Galileo (satellite navigation)

Galileo is the global system of satellite navigation (GNSS) That Is Currently being white created by the European Union (EU) through the European Space Agency (ESA) and the European GNSS Agency (GSA), [3] headquartered in Prague in the Czech Republic , With two ground operations centers, Oberpfaffenhofen near Munich in Germany and Fucino in Italy. The € 5 billion project [4] is named after the Italian astronomer Galileo Galilei . One of the AIMS of Galileo is to Provide an independent high-precision positioning system so European nations do not-have to Rely on the Russian GLONASS , Chinese BeiDou or US GPS systems, qui Could Be disabled or degraded by Their operators at Any Time. [5] The use of basic (lower-precision) Galileo services will be free and open to everyone. The higher-precision capabilities will be available for paying commercial users. Galileo is intended to provide horizontal and vertical position measurements within 1-meter precision, and better positioning services at higher latitudes than other positioning systems. Which could be disabled or degraded by their operators at any time. [5] The use of basic (lower-precision) Galileo services will be free and open to everyone. The higher-precision capabilities will be available for paying commercial users. Galileo is intended to provide horizontal and vertical position measurements within 1-meter precision, and better positioning services at higher latitudes than other positioning systems. Which could be disabled or degraded by their operators at any time. [5] The use of basic (lower-precision) Galileo services will be free and open to everyone. The higher-precision capabilities will be available for paying commercial users. Galileo is intended to provide horizontal and vertical position measurements within 1-meter precision, and better positioning services at higher latitudes than other positioning systems.

Galileo is a new global search and rescue (SAR) function as part of the MEOSAR system . Satellites will be equipped with a transponder which will relay distress signals from emergency beacons to the Rescue coordination center , which will then initiate a rescue operation. At the same time, the system is projected to provide a signal, the Return Link Message (RLM), to the emergency beacon, informing them that their situation has been detected and help is on the way. This feature is new lathing and is regarded a major upgrade Compared To the Existing Cospas-Sarsat system , qui does not Provide feedback to the user. [6] Tests in February 2014 found that for Galileo ‘ s search and rescue function, operating as share of the Existing International Cospas-Sarsat Program, 77% of simulated distress locations can be pinpointed within 2 km, and 95% Within 5 km. [7]

The first Galileo satellite test , the GIOVE-A , was launched 28 December 2005, while the first satellite was launched on 21 October 2011. As of December 2016 the system has 18 of 30 satellites in orbit. Galileo started offering Early Operational Capability (EOC) on 15 December 2016 [1] and is expected to reach Full Operational Capability (FOC) in 2019. [8] The complete 30-satellite Galileo system (24 operational and 6 active spares) is expected By 2020. [9]

History

Main objectives

In 1999, the three main contributors of ESA (Germany, France and Italy) [10] for Galileo were compared and reduced to one by a team of engineers from all three countries. The first stage of the Galileo program was agreed upon officially on 26 May 2003 by the European Union and the European Space Agency . The United States (GPS), Russia (GLONASS), and China (Beidou-1/2, COMPASS). The European system will only be subject to shutdown for military purposes in extreme circumstances (like armed conflict [11] ). It will be available at its full precision to both civil and military users.

Funding

The European Commission had some difficulty funding the project’s next stage, after several allegedly “per annum” sales projections for the project were shown in November 2001 as “cumulative” projections for each year. The attention that was brought to this multibillion-euro growing error in sales forecasts resulted in a general awareness in the Commission and elsewhere that it was unlikely that the program would yield the return on investment that had previously been suggested to investors and decision-makers. [12] [ better source needed ] On 17 January 2002, a spokesman for the project stated that, as a result of US pressure and economic difficulties,

A few months later, however, the situation changed dramatically. European Union member states that it was important to have a satellite-based positioning and timing infrastructure that the US could not easily turn off in times of political conflict. [14]

The European Union and the European Space Agency agreed in March 2002 to the project, pending a review in 2003 (which was completed on 26 May 2003). The starting price for the period ending in 2005 is estimated at € 1.1 billion. The required satellites (the planned number is 30) were made available to the public in 2014. The final cost is estimated at € 3 billion, including the infrastructure on Earth , constructed in 2006 and 2007. The plan was for private companies and investors to invest at least two-thirds of the cost of implementation, with the EU and ESA dividing the remaining cost. The basic Open Service is to be available to anyone without load Galileo with a compatible receiver , with higher-bandwidth encrypted year-precision Improved Commercial Service available at a cost. By early 2011, the project has 50% over initial estimates. [15]

