Design for All (in ICT)

Design for All in the context of information technology and communications (ICT) is the conscious and systematic efforts to proactively apply principles, methods and tools to Promote universal design in computer -related article Technologies, Including Internet -based technologies, THUS Avoiding the need for a Posteriori adaptations, or specialized design (Stephanidis et al., 2001). [1]

Design for All is designed for human diversity , social inclusion and equality. [2] It should not be conceived of as an effort to advance a single solution for everybody, but as a user-centred approach to providing products that can suitably address the possible range of human abilities, skills, requirements, and preferences. Consequently, the outcome of the design process is not intended to be a singular design, but a design is a space for which each alternative has been chosen. designed.

Traditionally, accessibility problems have been solved with adaptations and the use of assistive technology . Universal Access implies the accessibility and usability of information and telecommunications technologies by anyone at any place and at any time and their inclusion in any living context. It aims to provide a framework for the development and implementation of new technologies and technologies for the development and implementation of human resources. These products and services must be capable of accommodating individual user requirements in different contexts of use, independent of location, Target machine, or runtime environment. Therefore, the approach to the use of equipment or services is generalized. Citizens are supposed to live in environments populated with intelligent objects , where the tasks to be performed and the way of performing them are completely redefined, involving a combination of activities of access to information, interpersonal communication, and environmental control. Citizens should be given the opportunity to carry them out easily and pleasantly. Citizens are supposed to live in environments populated with intelligent objects , where the tasks to be performed and the way of performing them are completely redefined, involving a combination of activities of access to information, interpersonal communication, and environmental control. Citizens should be given the opportunity to carry them out easily and pleasantly. Citizens are supposed to live in environments populated with intelligent objects , where the tasks to be performed and the way of performing them are completely redefined, involving a combination of activities of access to information, interpersonal communication, and environmental control. Citizens should be given the opportunity to carry them out easily and pleasantly.

For a thorough discussion of the challenges and benefits of ICT, see also the EDeAN White Paper (2005) [3] and the “Report on the impact of technological developments on eAccessibility” [4] of the DfA @eInclusion project. [5]

Benefits and challenges

The European Commission on e-Accessibility, [6] identified a core of practical challenges, as well as market-oriented approaches to improving eAccessibility and e-Inclusion in Europe, and elaborated a three-fold approach based on:

  • Accessibility requirements in public procurement
  • Accessibility certification and
  • Better use of existing legislation.

In what respect, the challenges that need to be addressed include:

  • The introduction of specific legislative measures to complement and enhance existing legislation,
  • Addressing and motivating the industry,
  • Effective benchmarking ,
  • Providing harmonized standardization ,
  • The creation of a curriculum for DfA and,
  • Addressing future research activities.

Legislative and regulative background

The present policy of accessibility in the Information Society in Europe is the i2010 initiative. [7] The “i2010 – A European Information Society for Growth and Employment” initiative was launched by the European Commission as a framework for addressing the main challenges and developments in the information society. ICT as a driver of inclusion and quality of life. The European Commission has adopted a policy of encouraging the development of the digital economy.

Equality and non-discrimination

The goal of the European Union Disability Strategy is to open and reach all. The barriers need to be identified and removed. The European Union Disability Strategy has three main focuses: co-operation between the Commission and the Member States , full participation of people with disabilities, and mainstreaming disability in policy formulation. Non-discrimination is also one of the general principles of the “Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities”, [8] adopted by the United Nations General Assembly on 13 December 2006 and was opened for signature on 30 March 2007.

Telecommunications and information society

There is a long tradition of European legislation with regard to telecommunications. In 2002, the European Union adopted a new regulatory framework for electronic communications networks and services, covering all forms of fixed and wireless telecoms, data transmission and broadcasting. From a Design for All perspective, the MOST significant Guidelines Are The Directive was common regulatory framework [9] and the Directive is universal service and users’ rights Relating to electronic communications networks and services [10] ( Universal Service Directive ).

Public procurement

Public procurement is an important economic force, and therefore it is an important tool to promote accessibility. The legislative package of public procurement Directives, approved in 2004 by the European Parliament and the Council of Ministers, will help simplify and modernize procurement procedures.

