The concept of e-service (short for electronic service) represents one prominent application of the use of information and communication technologies (ICTs) in different areas. However, providing an exact definition of e-service is hard to come by as researchers have been using different definitions to describe e-service. Despite these different definitions, it can be argued that they are all about the role of technology in facilitating the delivery of services.

Rowley’s (2006) [1] approach that defines e-services as: “… deeds, efforts or performances whose delivery is mediated by information technology. Such e-service includes the service element of e-tailing, customer support, and service delivery. This definition reflects three main components- service provider, service receiver and the channels of service delivery (ie, technology). For example, as a public service e-service, public agencies are the service providers. The channel of service delivery is the third requirement of e-service. Internet is the main channel of e-service delivery while other classic channels (eg telephone, call center, public kiosk, mobile phone, television) are also considered.

Definitions and origin of the term e-service

Since its conceptual inception in the late 1980s in Europe citation needed ] and formal introduction in 1993 by the US Government, [2] the term ‘ E-Government ‘ has now become one of the recognized research domains especially in the context of public policy And now has been rapidly gaining strategic importance in public sector modernization. [3] E-service is one of the branches of this domain and its attention has also been creeping up among the practitioners and researchers. [4]

E-service (or eservice) is a highly generic term, usually referring to ‘The provision of services via the Internet’, thus e-Service may Also include e-Commerce, although it may also include non-commercial services, which is usually provided by the government. (Irma Buntantan & G. David Garson, 2004: 169-170, Muhammad Rais & Nazariah, 2003: 59, 70-71).

‘E-Service constitutes the Internet, whereby a transaction of buying and selling is possible, as opposed to the traditional websites, whereby only descriptive information is available, and no online transaction is made possible.’ (Jeong, 2007). [5]

Importance of E-service

Lu (2001) [6] identifies a number of benefits for e-services, some of these are:

  • Accessing a greater customer base
  • Broadening market reach
  • Lowering of entry barriers to new markets and acquiring new customers
  • Alternative communication channel to customers
  • Increasing services to customers
  • Enhancing perceived company image
  • Gaining competitive advantages
  • Potential for increasing Customer knowledge

Importance and advantages of E-shopping

  • E-shops are open 24 hours a day.
  • There is no need to wait for the checkout counters.
  • There is usually a wide selection of goods and services.
  • It is easy to compare prices and quality by using the E-shopping tool.
  • Price reductions and discounts are electronically conveyed.

E-service domain

The term ‘e-service’ has many applications and can be found in many disciplines. The two dominant application areas of e-services are

E-business (e-commerce): e-services mostly provided by businesses or (NGOs) (private sector).

E-government: e-services provided by government to citizens or business (public sector is the supply side). Public e-services: Public e-services. Public e-services. Public e-services. Public e-services. Public e-services. Public e-services. In some cases, we will have to describe the e-service and the e-government in e-government and e-business .


Depending on the types of services, there are certain functionalities in the certain layers of e-service architectural framework, systems, integrated systems customer happy) exchange layer ( Enterprise Application Integration – EAI), layer interaction (Integrating e-services) and presentation layer (customer interface qui through the web pages and e-services are linked).

E-service quality

Measuring service quality and service excellence are important in a competitive organizational environment. The SERVQUAL – service quality model is one of the widest used tools for measuring quality of service on various aspects. The five attributes of this model are: reliability, responsiveness, assurance, tangibles, and empathy. The following table summarizes some of these:

SERVQUAL [7] Kaynama & Black (2000) [8] Zeithaml (2002) [9] Janda et al. (2002) [10] Alawattegama & Wattegama (2008) [11]
Reliability happy Access Access Factual information
responsiveness Access Ease of navigation Security Business information
Insurance Navigation Efficiency Sensation General Information
Tangibles Design Flexibility Information / content Consumer- related information
Empathy Response Reliability
background Personalization
Personalization Security / privacy
Insurance / Trust
Site aesthetics
Price knowledge

The LIRNEasia study on benchmarking national telecom regulator websites focuses on content and on accessibility and ease of use. Websites are increasingly important portals to government agencies, especially in the context of information society reforms. Stakeholders, including businesses, investors and even the general public, are able to increase their transparency and accountability. The quality of its website also demonstrates how advanced a regulatory agency is.