The German Aerospace Center (DLR) contributes the largest portion of the Galileo Funds, and is crucial in the development and application of the Earth Observation System and the Institute for Communication and Navigation in Neustrelitz . [16]

Tension with the United States

A December 2001 letter from US Deputy Secretary of Defense Paul Wolfowitz to the Ministers of the EU states as share of the US- lobbyingcampaign contre Galileo

Galileo is intended to be an EU civilian GNSS that allows all users access to it. Initially GPS reserved the highest quality signal for military use, and the signal available for civilian use was intentionally degraded ( Selective Availability ). This changed with President Bill Clinton signed a policy directive in 1996 to turn off Selective Availability. Since May 2000 the same precision signal has been provided to both civilians and the military. [17]

Since Galileo was designed to provide the highest possible accuracy to anyone, the US was able to use Galileo signals in military strikes against the US and its allies (GNSSs for guidance). The Galileo Galileo is the first of its kind in the United States. The GNSS capability with GPS while denying enemies the use of GNSS. Some US officials were especially concerned about Galileo’s interest in Galileo was reported. [18]

Galileo satellites in the event of a major conflict in which Galileo was used in attacks against American forces. [19] The EU’s stance is that Galileo is a neutral technology, available to all countries and everyone. At first, EU officials did not want to change their original plans for Galileo, but Galileo had to use a different frequency. GNSS without affecting the other (jam Galileo without affecting GPS, or jam GPS but not Galileo), giving the US a greater advantage in conflicts in which it has the electronic warfare upper hand. [20]

GPS and Galileo

Comparison of geostationary , GPS , GLONASS , Galileo , Compass (MEO) , International Space Station , Hubble Space Telescope and Iridium constellation orbits, with the Allen radiation belts and the Earth to scale. [A] The Moon ‘s orbit is around 9 times larger than geostationary orbit. [B] (In the SVG file, hover over an orbit or its label to highlight it;

One of the reasons given for the development of the universal selective availability (SA) by the US military. GPS is widely used worldwide for civilian applications; Galileo’s proponents argued that civil infrastructure, including airplane navigation and landing, should not rely solely upon a system with this vulnerability.

On 2 May 2000, SA was disabled by the President of the United States, Bill Clinton ; In late 2001 the entity managing the GPS confirmed that they did not intend to enable selective availability ever again. [21] Though Selective Availability capability still exists, on 19 September 2007 the US Department of Defense announced that newer GPS satellites would not be able to implement Selective Availability; [22] the satellite of Block IIF satellites launched in 2009, and all subsequent GPS satellites, are stated not to support SA. As old satellites are replaced in the GPS Block IIIA program, SA will cease to be an option.

Cooperation with the United States

Binary Offset Carrier 1.1 ( Binary Offset Carrier 1.1) allowing the coexistence of both GPS and Galileo, and the future combined use Of both systems.

The European Union also agrees to address the “mutual concern regarding the protection of allied and US national security capabilities.” [11]

First experimental satellites: GIOVE-A and GIOVE-B

The first experimental satellite, GIOVE-A , was launched in December 2005 and was followed by a second satellite test, GIOVE-B , launched in April 2008. After successful completion of the In-Orbit Validation . On 30 November 2007 the 27 EU Transport Ministers Involved atteint un accord That shoulds Galileo be operational by 2013, [23] goal later press releases suggest It was delayed to 2014. [24]

Funding again, governance issues

In mid-2006 the public / private partnership fell apart, and the European Commission decided to nationalize the Galileo program. [25]

In early 2007 the EU had to decide how to pay for the system and the project was said to be “in deep crisis” due to lack of more public funds. [26] German Transport Minister Wolfgang Tiefensee was very doubtful about the consortium’s ability to end the infighting at a time when only one testbed satellite had been successfully launched.

ALTHOUGH a decision Was yet to be atteint we 13 July 2007 [27] EU countries Discussed cutting € 548m ($ 755m, £ 370m) from the union’s compétitivité budget for the Following year and shifting Reviews some of thesis funds to other parts of the financing Galileo satellite navigation system. Galileo satellite navigation system. European Union research and development projects could be scrapped to overcome a funding shortfall.

In November 2007, it was agreed to reallocate funds from the EU’s agriculture and administration budgets [28] . [29]

In April 2008, the EU transport ministers approved the Galileo Implementation Regulation. This allowed the budget and the budgets [30] to allow the issuing of contracts to start construction of the ground station and the satellites.

In June 2009, the European Court of Auditors published a report, pointing out the governance issues, which led to further stalling in 2007, leading to further delays and failures. [31]

In October 2009, the European Commission cut the number of satellites definitively planned from 28 to 22, with plans to order the remaining six at a later time. It also announced that the first OS, PRS and SoL signal would be available in 2013, and the CS and SOL some time later. The € 3.4 billion budget for the 2006-2013 period was considered insufficient. [32] In 2010 the think tank Open Europe estimated the total cost of Galileo from 20 years after completion at € 22.2 billion, entirely by taxpayers. Under the original estimates made in 2000, this cost would have been € 7.7 billion, with € 2.6 billion borne by taxpayers and the rest by private investors. [33]

In November 2009, a ground station for Galileo was inaugurated near Kourou ( French Guiana ). [34]

The launch of the first four in-orbit validation (IOV) satellites was planned for the second half of 2011, and the launch of full operational capability (FOC) satellites was planned to start in late 2012.

In March 2010 it was decided that Galileo would be able to provide the 4 IOV and 14 FOC satellites by 2014, with no funds then committed to bring the constellation above this 60% capacity. [35] Paul Verhoef, the satellite navigation program manager at the european commission, indicated that this limited funding would have serious consequences commenting on one point “To give you an idea, that would mean that for three weeks in the year you will not have Satellite navigation “in reference to the proposed 18-vehicle constellation.

In July 2010, the European Commission is expected to increase its budget to € 1.5- € 1.7 billion. 750 million per year. [36] An additional € 1.9 trillion Was planned to be spent Bringing the system up to the full complement of 30 satellites (27 operational + 3 active spares). [15] [37]

In December 2010, EU ministers in Brussels voted Prague , in the Czech Republic , as the headquarters of the Galileo project. [38]

In January 2011, infrastructure costs up to 2020 were estimated at € 5.3 billion. In this same month, Wikileaks revealed that Berry Smutny, the CEO of the German satellite company OHB-System , said that Galileo is a stupid idea that interests French interests. [39] The BBC understood in 2011 that € 500 million (£ 440M) would make it possible to make the extra purchase, taking Galileo within 24 operational satellites to 24. [40]

Galileo launch on a Soyuz rocket, 21 October 2011

The first two Galileo In-Orbit Validation satellites were launched by Soyuz ST-B from Guiana Space Center on 21 October 2011, [41] and the remaining two on 12 October 2012. [42]

Twenty-two further satellites with Full Operational Capability (FOC) were on order as of 2012 . The first four pairs of satellites were launched on 22 August 2014, 27 March 2015, 11 September 2015 and 17 December 2015. [43]

Clock failures

In January 2017, news agencies reported that six of the passive hydrogen maser and three of the rubidium atomic clocks had failed. Four of the full operational satellites have each lost at least one clock; But no satellite has lost more than two. The operation of the constellation has been launched with three spare clocks. The possibility of a systematic flaw is considered. [44] [45] [46] The Swiss producer of both onboard clocktypes SpectraTime declined to comment. [47] According to ESA, they have concluded with their industrial partners for the rubidium atomic clocks some implemented testing and operational measures were required. Additionally some refurbishment is required for the rubidium atomic clocks that still have to be launched. For the passive hydrogen masers to be studied to reduce the risk of failure. [44] China and India use the same SpectraTime-built atomic clocks in their satellite navigation systems. ESA has contacted the Indian Space Research Organization which initially reported not having experienced similar failures. [47] [46] However, at the end of January 2017, Indian news outlets reported that all three clocks aboard the IRNSS-1A satellite (launched in July 2013 with a 10-year life expectancy) Be launched in the second half of 2017. [48] [49] For the passive hydrogen masers to be studied to reduce the risk of failure. [44] China and India use the same SpectraTime-built atomic clocks in their satellite navigation systems. ESA has contacted the Indian Space Research Organization which initially reported not having experienced similar failures. [47] [46] However, at the end of January 2017, Indian news outlets reported that all three clocks aboard the IRNSS-1A satellite (launched in July 2013 with a 10-year life expectancy) Be launched in the second half of 2017. [48] [49] For the passive hydrogen masers to be studied to reduce the risk of failure. [44] China and India use the same SpectraTime-built atomic clocks in their satellite navigation systems. ESA has contacted the Indian Space Research Organization which initially reported not having experienced similar failures. [47] [46] However, at the end of January 2017, Indian news outlets reported that all three clocks aboard the IRNSS-1A satellite (launched in July 2013 with a 10-year life expectancy) Be launched in the second half of 2017. [48] [49] [44]China and India use the same SpectraTime-built atomic clocks in their satellite navigation systems. ESA has contacted the Indian Space Research Organization which initially reported not having experienced similar failures. [47] [46]However, at the end of January 2017, Indian news outlets reported that all three clocks aboard the IRNSS-1A satellite (launched in July 2013 with a 10-year life expectancy) Be launched in the second half of 2017. [48] [49] [44] China and India use the same SpectraTime-built atomic clocks in their satellite navigation systems. ESA has contacted the Indian Space Research Organization which initially reported not having experienced similar failures. [47] [46]However, at the end of January 2017, Indian news outlets reported that all three clocks aboard the IRNSS-1A satellite (launched in July 2013 with a 10-year life expectancy) Be launched in the second half of 2017. [48] [49]

International involvement

In September 2003, China joined the Galileo project. China was to invest € 230 million (US $ 302 million, GBP 155 million, CNY 2.34 billion) in the project over the following years. [50]

In July 2004, Israel signed an agreement with the EU to become a partner in the Galileo project. [51]

On 3 June 2005 the EU and Ukraine signed an agreement for Ukraine to join the project, as noted in a press release. [52]

As of November 2005, Morocco also joined the program.

In Mid-2006, the Public-Private Partnership fell apart and the European Commission decided to nationalize Galileo as an EU program. [25]

In November 2006, China opted instead to independently develop the Beidou navigation system satellite navigation system. [53]

On 30 November 2007, the 27 member states of the European Union unanimously agreed to move forward with the project, with plans for bases in Germany and Italy. Spain did not approve during the initial vote, but approved it later that day. Galileo project: “The EU has had an important role to play in the fight against terrorism.” [54]

On April 3rd, 2009, too, the program pledging € 68.9 million to the construction contracts. Norway, while not a member of the EU, is a member of ESA . [55]

On 18 December 2013, Switzerland signed a cooperation agreement to fully participate in the program, and retroactively contributed € 80 million for the period 2008-2013. As a member of ESA , it has already collaborated in the development of the Galileo satellites, contributing to the state-of-the-art hydrogen-maser clocks. Switzerland’s financial commitment for the period 2014-2020 will be calculated in accordance with the European Union Framework Program. [56]

System description

Space segment

Main article: List of Galileo satellites
Constellation visibility from a location on Earth’s surface

As of 2012, [57] the system is scheduled to reach full operation in 2020 with the following specifications:

  • 30 in-orbit spacecraft (24 in full service and 6 spares)
  • Orbital altitude: 23,222 km ( MEO )
  • 3 orbital planes , 56 ° inclination, ascending nodes separated by 120 ° longitude (8 operational satellites and 2 active spares per orbital plane)
  • Satellite lifetime:> 12 years
  • Satellite mass: 675 kg
  • Satellite body dimensions: 2.7 m × 1.2 m × 1.1 m
  • Span of solar arrays: 18.7 m
  • Power of solar arrays: 1.5 kW (end of life)

Ground segment

The system’s orbit and signal accuracy is controlled by a ground segment consisting of:

  • 2 Ground Control Center, located in Oberpfaffenhofen and Fucino for Satellite and Mission Control
  • 5 telemetry, tracking & control (TT & C) stations, located in Kiruna , Kourou , Noumea , Sainte-Marie, Reunion & Redu
  • Several worldwide distributed mission data uplink stations (ULS)
  • Several worldwide distributed reference sensor stations (GSS)
  • A data dissemination network between all geographically distributed locations

Services

The Galileo system will have five main services:

Open access navigation
This equipment is suitable for use with the mass-market equipment; Simple timing, and positioning down to 1 meter.
Commercial navigation (encrypted)
High precision to the centimeter; Guaranteed service for which service providers will charge fees.
Safety of life navigation
Open service; For applications where guaranteed precision is essential. Integrity messages will warn of errors.
Public regulated navigation (encrypted)
Continuous availability even if they are disabled in time of crisis; Government agencies will be main users.
Search and rescue
System will pick up distress beacon rentals; Feasible to send feedback, eg confirming help is on its way.

Other secondary services will also be available.

