Dublin Core

The Dublin Core Schema is a web-based, web-based, web-based, web-based resource that enables users to create, manage, and distribute web pages. [1] The full set of Dublin Core metadata terms can be found on the Dublin Core Metadata Initiative (DCMI) website. [2] The original set of 15 classic [3] metadata terms, known as the Dublin Core Metadata Element Set, [4] is endorsed in the following standards documents:

  • IETF RFC 5013 [5]
  • ISO Standard 15836-2009 [6]
  • NISO Standard Z39.85 [7]

Dublin Core Metadata may be used for multiple purposes, from simple resource description, to combining metadata vocabularies of different metadata standards , to providing interoperability for metadata vocabularies in the Linked Data Cloud and Semantic Web implementations.


“Dublin” Refers to Dublin, Ohio , USA Where the scheme originated During the 1995 invitational OCLC / NCSA Metadata Workshop, [8] hosted by the Online Computer Library Center (OCLC), a library consortium based in Dublin, and the National Center for Supercomputing Applications (NCSA). “Core” refers to the metadata terms as “broad and generic being usable for describing a wide range of resources”. [4] The semantics of Dublin Core Were Established and are maintained by international year, cross-disciplinary group of professionals from librarianship , computer science , text encoding , museums ,

Starting in 2000, the Dublin Core community focused on ” application profiles ” – the idea that metadata records would use Dublin Core together with other specialized vocabularies to meet particular implementation requirements. During this time, the World Wide Web Consortium was a model for metadata, the Resource Description Framework (RDF), was maturing. As part of an extended set of DCMI Metadata Terms, Dublin Core became one of the most popular vocabularies for use with RDF, more recently in the context of the Linked Data movement. [9]

The Dublin Core Metadata Initiative (DCMI) [10] provides an open forum for the development of interoperable online metadata standards for a broad range of applications and business models. DCMI’s activities include consensus-driven working groups, global conferences and workshops, standards binding, and educational efforts to promote widespread acceptance of metadata standards and practices. In 2008, DCMI separated from OCLC and incorporated as an independent entity. [11]

The DCMI Namespace Policy (DCMI-NAMESPACE) is currently in use by the DCMI Namespace Policy (DCMI-NAMESPACE). This policy describes how the terms of reference are defined and used. [12]

Levels of the standard

The Dublin Core standard originally includes two levels: Simple and Qualified. Simple Dublin Core comprised 15 elements; Qualified Dublin Core included three additional elements (Audience, Provenance and RightsHolder), as well as a group of element refinements (also called qualifiers) that could refine the semantics of the elements in ways that could be useful in resource discovery.

Since 2012, the DCMI Metadata Terms are a single set of terms using the Resource Description Framework (RDF). [13] The full set of elements is found under the namespace http://purl.org/dc/terms/ . Because the definition of the terms Often contains domains and ranges, qui May not be consistent with the pre-RDF definitions used for the original 15 Dublin Core Elements, there is a separate namespace for the original 15 Elements Previously defined as: http: // Purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/ . [14]

Dublin Core Metadata Element Set Version 1.1

The original Dublin Core Metadata Element consists of 15 metadata elements: [4]

  1. title
  2. Creator
  3. Subject
  4. Description
  5. Publisher
  6. Contributor
  7. Dated
  8. Type
  9. Format
  10. Identify
  11. Source
  12. Save
  13. Relationship
  14. Coverage
  15. Rights

Each Dublin Core element is optional and may be repeated. The DCMI has established standard methods to refine and encourage the use of encoding and vocabulary schemes. There is no prescribed order in Dublin Core for presenting or using the elements. The Dublin Core became ISO 15836 standard in 2006 and is used as a base-level data element for the ISO / IEC 19788 -2 Metadata for learning resources (MLR) By the ISO / IEC JTC1 SC36 .