E-service cost factor

Some major cost factors are (Lu, 2001): [12]

  • Expense of setting up applications
  • Maintaining applications
  • Internet connection
  • Hardware / software
  • Security concerns
  • Legal issues
  • Training; and
  • Rapid technology changes

Practical examples of e-services in the Developing World

Information technology is a powerful tool for accelerating economic development. Developing countries have focused on the development of ICT during the last two decades and as a result, it has been recognized that ICT is critical to the economy and is a catalyst of economic development. So, in recent years, the e-government and the e-services have become increasingly important. [13]

Many of the activities that have been carried out in the context of ICTs have been carried out. Management of the territory (Graham and Aurigi, 1997). [14]

But the potential for e-government in developing countries remains largely unexploited, even though. ICT is believed to offer considerable potential for the sustainable development of e-government. Different human, organizational and technological factors, issues and problems pertaining in these countries, requiring focused studies and appropriate approaches. ICT, in general, is referred to as “enabler”, but on the other hand it should also be considered as a challenge and a peril in itself. The organizations, public or private, which ignore the potential value and use of ICT may suffer pivotal competitive disadvantages. Nevertheless, some e-government initiatives have flourished in developing countries too, eg Brazil, India, Chile, etc. [13] What the experience in these countries shows, ICT, the purpose of which is to ensure that the ICT is the only one of its kind in the world. The adaptive challenges of e-government go far beyond technology, they call for organizational structures and skills, new forms of leadership, transformation of public-private partnerships (Allen et al., 2001). [15]

Following are a few examples regarding e-services in some developing countries:

E-services in Rwanda

A decade after emerging from the fastest genocide of the 20th Century, Rwanda, a small country in Eastern Central Africa, has become one of the continent’s leaders in, and model on, digital divide through e-government. Rwanda has undergone a rapid turnaround of one of the most technologically deficient countries in the country. This is a puzzling when viewed against the limited progress made in other comparable developing countries, especially those located in the same region, sub-Saharan Africa, where the structural and institutional constraints to e-government are similar. [16]

E-services in South Africa

In South Africa, there is a need for a better understanding of the state of affairs. Such expectations are not unique to this country, and in this regard there is a need for governments to recognize that the implementation of e-government systems and e-services affords them the opportunity to enhance delivery and good governance. [17] The implementation of e-government has been widely acclaimed in order to deliver services quickly and efficiently (Evans & Yen, 2006: 208). [18] In recognition of these benefits, various arms of the South African government have for example the Batho Pele portal , SARS e-filing , the e-Natis system , electronic processing of applications from remote sites, and a large number of departmental information websites. Also a number of well publicized e-government ventures such as the latter, analysts and researchers consider the state of e-government in South Africa to be at rudimentary internships. There are various factors that collectively contribute to such an assessment. Amongst these are the key factors in the emergence of e-government and the emergence of e-government. [17] And a large number of departmental information websites. Also a number of well publicized e-government ventures such as the latter, analysts and researchers consider the state of e-government in South Africa to be at rudimentary internships. There are various factors that collectively contribute to such an assessment. Amongst these are the key factors in the emergence of e-government and the emergence of e-government. [17] And a large number of departmental information websites. Also a number of well publicized e-government ventures such as the latter, analysts and researchers consider the state of e-government in South Africa to be at rudimentary internships. There are various factors that collectively contribute to such an assessment. Amongst these are the key factors in the emergence of e-government and the emergence of e-government. [17] There are various factors that collectively contribute to such an assessment. Amongst these are the key factors in the emergence of e-government and the emergence of e-government. [17] There are various factors that collectively contribute to such an assessment. Amongst these are the key factors in the emergence of e-government and the emergence of e-government. [17]

E-services in Malaysia

E-Services is one of the pilot projects under the Electronic Government Flagship within the Multimedia Super Corridor ( MSC ) initiative. With e-Services, Tenaga Nasional Berhad ( TNB ) and Telekom Malaysia Berhad ( TM ) through various services, such as the eServices Kiosks and internet. No more queuing, traffic jams or bureaucratic hassles and one can conduct conduct at one’s own convenience. Also, Electronic Labor Exchange ( ELX ) is one stop-center for labor market information, as supervised by the Ministry of Human Resources ( MOHR )

E-Syariah is the seventh project under the Electronic Government flagship application of the Multimedia Super Corridor (MSC). A case management system that integrates the processes related to the management of the Syariah Courts.

