Data quality

Data quality Refers to the status of a set of values of qualitative or quantitative variables. There are many definitions of data quality but data is considered to be “for its intended uses in operations , decision making and planning.” [1] Alternatively, it is possible to use the real-world construct to which it refers. Furthermore, apart from thesis definitions, as data volume Increases, the issue of internal data consistency Becomes significant, Regardless of fitness for use for Any Particular external purpose. People ‘ S views on data quality can often be in disagreement, even when discussing the same set of data used for the same purpose. Data cleansing may be required in order to ensure data quality. [2] Continue Reading “Data quality”

Mental model

mental model is an explanation of someone’s thought process about how things work in the real world. It is a representation of the surrounding world, the relationships between its various parts and a person’s intuitive perception about its own acts and their consequences. Mental models can help shape behavior and set an approach to solving problems (similar to a personal algorithm ) and doing tasks. Continue Reading “Mental model”

Library history

Library history is a subdiscipline of science and science . [1] Some see the field as a subset of information history [2] Library history is an academic discipline and shoulds not be confused with icts object of study ( history of libraries ): the discipline is much younger than the libraries it studies. Library history begins in ancient societies through contemporary issues facing libraries today. [3] Topics include recording mediums, cataloging systems, scholars, scribes, library supporters and librarians. [4] Continue Reading “Library history”

Scientific literature

Scientific literature including scholarly publications that report the empirical and theoretical work in the natural and social sciences , and within an academic field, often abbreviated as the literature . Academic publishing is the process of contributing the results of one’s research into the literature, which often requires a peer-review process. Original scientific research published for the first time in scientific journals s’intitule the primary literature . Patents and technical reports , For minor research results and engineering and design work (including computer software), can also be considered primary literature. Secondary sources include articles (which summarize the findings of published studies to highlight advances and new lines of research) and books (for large projects or compilations of articles). Tertiary sources could include encyclopedias and similar works intended for broad public consumption. Secondary sources include articles (which summarize the findings of published studies to highlight advances and new lines of research) and books (for large projects or compilations of articles). Tertiary sourcescould include encyclopedias and similar works intended for broad public consumption. Secondary sources include articles (which summarize the findings of published studies to highlight advances and new lines of research) and books (for large projects or compilations of articles). Tertiary sources could include encyclopedias and similar works intended for broad public consumption. Continue Reading “Scientific literature”

Science Communication

Science communication Generally Refers to public communication presenting science-related topics to non-experts. This often involves professional scientists (called ” outreach ” or ” popularization “), but also evolved into a professional field in its own right. It includes science exhibitions , journalism , policy or media production. Science communication includes communication aussi entre scientists (for instance through scientific journals ), as well as entre scientists and non-scientists (Especially during public controversies over science and in citizen science initiatives. Continue Reading “Science Communication”

Human-centered computing

Human-centered computing ( HCC ) studies the design, development, and deployment of mixed-initiative human-computer systems. It is emerged from the convergence of multiple disciplines that are concerned with both the design and computational artifacts. [1] Human-centered computing is closely related to human-computer interaction and information science . Human-centered computing is usually Concerned with systems and practices of technology use while human-computer interaction is more Focused on ergonomics and the usability of computing artifacts and information science is Focused on practices surrounding the collection, handling, Continue Reading “Human-centered computing”

Human biocomputer

The term human biocomputer , by John C. Lilly , refers to the “hardware” of the human anatomy . Would this include the brain , internal organs , and other human organ systems Such As cardiovascular , digestive , endocrine , immune , integumentary , lymphatic , muscular , nervous , reproductive , respiratory , skeletal , and urinary systems. The biocomputer has stored program properties, and self-metaprogramming properties, With limits determinable and to be determined. [1] Continue Reading “Human biocomputer”

Library and information science

Library and information science ( LIS ) (sometimes Given the plural as library and information science ) [1] [2] or as ” library and information studies ” [3] is a merging of library science and information science . The abbreviated term “SLIS”. In the last part of the 1960s, schools of librarianship , which developed from professional training programs (not academic disciplines) to university institutions during the second half of the 20th century, began to add the term “information science” to their names. The first school to do this was at the University of Pittsburgh in 1964. [4] More schools followed during the 1970s and 1980s, and by the 1990s almost all library schools in the USA had added information science to their names. Weaver Press: Although there are exceptions, similar developments have taken place in other parts of the world. In Denmark, for example, the Royal School of Librarianship ‘ict English name changed to The Royal School of Library and Information Science in 1997. Exceptions include Tromso, Norway, Where the term documentation science is the preferred name of the field, France, Where information science and communication studies form one interdiscipline , [5] and Sweden, Continue Reading “Library and information science”