Dublin Core Metadata Registry. [15]

Example of code

<meta name="DC.Format" content="video/mpeg; 10 minutes">
<meta name="DC.Language" content="en" >
<meta name="DC.Publisher" content="publisher-name" >
<meta name="DC.Title" content="HYP" >

An example of use [and mention] of DC (by WebCite )

At the webpage qui reserves as the “archive” form for WebCite , [16] it says, in hand: “Metadata (optional) These are Dublin Core Elements […].”.

Qualified Dublin Core (superseded in 2008 by DCMI Metadata Terms [17] )

Subsequent to the specification of the original 15 elements, an ongoing process to develop exemplary terms, the Dublin Core Metadata Element Set (DCMES) was begun. The Dublin Core Metadata Initiative, and the Dublin Core Metadata Initiative.

Elements refinements make the meaning of an element narrower or more specific. A refined element shares the meaning of the unqualified element, but with a more restricted scope. The guiding principle for the qualification of the Dublin Core elements, colloquially known as the Dumb-Down Principle , [18] states that an application that does not understand a specific refinement term should be able to ignore the qualifier and treat the metadata value as if It was an unqualified (broader) element. While this may result in some loss of specificity, the remaining element of value should be continued and useful for discovery.

In addition to element refinements, Qualified Dublin Core includes a set of recommended encoding schemes, designed to aid in the interpretation of an element value. These schemes include controlled vocabularies and formal notations or parsing rules. A value expressed using an encoding scheme may also be a token. (2000, 12-31 “as the ISO standard expression of a date. If an encoding scheme can not be used by human readers .

Audience, Provenance and RightsHolder are elements, but not part of the Simple Dublin Core 15 elements. Use Audience, Provenance and RightsHolder only when using Qualified Dublin Core. DCMI also maintains a small, general vocabulary recommended for use within the element Type. This vocabulary currently consists of 12 terms. [15]

DCMI Metadata Terms

The Dublin Core Metadata Initiative (DCMI) Metadata Terms is the current set of the Dublin Core vocabulary. [13] This set includes the fifteen terms of the Dublin Core Metadata Element Set (in italic ), as well as the qualified terms. Each term has a unique URI in the namespace http://purl.org/dc/terms , and all are defined as RDF properties.

  • abstract
  • accessRights
  • accrualMethod
  • accrualPeriodicity
  • accrualPolicy
  • alternative
  • audience
  • available
  • bibliographicCitation
  • conformsTo
  • contributor
  • coverage
  • created
  • creator
  • dated
  • dateAccepted
  • dateCopyrighted
  • dateSubmitted
  • description
  • educationLevel
  • extent
  • format
  • hasFormat
  • hasPart
  • hasVersion
  • identify
  • instructionalMethod
  • isFormatOf
  • isPartOf
  • isReferencedBy
  • isReplacedBy
  • isRequiredBy
  • Issued
  • isVersionOf
  • language
  • license
  • mediator
  • medium
  • modified
  • origin
  • publisher
  • references
  • relationship
  • replaces
  • requires
  • rights
  • RightsHolder
  • source
  • spatial
  • subject
  • table of contents
  • temporal
  • title
  • type
  • valid


Syntax choices for Dublin Core metadata depends on a number of variables, and “one size fits all” prescriptions rarely apply. When considering an appropriate syntax, it is important to note that Dublin Core concepts and semantics are designed to be syntax independent and are equally applicable in a variety of contexts, as long as the metadata Human beings.

The Dublin Core Abstract Model[19] provides a reference model against which particular Dublin Core encoding guidelines can be compared, independent of any particular encoding syntax. Such a reference model allows implementers to gain a better understanding of the kinds of descriptions they are trying to encode and facilitates the development of better mappings and translations between different syntax.

Some applications

One Document Type Definition based on Dublin Core is the Open Source Metadata Framework (OMF) specification. OMF is used by Rarian (superseding ScrollKeeper ), which is used by the GNOME desktop and KDE help browsers and the ScrollServer documentation server. PBCore is also based on Dublin Core. The Zope CMF’s Metadata products, used by the Plone , ERP5 , the Nuxeo CPS Content Management Systems , SimpleDL , and Fedora Commons also implement Dublin Core. The EPUB e-book format uses Dublin Core metadata in the OPF file . [20] eXo Platform also implements Dublin Core.