Examples of E-services in Established Countries

E-services in the United States of America

In America, citizens have many options and opportunities to follow and understand government actions through e-government. Government 2.0 (Gov. 2.0) is currently in progress. Gov. 2.0 offers increased citizen participation via on-line applications such as social media and other apps. [19] Through the internet and websites such as USA.gov, an individual can perform actions such as contacting dc officials, find information about the workforce such as retirement plans and labor laws, learn about money and consumer issues , And welfare, learn about citizenship and obtaining a visa or passport, And other topics such as health and welfare, education, and environmental issues. [20]

E-commerce is another growing E-service in the United States for both big and small businesses. E-commerce sales are projected to grow 10 to 12 percent annually. Amazon.com is the largest on-line marketplace in the country with annual sales of $ 79 billion. Wal-Mart is also a widely popular retailer. They have grown their business by having electronic services. Wal-Mart’s sales for E-commerce in 2015 was roughly $ 13 billion. Apple develops and sells a wide variety of technological goods and services, such as cell phones, music players, and computers. Apple’s sales for E-commerce in 2015 was $ 12 trillion. [21] E-services allow businesses to reach new customers and offer new services. Companies Such As eBay and Etsy -have Achieved great success, with eBay posting a net income in 2016 of Nearly $ 9 trillion and Esty claiming Roughly $ 200 million in profits from Nearly $ 2 trillion dirty. [22] The majority or eBay’s business is conducted in the United States but it does have a great deal of international business including the United Kingdom and Germany. [23] The global reach of Etsy is seen in nearly every country in the world with 31% of gross merchandise sales occurring outside the United States. [24] [22] The majority or eBay’s business is conducted in the United States but it does have a great deal of international business including the United Kingdom and Germany. [23] The global reach of Etsy is seen in nearly every country in the world with 31% of gross merchandise sales occurring outside the United States. [24] [22] The majority or eBay’s business is conducted in the United States but it does have a great deal of international business including the United Kingdom and Germany. [23] The global reach of Etsy is seen in nearly every country in the world with 31% of gross merchandise sales occurring outside the United States. [24]

E-services in China

China’s recent realization of the continuing growth of Internet use has caused the government to recognize the need to expand their E-government services. Some steps in order to increase their transparency, and to combine services from the government to the government. Local and country-wide governments for convenience. [25] China’s plan of action to incorporate the Internet into everyday business and grow the economy is known as ” Internet Plus .” The government plans to have this plan in full effect by 2025 to be the driving force for economic and social improvements. Zhongguancun, China . The Internet is the most widely used and widely used technology in the world . [26]

Because of the large population, China has the most internet and cell phone users in the world. (Consider rewording) In 2016, Chinese consumers spent more money for on-line goods and services than the United States and United Kingdom combined. [27] E-commerce flourishes in China including easy access to mobile internet, low cost of shipping, and a vast selection of cheap, unbranded products. [28] Alibaba is China’s largest on-line marketplace with an annual revenue stream of $ 16 trillion. Its services are globally available in Russia and Brazil through AliExpress . Tencent is another internet company with an annual income of $ 16 trillion. Tencent is used primarily for instant messaging but has other applications as well as mobile games and other digital content. By the end of 2015, Tencent’s WeChat messaging app reached around 700 million users. The Biggest Competitor for Tencent is Facebook’s WhatsApp . Baidu Is the most visited website in the country and it is used as an annual revenue of $ 10 trillion. In March of 2016, there were roughly 663 million users. Google challenges Baidu as the major internet search engines in the world. Huawei is a tech company that produces phones, tablets, and develops the equipment used in fixed-line networks. Huawei has an annual income of $ 61 billion. It is currently located throughout 100 countries worldwide and in 2015, it filed 3,898 patent applications, more than any other country in the world. The biggest competitors to Huawei is Apple and Samsung . [29]

Challenges to e-services in the Developing World

The future of e-service is bright but some challenges remain. There are some challenges in e-service, as Sheth & Sharma (2007) [30] identify, are:

  • Low penetration of ICT especially in the developing countries;
  • Fraud on the internet which is estimated around 2.8billion USD
  • Privacy due the emergence of various types of spyware and security holes, and
  • Intrusive characteristics of the service (eg mobile phones based).

