mantei; Perlman; strong; Verplank. “ACM SIGCHI Curricula for Human-Computer Interaction” . ACM SIGCHI . Retrieved 15 July 2014 .
  6. Jump up^ Ergoweb. “What is Cognitive Ergonomics?” . . Retrieved August 29, 2011 .
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  10. Jump up^ Chalmers, Matthew; Galani, Areti. “Seamless interweaving: heterogeneity in the theory and design of interactive systems” . Proceedings of the 5th conference on Designing interactive systems: processes, practices, methods, and techniques : 243-252 . Retrieved 7 March 2015 .
  11. Jump up^ Barkhuus, Louise; Polichar, Valerie E. (2011). “Empowerment through seamlessness: smart phones in everyday life” . Personal and Ubiquitous Computing . 15 (6): 629-639. Doi : 10.1007 / s00779-010-0342-4 . Retrieved 7 March 2015 .
  12. Jump up^ Rogers, Yvonne (2012). “HCI Theory: Classical, Modern, and Contemporary” . Synthesis Lectures on Human-Centered Informatics . 5: 1-129. Doi : 10.2200 / S00418ED1V01Y201205HCI014 . Retrieved 7 March 2015 .
  13. Jump up^ Sengers, Phoebe; Boehner, Kirsten; David, Shay; Joseph, Kaye. “Reflective Design” . CC ’05 Proceedings of the 4th decennial conference on Critical computing: between sense and sensibility . 5 : 49-58 . Retrieved 7 March 2015 .
  14. Jump up^ Green, Paul (2008). Iterative Design. Reading in Industrial and Operations Engineering 436 (Human Factors in Computer Systems, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, February 4, 2008.
  15. Jump up^ Kaptelinin, Victor (2012):Activity Theory. In: Soegaard, Mads and Dam, Rikke Friis (eds.). “Encyclopedia of Human-Computer Interaction”. The Foundation. Available online at
  16. Jump up^ “The Case for HCI Design Patterns” .
  17. Jump up^ Friedman, B., Kahn Jr, PH, Borning, A., & Kahn, PH (2006). Value Sensitive Design and Information Systems. Human-Computer Interaction and Information Systems: Foundations. Mr. E. Sharpe, New York, 348-372.
  18. Jump up^ Wickens, Christopher D., John D. Lee, Yili Liu, and Sallie E. Gordon Becker. An Introduction to Human Factors Engineering. Second ed. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Prentice Hall, 2004. 185-193.
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  20. Jump up^ Posard, Marek (2014). “Status processes in human-computer interactions: Does gender matter?” . Computers in Human Behavior . 37(37): 189-195. Doi : 10.1016 / j.chb.2014.04.025 .
  21. Jump up^ Posard, Marek; Rinderknecht, R. Gordon (2015). “Do people like working with computers more than human beings?” . Computers in Human Behavior . 51 : 232-238. Doi : 10.1016 / j.chb.2015.04.057 .
  22. Jump up^ Dong, Hai; Hussain, Farookh; Elizabeth, Chang. “A human-centered semantic service platform for the digital ecosystems environment” . World Wide Web . 13 (1-2): 75-103.
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