The new guidelines make it possible to take accessibility to several stages of a procurement process. It is obvious that it is essential to refer to standards when making technical specifications. There are already many CEN , ETSIand ITU standards which can be used for this purpose and many sources which can be useful in practice. Likewise, guidelines like the WAI guidelines, for example, or national guidelines have been used. In the future it will be easier to find suitable standards. Mandate M / 376 [11] Standardized Organizations CEN , CENELEC and ETSI ,


Not all products are accessible for persons with disabilities. When producing audio books, or some other accessible works, an additional copy is created, and copyright can be a problem in this situation. On the other hand, copyright is an essential part of the sustainability of a creative society. This conflict of interests must be solved in order to ensure the Information Society is a Society for All. There is international and European legislation in this field.

Protection of privacy

The relationship between design and privacy is not necessarily obvious. Modern technology, which is a result of design, is able to collect significant amounts of personal information. The user has an interest in that information being correct and in it being used appropriately. The person who wants to keep something confidential and have access to the information that has been collected. In other words, privacy is desired. In 1995 the European Union adopted a Directive on the processing of personal data. [14]

This Directive establishes the basic principles for the collection, storage and use of personal data which should be respected by governments, businesses and other organizations. Within the context of Design for All (in ICT), privacy protection is called Privacy by Design .

Relevant guidelines and standards

In the US, Australia, Japan and in the European Union more and more legislative actions are put in place to ensure that their products and services are accessible and usable not only by “standard” users but also by others Such as elderly persons or people with an impairment. As it would be unwise to write down technical – and therefore time-bound – requirements into a law, legislative texts.

Standardization: general overview

Standardization , ie in very general terms, Producing a “standard” (French standard standard ; German: Norm ; Spanish: norma ) is a voluntary work set up in the past, Almost uniquely, by trading partners Who believe que la standardization Will permit the exchange of goods and goods. This implied very often that the acceptance of the standards is also voluntary and triggered by expected commercial benefits. Only to a very limited extent. On the other hand, the laws of many countries are not binding. The net result of this need for standards is that nowadays many standardization initiatives are stimulated (= subsidized) by public bodies or in Europe, directly and indirectly by the European Commission. Also many guidelines have been created by stakeholder groups.

Recent developments in DfA related standardization

As DfA standardization was explicitly mentioned in the eEurope2002 [15] and i2010 [16] Action Plans of the European Union, several new actions were established since then. Four major recent strategies can be distinguished:

  • The set of coordinating groups and organizations;
  • The democratization of the standardization processes themselves;
  • The increasing impact of non-formal standardization bodies and;
  • The establishment of standardization related discussion fora open for non-specialists.

DfA in ICT related standards

  • ETSI EG 202 116 V1.2.2 (2009-03)

ETSI Human Factors (HF) Guide Guidelines for ICT products and services; “Design for All” [17]

  • Web Content Accessibility Guidelines 2.0

The Web Content Accessibility Guidelines (WCAG) 2.0 [18] is a technical standard that covers a wide range of recommendations for making Web content more accessible. This paper presents the results of the study of the disability and limitations of disabilities. Following these guidelines will often make your web content more usable to users in general.

  • BS 8878: 2010 Web accessibility – Code of Practice

BS 8878: 2010 Web accessibility – Code of Practice [19] provides guidance on how to embed accessibility. The Standard provides non-technical website owners a better understanding of the value of inclusive design, and a framework for how to use guidelines as WCAG 2.0 to help them create products which are Designed for All. The Standard’s lead-author, Jonathan Hassell, BS 8878 to help organizations better understand how the standard can help them.

Application domains

The application domains of Design for All in the context of ICT, practically include every field involving Information and Communication Technologies.

The significance of the application domains reflects their role in establishing a coherent and socially acceptable information society. The critical application domains for Design for All, can be summarized as follows:

  • Life-long learning
  • Public information systems, terminals and information appliances (eg kiosks, smart home environments)
  • Transaction services (eg, banking)
  • Electronic commerce applications and services
  • Social services for the citizens (eg, administration, elderly, transport, health care, awareness)
  • Tools to allow for added-value information services (eg, creation, storage, retrieval and exchange of user experiences, traces and views)
  • Security

The White Paper “Toward an Information Society for All: An International R & D Agenda” (1998) [20] published by the International Scientific Forum “Towards an Information Society for All” (ISF-IS4ALL), [21] HAS Discussed the significance of These application domains:

“Life-long learning is a critical area where the emphasis should be placed, in the” knowledge “society of the future. And social interaction amongst groups of people. This article is based on a study of the role of social interaction in the development of knowledge.