Concept

Space Passive Hydrogen Maser used in Galileo satellites as a master clock for an onboard timing system

Each Galileo satellite has two master passive hydrogen maser atomic clocks and two secondary rubidium atomic clocks which are independent of one other. [58] [59] As precise and stable, space-qualified atomic clocks are critical components to-any satellite navigation system, the employed quadruple redundancy keeps Galileo atomic clocks onboard functioning When fail in space. The onboard passive hydrogen maser clocks’ accuracy is four times better than the onboard rubidium atomic clocks and 1 second Estimated at 3 per million years (a timing error of a nanosecond or 1 billionth of a second (10 -9 or 1 / 1,000,000, 000 s) translates into a 30 cm (11.8 in ) positional error on Earth’s surface), and will provide an accurate timing signal to allow a receiver to calculate the time it takes the signal to reach it. [60] [61] [46] The Galileo satellites are configured to run one hydrogen maser clock in primary mode and a rubidium clock as hot backup. Under normal conditions, the operating hydrogen maser clock produces the reference frequency from which the navigation signal is generated. Should the hydrogen maser encounter any problem, an instantaneous switchover to the rubidium clock would be performed. In this paper, we present the results of the study of the redundant system. A clock monitoring and control unit provides the interface between the four clocks and the navigation signal generator unit (NSU). It passes the signal from the active hydrogen master clock to the NSU and also ensures that the frequencies produced by the master clock and the active spare are in phase. The NSU information is used to calculate the position of the receiver by trilaterating the difference in signals from multiple satellites. A clock monitoring and control unit provides the interface between the four clocks and the navigation signal generator unit (NSU). It passes the signal from the active hydrogen master clock to the NSU and also ensures that the frequencies produced by the master clock and the active spare are in phase. The NSU information is used to calculate the position of the receiver by trilaterating the difference in signals from multiple satellites. A clock monitoring and control unit provides the interface between the four clocks and the navigation signal generator unit (NSU). It passes the signal from the active hydrogen master clock to the NSU and also ensures that the frequencies produced by the master clock and the active spare are in phase. The NSU information is used to calculate the position of the receiver by trilaterating the difference in signals from multiple satellites.

The onboard passive hydrogen maser and rubidium clocks are very stable over a few hours. If they were left to run indefinitely, though, their timekeeping would drift, so they need to be synchronized regularly with a more stable ground-based reference clocks. These include active hydrogen maser clocks and clocks based on the caesium frequency standard, which show a far better medium and long-term stability than rubidium or passive hydrogen maser clocks. Precise Timing Facilities in the Fucino and Oberpfaffhofen Galileo Control Centers. The Galileo System Time (GST), the standard for the Galileo system and is routinely compared to the local realizations of UTC, The UTC (k) of the European frequency and time laboratories. [62]

For more information of the concept of global satellite navigation systems, see GNSS and GNSS positioning calculation .

Constellation

Main article: List of Galileo satellites
Summary of satellites
Block Launch
Period
Satellite launches Currently in operational orbit
and healthy
Full success Failure Planned
GIOVE 2005-2008 2 0 0 0
OVI 2011-2012 4 0 0 3
JIB From 2014 12 2 * 16 12
Total 18 2 * 16 15
* One partial launch failure resulting in 2 orbiting satellites in a degraded orbit
(Last update: 18 November 2016)
For a more complete list, see list of Galileo satellites

Galileo satellite test beds: GIOVE

GIOVE-A was successfully launched 28 December 2005

In 2004 the Galileo System Test Bed Version 1 (GSTB-V1) project validated the on-ground algorithms for Orbit Determination and Time Synchronization (OD & TS). This project, led by ESA and European Satellite Navigation Industries , has provided the core segment of the Galileo positioning system. [63]

  • GIOVE-A is the first GIOVE ( Galileo In-Orbit Validation Element ) satellite test. It was built by Surrey Satellite Technology Ltd(SSTL), and successfully launched on 28 December 2005 by the European Space Agency and the Galileo Joint. Operation of GIOVE-A ensured that Galileo meets the frequency-filing allocation and reservation requirements for the International Telecommunication Union (ITU), a process that was required by June 2006.
  • GIOVE-B , built by Astrium and Thales Alenia Space , has more advanced payload than GIOVE-A. It was successfully launched on 27 April 2008 at 22:16 UTC (4.16 am Baikonur time) aboard a Soyuz-FG / Fregat rocket provided by Starsem .