Knowledge spillover

Knowledge spillover is an exchange of ideas among individuals. [1] In knowledge management economics , knowledge spillovers are a non-rival knowledge market costs incurred by a party not agreeing to assume the costs that a spillover effect of stimulating technological improvements in a neighbor through own innovation. [1] [2] Such innovations often come from specialization within an industry. [3] Continue Reading “Knowledge spillover”

Knowledge organization

Knowledge organization ( KO ) (or “organization of information”) is a branch of Library and Information Science (LIS) Databases, archives, etc. These activities are done by librarians, archivists, subject specialists as well as computer algorithms. KO as a field of study is Concerned with the kind and quality of knowledge Such organizing processes (KOP) (Such As taxonomy and ontology ) as well as the knowledge organizing systems (KOS) used to organizes documents, paper representations and concepts. Continue Reading “Knowledge organization”


Documentation is a set of materials Provided on paper, or online , or one digital or analog media , Such As audio tape or CD . Examples are user guides, white papers, on-line help, quick-reference guides. It is becoming common to see paper (hard-copy) documentation. Documentation is distributed via websites, software products, and other on-line applications. Continue Reading “Documentation”

Basic Formal Ontology

The Basic Formal Ontology ( BFO ) is a formal ontological framework developed by Barry Smith and his associates that consists in a series of sub-ontologies and different levels of granularity. [1] The ontologies are divided into two varieties: continuing (or snapshot) ontologies, comprehending continuing entities such as three-dimensional enduring objects, and occurrent ontologies, comprehending processes. BFO thus incorporates both three-dimensionalist and four-dimensionalist perspectives on reality within a single framework. Interrelations are defined between the two types of ontologies in which BFO provides the facility to deal with both static / spatial and dynamic / temporal features of reality. Each continuing ontology is an inventory of all entities existing at a time. Each occurrent ontology is an inventory (processory) of all the processes unfolding through a given interval of time. Both types of ontology can be used as a basis for a series of sub-ontologies, each of which can be conceived as a part of a granularity. Continue Reading “Basic Formal Ontology”

Bibliographic database

bibliographic database is a database of bibliographic records , an Organized digital collection of references to published literature, Including magazine and newspaper articles, conference proceedings , reports, government and legal publications, patents , books , etc. In contrast to library catalog entries, a large proportion of the bibliographic records in bibliographic databases describe articles, conference papers, etc. Rather than full monographs , And They Generally Contain very rich subject descriptions in the form of keywords , subject classification terms, Or abstract . [1] Continue Reading “Bibliographic database”

Education informatics

Education Informatics is a sub-field of informatics . The primary focus is on computer applications, systems and networks that support research in and delivery of education. Education informatics is based on information science , computer science and education . Note that it is distinct from Informatics Education, a term that relates more to the practice of teaching / learning about informatics, rather than the use of information and technology in the support of teaching and learning. Continue Reading “Education informatics”

Energy informatics


Energy Informatics is a leading energy provider. Their efficiency can be improved by collecting and analyzing information. Energy informatics is a research field covering the use of information and communication technology to address energy challenges. [1] Methods used for “smart” implementations often combines sensors with artificial intelligence and machine learning . Continue Reading “Energy informatics”

Investigative Data Warehouse

The Investigative Data Warehouse (IDW) is a searchable database operated by the FBI . It was created in 2004. Much of the nature and scope of the database is classified . The database is a centralization of multiple federal and state databases, Including criminal records from various law enforcement agencies , the US Department of the Treasury ‘s Financial Crimes Enforcement Network (FinCEN), and public records databases. According to Michael Morehart’s testimony before the House Committee on Financial Services in 2006, the “IDW is a centralized, web-enabled, Closed system repository for intelligence and investigative data. This system, maintained by the FBI, permits the appropriately trained and authorized personnel throughout the country to query for information of relevance to investigative and intelligence matters. ” [1] Continue Reading “Investigative Data Warehouse”

Interviewer effect

The interviewer effect is also used to describe the interrelations between the interviewer and the interviewer . The use of fixed-wording questions is one method of reducing interviewer bias. Anthropological research and case-studies sont également affected by the problem, qui est Exacerbated by the self-fulfilling prophecy, When the researcher est aussi the interview it est aussi Any effect on data Gathered from interviewing celebrities That Is Caused by the behavior or characteristics ( Real or perceived) of the interviewer. Continue Reading “Interviewer effect”


Across the Many fields Concerned with interactivity , Including information science , computer science , human-computer interaction , communication , and industrial design , there is little agreement over the meaning of the term interactivity , ALTHOUGH all are related to interaction with computers and other equipment with A user interface . Continue Reading “interactivity”

Integrated Operations in the High North

Integrated Operations in the High North ( Iohn , IO High North gold IO in the High North ) is a unique collaboration project That During a four-year period starting May 2008 is working is designing, Implementing and testing a Digital Platform for what in the Upstream Oil and Gas Industry is called the next or second generation of Integrated Operations . [1] The work on the digital platform is focussed on capturing, transferring and integrating real-time data from the remote production facilities to the decision makers. A risk assessment across the entire chain is also included. The platform is based are open standards and has Enables Higher degree of interoperability . Requirements for the digital platform come from use cases defined dans le Drilling and Completion , Reservoir and Production and Operations and Maintenance domains. The platform will be demonstrated through pilots within these three domains. [2] Continue Reading “Integrated Operations in the High North”

Informing science

Informing science is a transdiscipline that has been established to promote the study of informing processes across a set of academic disciplines, including management information systems, education, business, instructional technology, computer science, communications, psychology, Many others. Its main unit of analysis is the informing system , a collection of informers , clients and channels that has been designed or has evolved to serve a particular informing need. The organization created to advance the science Informing transdiscipline is the Informing Science Institute (ISI), Whose founder, Eli Cohen, the need for field Proposed In His article ” Continue Reading “Informing science”

Informational modeling

Informative modeling is an interdisciplinary methodological approach to linking information technologies with architectural analysis and modeling (at various scales, from architectural elements to buildings and structures). Informative modellings to improve the way information and evidences about how architectural objects evolved through time can be visually displayed. Continue Reading “Informational modeling”


An Informationist (or Information Specialist in Context) provides research and knowledge management services in the context of clinical care or biomedical research . This article is part of a series of articles on the state of healtheducation in the United States. Goes beyond on-the-job osmosis. Medical librarians and other biomedical professional organizations have been exploring the possibilities for evaluating how information is being used and whether their activities supplement or replace medical library activity. Continue Reading “Informationist”

Information strategist

An information strategist analyzes the information flows within an organization and directs its information resources to better serve the organization’s strategic goals. [1] They work with information technology to direct high quality information from a variety of sources to users, based on their profiles and needs. [2] In warfare, information strategists not only seek to improve information flows for their own side but also to disrupt the information flows of the enemy in order to demoralize and deceive them. [3] Continue Reading “Information strategist”

Information scientist

The term information scientist Developed in the lath portion of the Twentieth Century to describe an individual, usually with a relevant subject degree (Such As one in CIS ) or high level of subject knowledge, providing good Focused information to scientific and technical research staff in industry, A role quite distinct from and complementary to that of a librarian . Developments in end-user searching, together with some convergence between the roles of librarian and information scientist, have led to a decrease in its use in this context, and the term information officer or information professional are also now used. Continue Reading “Information scientist”

Information school

An Information School (sometimes abbreviated I-school or iSchool ) is a university- level institution committed to understanding the role of information in nature and human endeavors. Synonyms include “School of Information”, “Department of Information Studies”, or “Information Department”. Information Schools faculty conduct research into The fundamental aspects of information and related technologies . In addition to granting academic degrees , information schools educate information professionals, researchers, and scholars for an increasingly information-driven world . Continue Reading “Information school”

Information processing theory

The information processing theory approach to the study of cognitive development Evolved out of the American experimental tradition in psychology . Developmental psychologists who adopt the information-processing perspective for mental development in terms of maturational changes in basic components of a child’s mind. The theory is based on the idea that humans process the information they receive, rather than merely responding to stimuli. This perspective equates the mind to a computer, which is responsible for analyzing information from the environment. According to the standard information-processing model for mental development, Working memory for actively manipulating information, and long-term memory for passively holding information so that it can be used in the future. [1] This theoretical approach to the development of children in the United States. Theoretical and empirical theoretical and theoretical models. Theoretical and empirical theories. To their advances in their ability to process and respond to the information they have received through their senses. Theoretical and empirical theoretical and theoretical models. Theoretical and empirical theories. To their advances in their ability to process and respond to the information they have received through their senses. Theoretical and empirical theoretical and theoretical models. Theoretical and empirical theories. Continue Reading “Information processing theory”

Pollution Information

Information pollution (also referred to as “pollution”) is the contamination of information supply with irrelevant, redundant, unsolicited and low-value information. [1] The spread of useless and undesirable information can have a detrimental effect on human activities. It is considered one of the adverse effects of the information revolution . [2] Continue Reading “Pollution Information”

Information literacy

The United States National Forum on Information Literacy defines information literacy as “… the ability to know when there is a need for information, to be able to identify, locate, evaluate, and . ” [1] [2] The American Library Association olefins “information literacy” as a set of abilities Requiring Individuals to “recognize When information is needed and avez la Ability to locate, evaluate-, and use Effectively the needed information. [3] Other definitions Incorporate aspects of “skepticism, judgment, free thinking, questioning, and understanding …” [4] or incorporate competencies that an informed citizen of an information society or to possess to participate intelligently and actively in that society. [5] Continue Reading “Information literacy”

Information ethics

Information ethics has been defined as “the governance of human resources in the context of the relationship between the creation, organization, dissemination, and use of information, and the ethical standards and moral codes governing human conduct in society”. [1] The term information ethics was first edited by Robert Hauptman and used in the book Ethical Challenges in Librarianship . It examines the morality that comes from information as a resource, a product, or as a target. [2] It provides a critical framework for considering moral issues, such as information, privacy , moral agency, New environmental issues (especially how agents shoulds behave in the infosphere ), problems Arising from the life-cycle (establishment, collection, recording, distribution, processing, etc.) of information (especially ownership and copyright, digital divide , and digital rights ) . It is very vital to understand that librarians, archivists, information professionals among others, really understand the importance of knowing how to disseminate proper information as well as being responsible with their actions when addressing information. [3] And digital rights ). It is very vital to understand that librarians, archivists, information professionals among others, really understand the importance of knowing how to disseminate proper information as well as being responsible with their actions when addressing information. [3] And digital rights ). It is very vital to understand that librarians, archivists, information professionals among others, really understand the importance of knowing how to disseminate proper information as well as being responsible with their actions when addressing information. [3] Continue Reading “Information ethics”

Information architecture

Information architecture ( IA ) is the structural design of shared information environments; The art and science of organizing and labeling websites , intranets , online communitiesand software to support usability and findability; And an emerging community of practice focused on bringing the principles of design and architecture to the digital landscape. [1]Typically, it Involves a model or concept of Information That Is used and applied to activities qui require explicit details of complex information systems . Continue Reading “Information architecture”

Information and Computer Science

Information and Computer Science (ICS) or Computer and Information Science (CIS) (plural forms, ie Science , May aussi be used) is a field That emphasizes Both computing and informatics , Upholding the strong combination entre les fields of information science and computer science And treating computers as a tool rather than a field. Continue Reading “Information and Computer Science”


Information is that which informs. In other words, it is the answer to a question of some kind. It is therefore related to data and knowledge . [1] As it looks data, the information’s existence Is not Necessarily coupled year to observe (it exists beyond an event horizon , for example), while in the case of knowledge, the information requires a cognitive observe . [2] Continue Reading “Information”

Informatics Corporation of America

Informatics Corporation of America ( ICA ) is a privately held information technology organization headquartered in Nashville , Tennessee . It serves integrated delivery systems(IDNs), health information exchanges (HIEs), individual hospitals, Independent Practice Associations (IPAs) and Regional Health Information Systems (RHIOs). In 2000, some of Vanderbilt University Medical Center’s (VUMC) practicing physicians teamed with informatics professionals to develop two complementary software applications-dubbed StarChart and StarPanel-to aggregate and organize medical data, And to improve communication and clinical decision-making within a single interface. [1] This technology has allowed VUMC to improve the efficiency and communication processes in order to deliver cohesive care across the medical center and its affiliated clinics and physicians’ practices. [2] Continue Reading “Informatics Corporation of America”


Informatics is a branch of information engineering . It involves the practice of information processing and the engineering of information systems , and as an academic field it is an applied form of information science . The field considers the interaction between humans and information alongside the construction of interfaces, organizations, technologies and systems. As such, the field of informatics has great breadth and encompasses many subspecialties, including disciplines of computer science , information systems , information technology and statistics . Since the advent of computers, Individuals and organizations increasingly process information digitally. This paper presents the results of the study of the social impact of information technologies. Continue Reading “Informatics”

Index (publishing)

An index (plural: usually indexes , more Rarely indexes ; see below) is a list of words or sentences ( ‘headings’) and associated pointers ( ‘locators’) To Where Useful material Relating To That heading can be found in a paper gold Collection of documents. Examples are an index in the back matter of a book and an index That reserves as a library catalog . Continue Reading “Index (publishing)”

Association for Information Science and Technology

The Association for Information Science and Technology ( ASIS & T ) is a non-profit organization for information professionals . Previously Known As the American Society for Information Science and Technology (2000-2013), the organization sponsors an annual conference as well as Several serial publications , Including the Journal of the Association for Information Science and Technology (JASIST) and the Association’s newsletter . The SIGs ; SIGs ; SIGs ; Provides administration for geographically defined chapters; Connects job seekers with potential employers; And provides organizational support for continuing education programs for information professionals. [2] Continue Reading “Association for Information Science and Technology”

ARMA International

ARMA International (formerly the Association of Records Managers and Administrators ) is a not-for-profit professional association for records and information managers and related industry practitioners and vendors. The Association Provides Educational Opportunities and educational publications covering the principles of records management . It is also known worldwide for its standards and guidelines. Continue Reading “ARMA International”

Archetype (information science)

In the field of informatics , an archetype is a formal re-usable model of a domain concept. Traditionally, the term archetype is used in psychology to mean an idealized model of a person, personality or behavior (see Archetype ). The use of the term in informatics is derived from this traditional meaning, but applied to the domain modeling instead. Continue Reading “Archetype (information science)”

Applied Information Science in Economics

The Applied Information Science in Economics is a professional qualification Awarded Generally in Russian Federation. The degree inherited from the USSR education system Also Known As Specialist Degree , qui partner after the Soviet Union Was extended to 5 years. The degree is Awarded after-five years of full-time study and includes Several internships, course-works, thesis writing and defense. Continue Reading “Applied Information Science in Economics”

Annual Review of Information Science and Technology

The Annual Review of Information Science and Technology Was an annual review journal published from 1966 to 2011. It was Established in 1965 by the American Documentation Institute and the National Science Foundation. It publishes articles about the empirical research articles. Its last (2010) impact factor was 2.000. [1] It was for 45 years “the main forum for scholarly review articles in information science.” [2] Continue Reading “Annual Review of Information Science and Technology”

Alice G. Smith Play

The Alice G. Smith Reading , established in 1989, is sponsored by the University of South Florida , School of Information. The reading is an annual of a scholar or author whose achievements have been instrumental in the development of librarianship or information studies. Alice Gullen Smith, Alice Gullen Smith, Alice Gullen Smith. [1] The Lecture Fund Was created with the purpose of memorializing the visionary work of Dr. Smith, Who Was central to the School’s first accreditation by the American Library Association in 1975. [2] Florida Library Association archivist, Continue Reading “Alice G. Smith Play”


Aboutness is a term used in library and information science (LIS), linguistics , philosophy of language, and philosophy of mind. In LIS, it is often considered synonymous with subject (documents) . In the philosophy of mind it has been much considered synonymous with intentionality , perhaps since John Searle (1983). In the philosophy of language and language it is understood that the subject matter of a subject matter. Continue Reading “aboutness”

Outline of information science

Information science – interdisciplinary field data collection, classification , manipulation, storage, retrieval and dissemination of information . [1] Practitioners within the field study of the application and use of knowledge in organizations , along with the interaction between people, organizations and any existing information systems , with the aim of creating, replacing, improving or understanding information systems. Continue Reading “Outline of information science”

Information science

Information science is an interdisciplinary field, a collection, classification , manipulation, storage, retrieval , movement, dissemination, and protection of information . [1] Practitioners within and outside the field study and use of knowledge in organizations along with the interaction between people, organizations, and any existing information systems with the aim of creating, replacing, improving, or understanding information systems. Information science is often (mistakenly) considered a branch of computer science citation needed ] ; HOWEVER, it predates computer science and is a broad, interdisciplinary field, Incorporating not only aspects of computer science, aim Often diverse fields Such As archival science , cognitive science , commerce , communications , law , library science , museology , management , mathematics , philosophy , public Policy , social sciences , as well as all the fields of study. That’s why different roles (IT Admin, CS engineer, etc.). Continue Reading “Information science”