Another important application area is the development of general purpose public information systems, terminals and information appliances, (eg, information kiosks for access to community-wide information services). These are expected to be used in increasingly different contexts, including public places, homes, classrooms, etc., and provide the means for ubiquitous and nomadic access. Environmental control will also become increasingly important. Smart environments will progressively penetrate a wide range of human activities in hospitals, hotels, public administration buildings, etc. Teleoperation of such environments will also increase the attention to facilitate responsiveness to unforeseen events, enhanced mobility and security.

Finally, a broad range of transaction services (eg, banking, advertising, entertainment), social services for citizens (eg, administration, health care, education, transport), and electronic commerce applications, will become increasingly important in reshaping business and residential Human activities (…) security, privacy and control are central themes in the evolution of socially acceptable Information Society and should receive immediate attention. At the same time, they will increasingly build more complex targets to accomplish, as they span across different levels of telecommunications infrastructure, from end-to-end services and applications. “

Education and training

One of the most important issues in the design and development of education and training programs. Professionals are required to have a comprehensive knowledge and skills in Design for All; ICT industry need to acquire additional knowledge and skills regarding Design for All.

Little evidence of a university degree program that specializes in design for all or a module about this. [22] This lack was tackled in the project DfA @ eInclusion, which devised curricula: [23]

  • A bachelor level introductory course, which aims to enable students to have an understanding of the ethical and social issues of Design for All, and the role of Design for All as an enabler of accessibility and participation in the information society
  • A masters level program which aims to enable students to design, develop, implement, evaluate and manage a wide range of ICT systems. All. [24]

The implementation of Such programs is already under way in A Few places, for example at Oslo and Akershus University College of Applied Sciences, [25] the Middlesex University, [26] UK, University of Linz, [27] Austria and the University of Trás-os-Montes and Alto Douro, [28] Portugal. Core topics include an understanding of the principles of human rights, the development of standards, regulations and legislation, and the design and development of assistive technologies.

Web accessibility is an significant component of Accessing the information society and information and guidance is offert by the World Wide Web Consortium’s Web Accessibility Initiative (WAI) [29] as well as online tutorials (for example, Opera’s Web Standards Curriculum [30] ).

The complementary approach of training for professionals in ICT industry has also been tackled by the DfA @ eInclusion project. [31] A comprehensive curriculum for such trainings has been recommended and is currently subject to a CEN workshop negotiation. The CEN Workshop “Curriculum for Training Professionals in Universal Design (UD-Prof)” [32] has been implemented in May 2009. Following the general rules for CEN workshops, it offers all interested stakeholders an opportunity to discuss and improve this DfA curriculum ICT professionals.

Examples of good practice

  • Opera (web browser) was designed with the commitment to be used by as many people as possible.
  • Audiobooks are good examples for. Audiobooks for leisure, learning, and information. Listening Books It is the only audiobook charity in the UK providing an internet streaming and postal service to anyone who has a disability or illness which makes it difficult to hold a book, turn its pages, or read in the usual way. [33]
  • E-Government uses information and communication (ICT) technology to provide and improve government services, transactions and interactions with citizens, businesses and other arms of government. [34] [35]
  • Elevators provide an alternative way to reach different floor levels. Modern accessible elevators use information and communication technology to adapt themselves to any user imaginable. The closing speed of the doors is adjustable so people can safely enter or slowly as required. Controls of the elevator provide visual and audible feedback to the user. Blind people profit from tactile keys. Braille labeling is located besides the keys so they are not accidentally pushed while reading them. The emergency intercom system operates aurally and visually. Wireless tagging (eg RFID ), facial recognition ,
  • The Inclusive Design Toolkit [36] presents examples of how Design for All can be implemented.
  • Other examples of Design for All in ICT are presented in EDEAN’s Education and Training Resource. [37]

Related networks and projects

European Design for all eAccessibility Network

The European Design for All e-Accessibility Network – EDeAN [38] is a network of 160 organizations in European Union member states. The goal of the network is to support all citizens’ access to the Information Society. EDeAN provides:

  • A European Forum for Design for All issues, supporting EU’s e-inclusion goals
  • Awareness raising in the public and private sectors
  • Online resources on Design for All

The network is coordinated by the EDEAN Secretariat, which rotates annually and the corresponding National Contact Centers which are the contact points for EDeAN in each EU member state.

Design for All Europe

EIDD – Design for All Europe is a 100% self-financed European organization that covers the entire area of ​​theory and practice of design for all, from the built environment and tangible products to communication, service and system design. Originally set up in 1993 as the European Institute for Design and Disability (EIDD), to enhance the quality of life through its core business. EIDD – Design for All Europe disseminates the application of Design for All to business and administration

Examples of EU-funded research projects addressing ICT and inclusion

  • Design for all for e-Inclusion [39]

This is a support project to EDeAN. Design for All in Design and Design for All. Design for All in Undergraduate and Postgraduate Levels.

  • DIADEM: [40] Delivering Inclusive Access for Disabled or Elderly Members of the Community

The project aims to develop an adaptable web browser for people with reduced cognitive skills, which can be used at home and at work.

  • I2Home: [41] Intuitive interaction for home appliances

The project seeks to develop a universal remote console that will allow networked access to everyday appliances in the home.

  • SHARE-IT: [42] Supported Human Autonomy for Recovery and Enhancement of Cognitive and Motor Abilities Using Information Technologies

This project is developing scalable and adaptive ‘add-ons’ which will allow ICTs for the home.

  • HaH: [43] Hearing at Home

This project is looking at the next generation of assistive devices which will help hearing-impaired people to participate fully in the Information Society.

  • CogKnow: [44] Helping people with mild dementia navigate their day

CogKnow aims to develop and prototype a cognitive prosthetic device to help those struggling with dementia to perform their daily activities.

  • MonAmi: [45] Mainstreaming Ambient Intelligence

The project seeks to mainstream the accessibility of consumer goods and services. The people who live in their own homes and stay in their communities.

  • USEM : User Empowerment in Standardization [46]

The standardized activities in the area of ​​ICT.

  • VAALID: [47] Accessibility and Usability Validation Framework for AAL Interaction Design Process

Ambient Assisted Living solutions. The project aims at creating and simulating sustainable development.

  • PERSONA: [48] Perceptive Spaces promoting Independent Aging

The ambient assisted living products and services that are affordable, easy to use and commercially viable. The project develops an integrated technological platform that seamlessly links the various products and services for social inclusion, for support in daily life activities, for early risk detection, for personal protection and mobility and displacements within his neighborhood / Town, all of which make a living of freedom within their families.

See also

  • Design for All (design philosophy)
  • Universal Design
  • Computer accessibility
  • Accessibility
  • Knowbility


  1. Jump up^ User Interfaces for All: Concepts, Methods and Tools. Constantine Stephanidis, (Ed.) Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 2001, Accessed 2009-10-05.
  2. Jump up^ EIDD Stockholm Declaration, 2004
  3. Jump up^ EDeAN White Paper: promoting Design for All and e-Accessibility in Europe, Accessed 2009-10-05.
  4. Jump up^ Report on the impact of technological developments on eAccessibility, Accessed 2009-10-05.
  5. Jump up^ DfA @ eInclusion project website, Accessed 2009-10-05.
  6. Jump up^ Communication from the Commission to the Council, the European Parliament, the European Economic and Social Committee and the Committee of the Regions: e Accessibility, Brussels 2005, Accessed 2009-10-05.
  7. Jump up^ The i2010 initiative website, Accessed 2009-10-05.
  8. Jump up^ Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities, Accessed 2009-10-05.
  9. Jump up^ Directive 2002/21 / EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 7 March 2002 on a common regulatory framework for electronic communications networks and services (Framework Directive), Accessed 2009-10-05.
  10. Jump up^ Directive 2002/22 / EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 7 March 2002 is universal service and users’ rights Relating to electronic communications networks and services (Universal Service Directive) [Official Journal L 108 of 24 April 2002], Accessed 2009-10-05.
  11. Jump up^ European Commission Enterprise and Industry Directorate-General (2005):Standardization Mandate to CEN, CENELEC and ETSI in the support of European accessibility requirements for public procurement of products and services in the ICT domain, Accessed 2009-10-09.
  12. Jump up^ Directive 2001/29 / EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 22 May 2001 on the harmonization of some aspects of copyright and related rights in the information society. , Accessed 2009-10-05.
  13. Jump up^ World Intellectual Property Organization, Accessed 2009-10-05.
  14. Jump up^ Directive 2002/58 / EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 12 July 2002 concernant the processing of personal data and the protection of privacy in the electronic communications sector (Directive is privacy and electronic communications), Accessed 2009-10 -05.
  15. Jump up^ Council of the European Union Commission of the European Communities: E-Europe2002: An Information Society for Action Action Plan for the Feira European Council, Accessed 2009-10-05.
  16. Jump up^ Communication from the Commission to the Council, the European Parliament, the European Economic and Social Committee and the Committee of the Regions – “i2010 – A European Information Society for growth and employment” {SEC (2005) 717}, Accessed 2009 -10-05.
  17. Jump up^ ETSI EG 202 116 V1.2.1 (2002-09): Human Factors (HF); Guidelines for ICT products and services; “Design for All”, Accessed 2009-10-05.
  18. Jump up^ Web Content Accessibility Guidelines (WCAG) 2.0. Accessed 2009-07-24.
  19. Jump up^ BS 8878: 2010 Web accessibility – Code of Practice. Accessed 2010-12-07.
  20. Jump up^ Stephanidis, C. (Ed.), Salvendy, G., Akoumianakis, D., Bevan, N., Brewer, J., Emiliani, PL, Galetsas, A., Haataja, S., Iakovidis, I. , Jackson, J., Jenkins, P., Karshmer, A. Korn, P. Marcus A. Murphy H. Stary C. Vanderheiden G. Weber G. & Ziegler J (1998):Towards an Information Society for All: An International R & D Agenda. International Journal of Human Computer Interaction, 10 (2), 107-134, Accessed 2009-10-05.
  21. Jump up^ International Scientific Forum “Towards an Information Society for All”, Accessed 2009-10-05
  22. Jump up^ Whitney G, Keith S (2008) European Developments in the Design and Implementation of Training for eInclusion. Springer Lecture Notes in Computer Science: Computers Helping People with Special Needs (Book) Volume 5105/2008 pp156-161
  23. Jump up^ Keith S., Whitney G.The production of syllabi for a range of DfA races in ICT, November 2008. Accessed 2009-06-20.
  24. Jump up^ Keith, S., G. Whitney, J. Wilson, Design for All @ eInclusion: Best Practice in Education and Training, AAATE ’09. 2009: Florence.
  25. Jump up^ Master of Universal Design of ICT, Accessed 2014-06.02.
  26. Jump up^ MSc Digital Inclusion at Middlesex University, Accessed 2009-10-06.
  27. Jump up^ ‘ Institute Integriert Studieren at the University of Linz, Accessed 2009-10-06.
  28. Jump up^ Licenciatura and master degree in Rehabilitation and Accessibility at UTADAccessed 2013-11-12.
  29. Jump up^ W3C-WAI, Accessed 2009-10-05.
  30. Jump up^ Opera Web Standards Curriculum, Accessed 2009-10-05.
  31. Jump up^ Schmidt-Belz, B. and Y. Mohamad,Exemplary Training Modules on eAccessibility for industry training, 2009, Accessed 2009-06-20.
  32. Jump up^ CEN Workshop on ‘Curriculum for training professionals in Universal Design’ (WS / UD-PROF), Accessed 2009-06-09.
  33. Jump up^ Listening Books, Accessed 2009-08-17.
  34. Jump up^ Austrian e-Government portal. Accessed 2009-08-17
  35. Jump up^ Greek e-Government Portal, Accessed 2009-08-17.
  36. Jump up^ Inclusive Design Toolkit, Accessed 2009-10-06.
  37. Jump up^ Education and Training Resource, Accessed 2009-10-06.
  38. Jump up^ European Design for All e-Accessibility Network – EDeAN, Accessed 2009-08-04.
  39. Jump up^ DfA @ eInclusion project website, Accessed 2009-10-06.
  40. Jump up^ DIADEM project website, Accessed 2009-10-06.
  41. Jump up^ I2Home project website, Accessed 2009-10-06.
  42. Jump up^ SHARE-IT project website, Accessed 2009-10-06.
  43. Jump up^ HaH project website, Accessed 2009-10-06.
  44. Jump up^ CogKnow project website, Accessed 2009-10-06.
  45. Jump up^ MonAmi project website, Accessed 2009-10-06.
  46. Jump up^ USEM project website, Accessed 2009-10-06.
  47. Jump up^ VAALID project website, Accessed 2009-12-10.
  48. Jump up^ PERSONA project website, Accessed 2009-12-10

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