A third satellite, GIOVE-A2 , was originally planned to be built by SSTL for launch in the second half of 2008. [64] Construction of GIOVE-A2 was terminated due to the successful launch and in-orbit operation of GIOVE-B .

The GIOVE Mission [65] [66] segment operated by European Satellite Navigation Industries used the GIOVE-A / B satellites to Provide Experimental results based real data is to be used for risk mitigation for the IOV satellites That Followed it from the testbeds. ESA Organized the global network of ground stations to collect the measurements of GIOVE-A / B with the use of the GETR further Top receivers for systematic study. GETR receivers are provided by Septentrio as well as the first Galileo navigation receivers to be used to test the functioning of the system at further stages of its deployment.

In-Orbit Validation (IOV) satellites

These satellite testbeds were followed by furnace IOV Galileo satellites that are much closer to the final Galileo satellite design. The Search & Rescue feature is also installed. [67] The first two satellites lancé Were there 21 October 2011 from Guiana Space Center using a Soyuz launcher, [68] the other two is 12 October 2012. [69] This key Enables validation tests, since earth-based receivers Such As Those In order to calculate their position in three dimensions. [69] Those 4 IOV Galileo satellites were constructed by Astrium GmbH and Thales Alenia Space. On 12 March 2013, a first fix was performed using these four IOV satellites.

Full Operational Capability (FOC) satellites

Main article: List of Galileo satellites

FOC satellites was awarded to OHB System and Surrey Satellite Technology Limited (SSTL) . Fourteen satellites will be built at a cost of € 566M (£ 510M; $ 811M). [71] Arianespace will launch the satellites for € 397M (£ 358M, $ 569M). The European Commission aussi annoncé que la € 85 million contract for system support covering industrial services required by ESA for integration and validation of the Galileo system HAD-been Awarded to Thales Alenia Space . Thales Alenia Space subcontract performance to Astrium GmbH and security to Thales Communications .

In February 2012, an additional order of eight satellites was awarded to OHB Systems for € 250M ($ 327M), after outbidding EADS Astrium tender offer. Thus bringing the total to 22 FOC satellites. [72]

On 7 May 2014, the first two FOC satellites landed in Guyana for Their seal launch planned in summer [73] Originally planned for launch During 2013, problems tooling and Establishing the Production line for assembly led to a delay of a year in serial manufacture of Galileo satellites. These two satellites (Galileo satellites GSAT-201 and GSAT-202) were launched on 22 August 2014. [74] The names of these satellites are Doresa and Milena named after European children who had previously won a drawing contest. [75] On 23 August 2014, launch service provider Arianespace announced that the flight VS09 experienced anomaly and satellites were injected into an incorrect orbit. [76]

Satellites GSAT-203 and GSAT-204 were launched successfully on 27 March 2015 from Guiana Space Center using a Soyuz Four Stage Launcher. 79] Using the same Soyuz launcher and launchpad, satellites GSAT-205 (Alba) and GSAT-206 (Oriana) were launched successfully on 11 September 2015. [79]

GSAT-208 satellites (Liene) and GSAT-209 (Andriana) Were lancé successfully from Kourou, French Guiana, using the Soyuz launcher on December 17, 2015. [80] [81] [82] [83]

Satellites GSAT-210 (Daniele) and GSAT-211 (Alizée) are launched on 24 May 2016 and are being commissioned. [84] [85]

Starting in November 2016, deployment of the last twelve satellites will use a modified Ariane 5 launcher, named Ariane 5 ES, Galileo satellites into orbit per launch. [86]

Satellites GSAT-207 (Antonianna), GSAT-212 (Lisa), GSAT-213 (Kimberley), GSAT-214 (Tijmen) were successfully launched from Kourou, French Guiana, on 17 November 2016 in Ariane 5 ES. [87] [88]

On 15 December 2016, Galileo began offering Initial Operational Capability (IOC). The services currently offered are Open Service, Public Regulated Service and Search and Rescue Service. [1]

Future evolution

As of 2014, ESA and its industry partners have begun studies on Galileo Second Generation (G2G) satellites, which will be presented to the EC for the 2020s launch period. [89] One idea is to employ electric propulsion , which would eliminate the need for an upper stage during launch and allow satellites from a single batch to be inserted into more than one orbital plane.

Applications and impact

Science projects using Galileo

In July 2006 an international consortium of universities and research institutions embarked on a study of potential scientific applications of the Galileo constellation. This project, named GEO6, [90] is a broad study oriented to the general scientific community, aiming to define and implement new applications of Galileo.