The first challenge and first obstacle to the e-service platform will be penetration of the internet. In some developing countries, the access to the internet is limited and speeds are also limited. In these cases companies will continue to use traditional platforms. The second issue of concern is fraud on the internet. It is anticipated that the e-commerce internet space costs $ 2.8 billion. Possibility of fraud will continue to reduce the use of the internet. The third issue is of privacy. Due to both spyware and security holes in operating systems. For example, by stealthily following company activities, companies can develop fairly descriptions of customer profiles. Possibility of privacy violations will reduce the use of the internet. The final issue is that e-service can also become intrusive as they reduce time and location barriers of other forms of contract. For example, companies can contact people through mobile devices at any time and at any place. Customers do not take the intrusive behavior and can not use the e-service platform. (Heiner and Lyer, 2007) [31]

Major e-service keywords

A considerable amount of research efforts have already existed on the subject matter exploring different aspects of e-service and e-service delivery; One worth noting effort is Rowley’s study (2006) [1] who did a review on the e-service literature. In order to understand the importance of e-service quality and the quality of the e-service, Take into account the inherent characteristics of e-service delivery and the factors that differentiate one service experience from another. ”

Some of the major keywords of e-service as found in the e-government research are as follows:


Morris (1996, referred by Wu 2005, p.1) [32] as “the demonstrable willingness within a user group to employ information technology for the tasks it is designed to support”. This definition can be used to describe the e-service or the e-service.


Users’ ability to access the e-service is important in the previous literature. For example, Huang (2003) [33] finds that most of the websites in general fail to serve users with disabilities. Jaeger (2006) [34] who suggests the following to improve the e-services’ accessibility: design for accessibility from the outset of website development, Involve users with disabilities in the testing of the site … Focus on the benefits of an accessible Web site to all users.

Administrative literacy

According to Grönlund et al. (2007), [35] for a simple e-service, the needs for knowledge and skills, content and procedures are considerably less. However, in complicated services it is necessary to change some prevailed skills, such as replacing verbal skills with skill in searching for online information.


This theme is concerned with establishing standards for measuring e-services or the best practices within the field. This report also includes the international benchmarking of e-government services (UN reports, EU reports); Much critic has been targeted these reports being incomprehensive and useless. According to Bannister (2007) [36] “… benchmarks are not a reliable tool for measuring real e-government progress. Moreover, if they are poorly designed, they risk distorting government policies as countries may chase the benchmark

Digital divide

Digital divide is considered one of the main barriers to implementing e-services; Some people do not know how to use the technology (or the e-service). According to Helbig et al. (2009), [37] “we suggest E-Government and the digital divide should be seen as complementary social phenomena (ie, demand and supply). Moreover, a serious e-government digital divide is that services mostly used by social elites. ”


And the eligibility of citizens for participation in e-readiness . Selon by Shalini (2009), [38] “the results of the research project reveal That a high index May be only indicating indication That a country is e-ready in terms of ICT infrastructure and info-structure, institutions, policies, and political Commitment, it is a very poor measure of the e-readiness of citizens. To summarize the findings, it can be said that Mauritius is ready but the Mauritians are not ”

“ E-readiness, as the Economist Intelligence Unit defines, is the measure of a country’s ability to leverage digital channels for communication, commerce and government in order to further economic and social development. Implicit in this measure is the extent to which the use of communications devices and Internet services creates efficiencies for business and citizens, and the extent to which this usage is leveraged in the development of information and communications technology (ICT) industries. In general terms, the definition of e-readiness is relative, for instance, in terms of priorities and perspective. [39]


As opposed to efficiency, efficiency is focused on the internal competence within the government departments when delivering e-services. There is an emerging trend that seems to be the result of a shift away from the target and focusing on users and governance outcomes. While the latter is worthwhile, a high priority should be given to eGovernment given the budget constraints compounded in the future by the costs of an aging population. [40]Moreover,


Security is the most important challenge that faces the implementation of e-services because e-government services. These security concerns, such as hacker attacks and the theft of credit card information, make governments hesitant to provide public online services. According to the GAO report [41] of 2002 “security concerns present one of the toughest challenges to extending the reach of e-government.The rash of hacker attacks, Web page defacing, and credit card information. Many by far the most important part of the Internet. “By and Large, Security is one of the major challenges facing the implementation and development of electronic services. People want to be assured that they are safe when they are conducting online


Axelsson et al. (2009) [42] argue that the stakeholder concept – which was originally used in private firms – can be used in public setting and in the context of e-government. According to them, several scholars have discussed the use of the stakeholder theory in public settings. [43] The stakeholder theory suggests that the e-service; Not only on the government and citizens.


Compared to Accessibility, There is sufficient literature that addresses the issue of usability; Researchers have developed different models and methods to measure the usability and effectiveness of eGovernment websites. However, it is still necessary to improve the quality of the compressive material [44]

“ The word usability has been cropped up a few times already in this unit. In the context of biometric identification. A system that produced false matches during enrollment of applicants was described as usable. Another meaning of usability is related to the use of an interface. Although this term of the term is often used in the context of computer interfaces, there is no reason to confine it to computers. [45] ”

Social, cultural and ethical implications of e-services

The perceived effectiveness of e-service can be influenced by public view of the social and cultural implications of e-technologies and e-services.

Impacts on individuals’ rights and privacy – as more and more companies and government agencies use technology to collect, store, and make accessible. Some companies monitor their employees’ computer use patterns in order to assess individual or workgroup performance. [46] Technological advances are also making it much easier for businesses, government and other individuals to obtain a great deal of information about an individual without their knowledge. There is a growing concern [47] That access to a wide-range of information can be dangerous Within politically corrupt government agencies.

Impact on Jobs and Workplaces – in the early days of computers, management scientists anticipated that computers would replace human decision-makers. However, this prediction is not a mainstream concern. At the current time, one of the most important issues in the field of health and safety is the use of a computer. Government agencies are expected to work with regulatory groups in order to avoid these problems.

Potential Impacts on Society – Some economic benefits of ICT to individuals, there is evidence that the computer literacy and access gap between the haves and have-nots may be increasing. Education and information are more than ever the keys to economic prosperity, yet access by the individuals in different countries is not equal – this social inequity has become known as the digital divide.

Impact on Social Interaction – Advances in ICT and e-Technology This is a social interaction.

Information Security – technological advances to government agencies to collect, store and make data available online to individuals and organizations. Citizens and businesses expect to be able to accommodate any type of event. (S) of the Government of Canada and / or its affiliates. Data integrity and accuracy; Capacity to ensure the timely delivery of data to remote (possibly mobile) sites; And managing the security of corporate and public information. [47]

E-service awards

The benefits of e-services in advancing businesses are high; Recognizing the importance of these benefits, the award-winning e-services. In the section, we will provide a description of some international awards

Best online e-service in Europe

European eGovernment Awards program started 2003 to recognize the best online public service in Europe. The aim of the program is to promote the deployment of e-services. The winners of the European eGovernment Awards were announced in the award ceremony at the 5th Ministerial eGovernment Conference on 19 November 2009 (Sweden); The winners in their respective categories are:

  • Category 1. eGovernment supporting the Single Market: EU-OPA, the European Order for Payment Application ( Austria and Germany )
  • Category 2a. EGovernment empowering citizens: Genvej ( Denmark )
  • Category 2b. EGovernment empowering businesses: MEPA, the Public Administration eMarketplace ( Italy )
  • Category 3. eGovernment enabling administrative efficiency and effectiveness: Licensing of Hunters via the “Multibanco” ATM Network ( Portugal )
  • Public information: SMS Information System ( Turkey )

Other awards

Sultan Qaboos Award for excellence in eGovernance Oman (Started 2009) The award has five categories: Best eContent, Best eService, Best eProject, eEconomy, eReadiness.

EGovernment Excellence Awards Bahrain (Started 2007) The program has three categories: Best eContent, Best eService, Best eProject, eEconomy, eEducation, eMaturity Business Awards: Best eContent, eCitizen.

Philippines e-Service Awards Philippines (Started 2001) Categories: Outstanding Customer Application of the Year, Outstanding Customer Application of the Year, Groundbreaking Technology of the Year, Most Progressive Homegrown Company of the Year.