DCMI also maintains a list of projects using Dublin Core [21] on its website.

See also

  • Metadata registry
  • Metadata Object Description Schema
  • Metadata from Wikiversity
  • Semantic Web
  • Ontology (information science)
  • Open Archives Initiative
  • Controlled vocabulary
  • Interoperability
  • Asset Description Metadata Schema ( ADMS ), a standard metadata maintained by the World Wide Web Consortium for describing semantic standards. Implemented on Joinup. [22]
  • Metadata Encoding and Transmission Standard (METS), maintained by the Library of Congress for the Digital Library Federation
  • Preservation Metadata: Implementation Strategies (PREMIS)

Related software

  • Dublin Core Meta Toolkit (Conversion of Access, MySQL, or CSV data to DublinCore metadata)
  • Fedora repository architecture and Project (An open-source software system capable of implementing OAI-PMH (and thus Dublin Core).
  • Omeka , A free, open-source, unqualified Dublin-Core compliant web-publishing system for digital archives.
  • The Archivist’s Toolkit is a self-described as an “Archival Data Management System”. It will soon be merged with Archon , which is ambiguous as to its OAI support.
  • ICA-AtoM , a web-based archival description / publication software that can serve as an OAI-PMH repository and uses


  1. Jump up^ “DCMI Metadata Terms” . Dublincore.org . Retrieved 5 April 2013 .
  2. Jump up^ “DCMI Metadata Terms” . Dublincore.org . Retrieved 5 April 2013 .
  3. Jump up^ “DCMI Specifications” . Dublincore.org. 14 December 2009 . Retrieved 5 April 2013 .
  4. ^ Jump up to:a b c “Dublin Core Metadata Element Set, Version 1.1” . Dublincore.org . Retrieved 5 April 2013 .
  5. Jump up^ The Dublin Core Metadata Element Set, Dublin Core Metadata Initiative, August 2007
  6. Jump up^ “ISO 15836: 2009 – Information and documentation – The Dublin Core metadata element set” . Iso.org. 18 February 2009 . Retrieved 5 April2013 .
  7. Jump up^ “NISO Standards – National Information Standards Organization” . Niso.org. 22 May 2007 . Retrieved 5 April 2013 .
  8. Jump up^ OCLC / NCSA Metadata Workshop
  9. Jump up^ “DCMI Metadata Basics”. dublincore.org/metadata-basics/.
  10. Jump up^ “DCMI Home: Dublin Core® Metadata Initiative (DCMI)” . Dublincore.org . Retrieved 2015-12-04 .
  11. Jump up^ “OCLC Research and the Dublin Core Metadata Initiative” . Retrieved 21 April 2010 .
  12. Jump up^ “Dublin Core Metadata Element Set, Version 1.1” . Dublincore.org . Retrieved 2015-12-04 .
  13. ^ Jump up to:a b “DCMI Metadata Terms” . Dublincore.org . Retrieved 2015-12-04 .
  14. Jump up^ Dublin Core Metadata Element Set, version 1.1
  15. ^ Jump up to:a b Dublin Core Metadata Registry
  16. Jump up^ “WebCite archive form” . WebCite . Metadata (optional) These are Dublin Core elements. […]
  17. Jump up^ “Dublin Core Qualifiers” . Dublincore.org . Retrieved 2017-05-27 .
  18. Jump up^ Dumb-Down Principle for qualifiers
  19. Jump up^ Dublin Core Abstract Model
  20. Jump up^ “Open Packaging Format (OPF) 2.0.1 – 2.2: Publication Metadata” . International Digital Publishing Forum . Retrieved 12 September 2013 .
  21. Jump up^ “DCMI Projects – Alphabetical” . DCMI . Retrieved 15 March 2013 .
  22. Jump up^ “Joinup | Joinup” . Joinup.ec.europa.eu. 2015-10-22 . Retrieved 2015-12-04 .

Leave a Comment

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *