Electronic governance or e-governance is the implementation of information and communication technology (ICT) for Delivering government services , exchange of information, transactions, communications, integration of various stand-alone systems and services entre government-to-customer (G2C), government- to-business (G2B), government-to-government (G2G) as well as back office processes and interactions dans le Entire government framework. [1] Through e-governance, government services will be made available to citizens in a convenient, efficient and transparent manner. The three main target groups that can be distinguished in governance concepts are government, citizens and businesses / interest groups. In e-governance there are no distinct boundaries. [2]

Government-to-government (government), government-to-government, government-to-government. [2]

Distinction from e-government

Main article: E-government

Both terms are treated to be the same; However, there is a difference between the two. “E-government” is the use of the ICTs in public administration – combined with organizational change and new skills – to improve public services and democratic processes. The definition of e-governance is not a provision for governance of ICTs. As a matter of fact, the governance of ICTs requires a substantial increase in regulation and policy-making capabilities, with all the expertise and opinion-shaping processes alongside the various social stakeholders of these concerns. So, the perspective of the e-governance is ”

Many countries are looking forward to a corruption -free government. E-government is one-way communication protocol but e-governance is two-way communication protocol. Citation needed ] The essence of e-governance is to reach the beneficiary and ensure that the services intended to reach the desired individual has been met with. There should be an auto-response to support the essence of e-governance, whereby the government realizes the effectiveness of its governance. E-governance is by the governed, for the governed and of the governed.

Establishing the identity of the end beneficiary is a challenge in all citizen-centric services. Statistical information published by governments and world bodies does not always reveal the facts. The best form of e-governance cuts down on unwanted interference of many layers while delivering governmental services. It depends on good infrastructure setup with the support of local processes and parameters for governments to reach their citizens or end beneficiaries. Budget for planning, development and growth

Government to citizen

The goal of government-to-customer (G2C) is to offer a variety of ICT services to citizens in an efficient and economical way.

There are several methods of government-to-customer e-governance. Two-way communication Allows Instant Message Directly to citoyens with public administrators, and cast remote electronic voting ( electronic voting ) and instant voting opinion. Transactions such as payment of services, such as city utilities, can be completed online or over the phone. Mundane services such as name or address changes, applications for services or grants, or transferring existing services are more convenient and no longer have to be completed face to face. [4]

By country

G2C e-Governance is unbalanced across the globe have not Everyone Has Internet access and computing skills, goal the United States , European Union , and Asia are the top three in Official Development.

The Government of the United States has a broad framework of government information and services. Benefits.Gov is an official US government website that provides information about how to apply assistance. US State Governments also engage in G2C interaction through the Department of Transportation , Department of Public Safety , United States Department of Health and Human Services , United States Department of Education , and others. [5] As with e-Governance on the global level, G2C services vary from state to state. The Digital States Survey, Digital democracy , e-commerce , taxation, and revenue. The 2012 report shows Michigan and Utah in the lead and Florida and Idaho with the lowest scores. [5] Municipal governments in the United States also use government-to-customer technology to complete transactions and inform the public. Much like states, cities are awarded for innovative technology. Government Technology’s “Best of the Web 2012” named Louissville, KY, Arvada, CO, Raleigh, NC, Riverside, CA, and Austin, TX the top five G2C city portals. [6] The 2012 report shows Michigan and Utahin the lead and Florida and Idaho with the lowest scores. [5] Municipal governments in the United States also use government-to-customer technology to complete transactions and inform the public. Much like states, cities are awarded for innovative technology. Government Technology’s “Best of the Web 2012” named Louissville, KY, Arvada, CO, Raleigh, NC, Riverside, CA, and Austin, TX the top five G2C city portals. [6] The 2012 report shows Michigan and Utah in the lead and Florida and Idaho with the lowest scores. [5] Municipal governments in the United States also use government-to-customer technology to complete transactions and inform the public. Much like states, cities are awarded for innovative technology. Government Technology’s “Best of the Web 2012” named Louissville, KY, Arvada, CO, Raleigh, NC, Riverside, CA, and Austin, TX the top five G2C city portals. [6] [5] Municipal governments in the United States also use government-to-customer technology to complete transactions and inform the public. Much like states, cities are awarded for innovative technology. Government Technology’s “Best of the Web 2012” named Louissville, KY, Arvada, CO, Raleigh, NC, Riverside, CA, and Austin, TX the top five G2C city portals. [6] [5] Municipal governments in the United States also use government-to-customer technology to complete transactions and inform the public. Much like states, cities are awarded for innovative technology. Government Technology’s “Best of the Web 2012” named Louissville, KY, Arvada, CO, Raleigh, NC, Riverside, CA, and Austin, TX the top five G2C city portals. [6]

European countries were ranked second among all geographic regions. The Single Point of Access for Citizens of Europe supports in Europe and eEurope is a 1999 initiative supporting online government. Main focuses are to provide public information, allow customers to have access to basic public services , simplify online procedures, and promote electronic signatures . [5]

Asia is ranked third in comparison, and there are various G2C programs between countries. Singapore ‘s eCitizen Portal is an integrated single access point to government information and services. South Korea’s Home Tax Service (HTS) provides citizens with 24/7 online services such as tax declaration. Taiwan has top ranking G2C technology, which provides 21 applications and payment services to citizens. [5]

Government-to-Citizen is the communication link between a government and private individuals or residents. Such G2C communication is the most widely used information and communications technology (ICTs), but can also include direct mail and media campaigns. G2C can take place at the federal, state, and local levels. G2C stands in contrast to G2B, or Government-to-Business networks.

One such Federal G2C network is USA.gov: the United States’ official web portal , though there are many other examples from governments around the world. [7]


A full switch to government-to-customer e-governance will cost a large amount of money in development and implementation. [4] In addition, Government agencies do not always engage citizens in the development of their e-Gov services or accept feedback. Customers identified the following barriers to government-to-customer e-governance: not everyone has Internet access, especially in rural or low income areas, G2C technology can be problematic for citizens who lack computing skills. Some G2C sites have technology requirements (such as browser requirements and plug-ins) that will not allow access to certain services, language barriers, the necessity for an e-mail address to certain services, and a lack of privacy. [8]

Government to employees

“G2E” redirects here. For gaming trade show, see Global Gaming Expo .

E-Governance to Employee Partnership (G2E) It is the relationship between online tools, sources, and articles that help employees maintain communication with the government and their own companies. E-Governance Relationship with Employees Documents can now be stored and shared with other colleagues online. [9 ] G2E services also include [10] E-governance makes it possible for employees to become paperless and makes it easy for employees to send important documents back and forth to colleagues all over the world Software for maintaining personal information and records of employees.

  • E-payroll – maintaining the online sources to paychecks, pay stubs, and keep records for tax information.
  • E-benefits – be able to look up what benefits an employee is receiving and what benefits they have a right to.
  • E-training – new and current employees to maintain the training they have through the development of new technology and to allow new employees to train and learn new materials in one convenient location. E-learning is a way of knowing how to use visuals, animation, videos, etc. It is usually a computer-based learning tool, although not always. It is also a way to employees to learn their own pace ( distance learning ), although it can be instructor-led.
  • Maintaining records of personal information – Allows the system to keep all records in a single file. Examples being social security numbers, tax information, current address, and other information [11]

Government-to-employees (abbreviated G2E) is the online interactions through instantaneous communication tools between government units and their employees. G2E is one out of the four primary delivery models of e-Government . [12] [13] [14]

G2E is an effective way to provide e-learning to the employees, bring them together and to promote knowledge sharing among them. [15] It also provides employees the opportunity of accessing information in regard to compensation and benefit policies, training and learning opportunities and civil rights laws. [12] [15] [16] G2E services also includes software for maintaining personal information and records of employees. [16]

G2E is adopted in many countries including the United States, Hong Kong and New Zealand. [17]

Government to government


From the start of 1990s e-commerce and e-product, there is rampant integration of e-forms of government process. Governments have now tried to use their efficiencies of their techniques to cut down on waste. E-government is a fairly broad subject matter, but all of them relate to how the services are now delivered and how they are now being implemented.

Many governments around the world have gradually turned to information technologies (IT) in an effort to keep up with today’s demands. Historically, many governments in this sphere have only been reactive but up to now there has been a more proactive approach in developing comparable services such as e-commerce and e-business . [18]

Before, the structure emulated private-like business techniques. E-government begins to make its own plan. Not only does e-government introduce a new form of record keeping, it also continues to become more interactive to better the process of delivering services and promoting constituency participation.

The framework of such organization is now expected to increase more than ever by becoming efficient and reducing the time it takes to complete an objective. Some examples include paying utilities, tickets, and applications for permits. So far, the biggest concern is accessibility to Internet technologies for the average citizen. In an effort to help, administrations are now trying to help those who have the skills to fully participate in this new medium of governance, especially now.

An overhaul of structure is now required as every pre-existing sub-entity must now merge under one concept of e- government. As a result, Public Policy has also seen changes due to the emergence of participation and the Internet. Many governments have a commitment to invest in communication and communication through communication and participation. In doing this, we have developed a number of responses and adaptations by interest groups, activists, and lobbying groups. This new medium has changed the way the polis interacts with government.


The purpose of this paper is to provide an overview of the various aspects of e-governance. Whether it is a low-cost, low-cost clutter. E-government brings many advantages into play, such as facilitating information delivery, application process / renewal between both business and private citizen, and participation with constituency. There are two internal and external advantages to the emergence of IT in government, though not all municipalities are alike in size and participation.

In theory, there are currently 4 major levels of E-government in municipal governments: [19]

  • The establishment of a secure and cooperative interaction among governmental agencies;
  • Web-based service delivery;
  • The application of e-commerce for more efficient government transactions activities;
  • And digital democracy.

These, along with 5 degrees of technical integration and interaction of users include:

  • Simple information dissemination (one-way communication);
  • Two-way communication (request and response);
  • Service and financial transactions;
  • Integration (horizontal and vertical integration);
  • Political participation

The adoption of e-government in municipalities evokes greater innovation in e- governance by being specialized and localized. The level of success and feedback depends on the city size and government type. A council-manager government municipality typically works the best with this method, as opposed to mayor-council government positions, which tend to be more political. Therefore, they have greater barriers towards its application. Council-Manager-Governments are also more and more inclined to be effective here by bringing innovation and reinvention of governance to e- governance.

The International City / County Management Association and Public Technology Inc. have been monitoring the effectiveness of this method. (1 or stage 2), which revolves around public service requests. Though application of integration is now accelerating, there has been little to no instigating research to its progression as e-governance to government. We can only theorize it’s still within the primitive stages of e-governance.


Government-to-Government (abbreviated G2G) is the non-commercial government-to-government interaction between government, government, and government. Its use is common in the UK , along with G2C , the non-commercial interaction of online local and central Government and Private Individuals, and G2B the online non-commercial interaction of local and central Government and the business sector business.

Generally G2G systems come in one of two kinds: Internal facing – joining up a single Governments departments, agencies, organizations and autorités – examples include the integration part of the Government Gateway , and the UK NHS Connecting for Health Data SPINE . External facing – joining up multiple Governments IS systems – an example Would include the integration aspects of the Schengen Information System (SIS) Developed to meet the requirements of the Schengen Agreement .


The strategic objective of e-governance, or in this case G2G is to support and simplify governance for government, citizens and businesses. The use of ICT can connect all parts and support processes and activities. Other objectives are to make government more transparent, speedy and accountable, while addressing the society’s needs and expectations through efficient public services and effective interaction between people, businesses and government. [20]

Government-to-government model

Delivery model

Within each of these interactions domains, the sorts of activities take place: [21] [22]

Pushing data over the internet, eg: regulative services, general holidays, public hearing schedules, issue briefs, notifications, etc. Two-way communications between one governmental department and another, users will interact in dialogue with agencies and post issues, comments, or requests to the agency. Conducting transactions, eg: Lodging tax returns, for services and grants. Governance, eg: To alter the national transition from passive

  • Informing the individual
  • Representing an individual
  • Consulting an individual
  • Involving the individual

Internal G2G (UK)

In the field of networking, the Government Secure Intranet (GSI) It is an IP-based virtual private network based on broadband technology in April 1998 and further upgraded in February 2004. Among other things, Network members and over the Internet). An additional network is currently under development: the Public Sector Network (PSN) Devolved administrations and local governments). [23]

Government to business

“G2B” redirects here. For the scientific journal, see Genes, Brain and Behavior .

Government-to-Business (G2B) is the online non-commercial interaction between local and central government and the business business sector with the purpose of providing businesses information and advice on e-business ‘ best practices ‘. G2B: Refers to the conduction through the Internet between government agencies and trading companies. B2G: Professional transactions between the company and the district, city, or federal regulatory agencies. B2G B2B B2B B2B B2B B2B B2B3C3 Representative Drawing Representative Drawing –


The objective of G2B is to reduce the difficulties for business, provide immediate information and enable digital communication by e-business (XML). In addition, the government should re-use the data in the proper report, and take advantage of commercial electronic transaction protocol. [24] Government services are concentrated to the following groups: human services; Community services; Judicial services; Transport services; Land resources; Business services; Financial services and other. [25] Each of the components listed above for each cluster of related services to the enterprise.

Benefits for business

E-government reduce costs, carry out all companies to interact with the government. Electronic trading saves time compared to human doing business. No need for driving to government and no waiting time. If the transaction is not completed, you can use the mouse to click on the return trip rather than drive to the office. As more and more companies are doing business online, they will be reduced. More technology and less workers needed to reduce the business cost.

E-Government provides more information than clear. A key factor in business success is the ability to plan for the future. Planning and forecasting through data-driven future. The government collected a lot of economic, demographic and other trends in the data. It is a good idea to have the chance of economic prosperity.

In addition, E-Government can help businesses navigate through government regulations by providing an intuitive site organization with a wealth of useful applications. The electronic filings of applications for environmental permits give an example of it. Companies often do not know how, when, and what they must apply. Therefore, failure to comply with environmental regulations up to 70%, a staggering figure [26] most likely to confuse about the requirements, rather than the product of willful disregard of the law. [27]


The government should not be allowed to access the internet to gain government services. The network reliability, as well as information on government bodies can influence public opinion and prejudice hidden agenda. There are many considerations and implementation, designing e-government, including the potential impact of government and citizens of disintermediation, the impact on economic, social and political factors, vulnerable to cyber attacks, and disturbances to the status quo in these areas. [28]

G2B rises the connection between government and businesses. Once the e-government began to develop, become more sophisticated, people will be forced to interact with e-government in the larger area. This may result in a lack of privacy for their businesses and their information. In the worst case, there is so much information in the electron transfer entre les government and business, has system is like qui totalitarian Could Be Developed. As government can access more information, the loss could be a cost. [29] [30]

The government site does not consider “many people who can live in remote areas, are homebound, have low literacy levels, exist on poverty line incomes.” [31]


  • E-Tender Box (ETB) system [32] – ETB system was developed by Government Logistics Department (GLD) to replace Electronic Tendering System. Users can use ETB system to download the resources and gain the service from the GLD.
  • E-Procurement Program [33] – e-Procurement Program provides a simple, convenient on-line method for providing the participating offices / departments (B / Ds) and providers of Government Logistics service. [34]
  • Finance and support for your business [35] – UK Government provides financial assistance for business, including grants, loans, business guide; What’s more, it also offers the funding for the sunrise businesses (just start) or small-scale companies.


The main Goal of Government to Business – is to increase productivity by giving business more access to information in a more organize way while lowering the cost of doing business To create a more transparent business environment when dealing with government.

  • Lower cost of doing business – electronic transaction
  • Cutting red tape – rules and regulations on the use of a delay in the G2B.
  • Transparency – More information will be available, making G2B easier to communicate.

Government to business key points:

  1. Reduce the burden on business by adopting a process that allows the collection of data for multiple uses and streamlining redundant data.
  2. Key Lines of Business: regulations, economic development, trade, permits / licenses, grants / loans, and asset management.

Difference between G2B and B2G

  • Government to business (G2B) – Refers to the conducting of transactions between government bodies and business via the internet.
  • Business to government (B2G) – Professional affairs between companies and regional, municipal, or federal government bodies. B2G typically encompasses the determination and evaluation of proposal and completion of contract.


The overall benefit of e-governance when dealing with business is that it enables business to perform more efficiently.

Challenges – international position

E-governance is facing many challenges world over. These challenges are arising from administrative, legal, institutional and technological factors. j

See also

  • ICT4D
  • E-governance in the United States
  • E-learning
  • Department for Business, Innovation and Skills
  • Open-source governance


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