Major journals focusing on e-services

There are some journals for e-Service. Some of these are:

  • International Journal of E-services and Mobile Applications
  • EService Journal
  • European Journal of Information Systems
  • MIS Quarterly
  • Information & Management
  • Information Systems Journal
  • International Journal of Electronic Government
  • Electronic Journal of e-Government
  • International Journal of Electronic Commerce
  • Internet Research
  • Journal Information Technology
  • Journal of Strategic Information Systems
  • Journal of the Association for Information Systems
  • Government Information Quarterly
  • Public Administration Review

Major conferences focusing on e-services

Major conferences considering e-services as one of the themes are:

  • EServices in European Civil Registration Conference
  • Conference on e-Business, e-Services, and e-Society
  • International ICST Conference on e-service
  • Global Sourcing Conference & Exhibition
  • Annual Hawaii International Conference on Systems Science
  • Electronic Government Conference (EGOV)
  • International Conference on Electronic Government and the Information Systems Perspective (EGOVIS)
  • International Conference on Theory and Practice of Electronic Governance (ICEGOV)

See also

  • Electronic services
  • Customer knowledge


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  31. Jump up^ Heiner and lyer (2007) E-Service opportunities and Threats, Journal of value chain management, 1, 11.
  32. Jump up^ Wu, Philip F. (2009). User Acceptance of Emergency Alert Technology: A Case Study. Proceedings of the 6th International ISCRAM Conference – Gothenburg, Sweden
  33. Jump up^ Huang, CJ (2003). E-Government Web Sites for People with Disabilities, In Proceedings of the 36th Hawaii International Conference on System Science (HICSS’03), IEEE Computer Society, 2003
  34. Jump up^ Jaeger, PT Assessing Section 508 compliance on federal e-government Web sites: A multi-method, user-centered assessment of accessibility for persons with disabilities. Government Information Quarterly 23 (2006) 169-190
  35. Jump up^ Grönlund, Å., Hatakka, M. and Ask, A. (2007) ‘Inclusion in the E-Service Society – Investigating Administrative Literacy Requirements for Using E-Services’. 6th International Conference (EGOV 2007, Regensburg, Germany), 4656
  36. Jump up^ Bannister F. (2007). The International Review of Administrative Sciences, 73 (2), 171-188
  37. Jump up^ Helbig, N; Gil-García, J; Ferro, E (2009). Understanding the complexity of electronic government: Implications from the digital divide literature. Government Information Quarterly, 26 (2009), 89-97
  38. Jump up^ Shalini, R. (2009). Are Mauritians ready for e-Government services ?. Government Information Quarterly 26 (2009) 536-539
  39. Jump up^ GeoSINC International (2002). E-Readiness Guide. Available athttp://www.apdip.net/documents/evaluation/e-readiness/geosinc01042002.pdf
  40. Jump up^ Codagnone, C. Undheim TA (2008). Benchmarking eGovernment: tools, theory, and practice. European Journal of ePractice. Nº 4 • August 2008
  41. Jump up^ GAO (2002). E-Government: Proposal addresses Critical Challenges. US General Accounting Office, Govt of the USA
  42. Jump up^ Axelsson, K, Melin, f, Lindgren, I, (2009) PUBLIC DEVELOPMENT E-SERVICES FOR SEVERAL STAKEHOLDERS – A MULTIFACETED VIEW OF THE NEEDS FOR AN E-SERVICE. 17th European Conference on Information Systems
  43. Jump up^ Scholl, HJ (2001). Applying stakeholder theory to e-government: Benefits and Limits. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Massachusetts
  44. Jump up^ Kaylor, C., Deshazo, R. & Eck, DV (2001) “Gauging e-government: A report on implementing services among American cities”. Government Information Quarterly (GIQ), 18 (4), 293-307
  45. Jump up^ Open Learning – OpenLearn – Open University
  46. Jump up^ Asgarkhani, M. (2002). Strategic Management of Information Systems and Technology in an e-World “, Proceedings of the 21st IT Conference, Sri Lanka, pp. 103-111.
  47. ^ Jump up to:a b Asgarkhani, M. (2002b) “e-Governance in Asia Pacific”, Proceedings of the International Conference on Governance in Asia, Hong Kong.

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