Among the various GNSS users identified by the Galileo Joint Undertaking, [91] the GEO6, [90] project addresses the Scientific User Community (UC).

The GEO6 [90] project aims at fostering possible novel applications within the scientific UC of GNSS signals, and particularly of Galileo.

The AGILE [92] project is an EU-funded project for the study of the technical and commercial aspects of rental-based services (LBS) . Galileo (and EGNOS) and the hybridisation of Galileo with other positioning technologies (network-based, WLAN, etc.). In this project, some pilot prototypes were implemented and demonstrated.

On the basis of the potential number of users, potential revenues for Galileo Operating Company or Concessionaire (GOC), international relevance, and level of innovation, prioritized by the consortium and developed within the time- Frame of the same project.

These applications will help pour augmenter and optimizes the use of the EGNOS services and the Opportunities offert by the Galileo Signal Test-Bed (GSTB-V2) and the Galileo (IOV) phase.

Coins

The European Satellite Navigation project was selected as the main motive of a high-value collectors’ corner: the Austrian European Satellite Memorial Navigation , minted on 1 March 2006. The corner has a silver ring and gold-brown niobium “pill”. In the reverse, the niobium portion depicts satellite navigation orbiting the Earth. The ring shows different modes of transport, for which satellite navigation was developed: an airplane, a car, a lorry, a train and a container ship.

Receivers

A number of devices are compatible with Galileo. [93] [94] Samsung Galaxy S8 smartphones are compatible with Galileo, the first mainstream smartphones advertised with this capability. [95]

Development Boards

The IOT4 Ltd created some development board for using the Galileo navigation network with Arduino, Raspberry or any Windows PC. They are available [96] in different sizes and capabilities, based on Ublox M8 architecture. The GA-001 is the LEA-M8, the GA-002 is MAX-M8 and the GA-003 is using NEO-M8 chipset.

See also

  • Binary Offset Carrier modulation – the modulation family used in Galileo
  • Commercialization of space
  • Global Positioning System
  • GLONASS
  • European Geostationary Navigation Overlay Service
  • Multiplexed Binary Offset Carrier modulation – the modulation types Chosen for the Galileo Open Service Signal and Modernized GPS signals
  • BeiDou Navigation Satellite System

Notes

  1. Jump up^ Orbital periods and speeds are Calculated using the 4π² relationshipsR³ = T²GMandV²R = GM, WhereR= radius of orbit in meters,T= orbital period in seconds,V= orbital speed in m / s ,G= gravitational constant ≈ 6.673×10– 11 Nm² / kg²,M= mass of Earth ≈ 5.98×10 24 kg.
  2. Jump up^ Approximately 8.6 times when the moon is nearest (363,104 km ÷ 42,164 km) to 9.6 times when the moon is farthest (405,696 km ÷ 42,164 km).

References

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  36. Jump up^ “EU Expects Galileo Project Costs to Explode” . Spiegel. 2011.
  37. Jump up^ “Galileo’s navigation control hub opens in Fucino” . ESA . 20 December 2010 . Retrieved 20 December 2010 .
  38. Jump up^ Prague To Host EU Satellite Navigation Agency- Radio Free Europe, 13 December 2010
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  40. Jump up^ “Europe’s Galileo sat-nav in big cash boost” . BBC News . 22 June 2011.
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  45. Jump up^ “Atomic clocks ‘failed’ onboard Galileo satellite navigation” . Agence France-Presse AFP. 18 January 2017 . Retrieved January 19, 2017 .
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  48. Jump up^ DS, Madhumathi. “Atomic clocks on indigenous navigation satellite develop snag” . The Hindu . Retrieved 2017-03-06 .
  49. Jump up^ Mukunth, Vasudevan. “3 Atomic Clocks Fail Onboard India’s Regional GPS Constellation” . Thewire.in . Retrieved 2017-03-06 .
  50. Jump up^ China joins EU’s satellite network- BBC News, 19 September 2003
  51. Jump up^ Israel join Galileo. The Israel Entity MATIMOP, on the way to becoming a Member of the Galileo Joint Undertaking. eu-del.org.il. 18 May 2005
  52. Jump up^ Press release. Europa.eu (3 June 2005). Retrieved 29 October 2011.
  53. Jump up^ Marks, Paul. “China’s satellite navigation plans threaten Galileo” . NewScientist.com . Retrieved 19 November 2006 .
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  55. Jump up^ Norway join EU’s Galileo satnav project. GPSdaily.com. 3 April 2009. Retrieved 29 October 2011.
  56. Jump up^ Switzerland joins the EU’s Galileo satellite navigation programeuropa.eu Press release, 18 December 2013. Retrieved
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  58. Jump up^ “Passive Hydrogen Maser (PHM)” . Spectratime.com .
  59. Jump up^ “Rb Atomic Frequency Standard (RAFS)” . Spectratime.com .
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  61. Jump up^ “What about errors” . European Space Agency . Retrieved January 16, 2017 .
  62. Jump up^ 38th Annual Precise Time and Time Interval (PTTI) Meeting GALILEO SYSTEM TIME PHYSICAL GENERATION
  63. Jump up^ Galileo System Test Bed Version 1 experiment is now full, ESA News release, January 7, 2005
  64. Jump up^ GIOVE-A2 to secure the Galileo program, ESA News release, 5 March 2007
  65. Jump up^ GIOVE mission core infrastructure, ESA press release, 26 February 2007.
  66. Jump up^ One year of Galileo signals; New website opens, ESA press release, 12 January 2007.
  67. Jump up^ Galileo IOV Satellites. (2014, November 3). Navipedia,. Retrieved 21:22, May 1, 2015 fromhttp://navipedia.net/index.php?title=Galileo_IOV_Satellites&oldid=13446.
  68. Jump up^ Soyuz carrying Galileo satellites launched. Bangkok Post (21 October 2011). Retrieved 29 October 2011.
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  70. Jump up^ Galileo fixed Europe’s position in history
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  72. Jump up^ Dunmore, Charlie (1 February 2012). “UPDATE 1-OHB beats EADS to Galileo satellite contract -sources” . Reuters .
  73. Jump up^ Next Galileo satellites arrives at Europe’s Spaceport
  74. Jump up^ http://www.bbc.com/news/science-environment-28860851
  75. Jump up^ Rhian, Jason (August 22, 2014). “Doresa and Milena Galileo spacecraft rise into morning sky via Soyuz ST-B” . Spaceflight Insider .
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  77. Jump up^ “Galileo satellites well on way to working orbit” . European Space Agency . 2015-04-10 . Retrieved 2015-05-31 .
  78. Jump up^ “Arianespace continuing deployment of Galileo, a flagship project for Europe” (PDF) . Arianespace . March 2015 . Retrieved 2015-05-31 .
  79. Jump up^ “Galileo taking flight: ten satellites now in orbit” . European Space Agency . 2015-09-11.
  80. Jump up^ “Galileo pair preparing for December launch” . European Space Agency. 2 November 2015 . Retrieved 13 December 2015 .
  81. Jump up^ “Vega light rocket makes sixth successful launch” . Launch […] is scheduled for 17 December. Soyuz Flight VS13 will orbit two more satellites for Europe’s Galileo navigation system.
  82. Jump up^ “Europe adds two more satellites to Galileo sat-nav system” . Retrieved 2015-12-17 .
  83. Jump up^ Correspondent, Jonathan Amos BBC Science. “Two more Galileo satellites launched” . BBC News . Retrieved 2015-12-17 .
  84. Jump up^ “Galileo constellation deployment: Arianespace to orbit two more satellites on a Soyuz launcher in May 2016 – Arianespace” . Arianespace . Retrieved 2016-11-15 .
  85. Jump up^ “Galileo satellite launches – Growth – European Commission” . Growth . Retrieved 2016-11-15 .
  86. Jump up^ “Arianespace serves the Galileo constellation and Europe’s ambitions in space with the signature of three new services Ariane 5 ES” . Arianespace . 2014-08-20.
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  89. Jump up^ Electric thrusters may steer Galileo in future – ESA
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  91. Jump up^ galileoju.com
  92. Jump up^ galileo-in-lbs.com ArchivedJune 6, 2008 at theWayback Machine.
  93. Jump up^ “Galileo-enabled devices | European GNSS Service Center” . Www.gsc-europa.eu . Retrieved 2017-02-22 .
  94. Jump up^ “UseGalileo – Find a galileo-enabled device to use today” . Www.usegalileo.eu . Retrieved 2017-02-22 .
  95. Jump up^ http://www.samsung.com/global/galaxy/galaxy-s8/specs/
  96. Jump up^ https://www.iot4.eu/?product_cat=gnss

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