Automatic parking

Automatic parking is an autonomous car-maneuvering system that moves a vehicle from a traffic lane into a parking spot to perform parallel , perpendicular or angle parking . The car park is a short walk from the hotel. The parking maneuver is achieved by means of coordinated control of the steering angle and speed which takes into account the collision-free motion within the available space. [1]

The car is an example of a nonholonomic system where the number of controllers available is less than the number of coordinates that represent its position and orientation.

One of the first assistance systems for car parking was manual. It used four jacks with wheels to raise the car and then move it sideways into the available parking space. This mechanical system was proposed in 1934, but was never offered on any production model. [2]

Development

One of the world’s first experimental prototypes of automatic parallel car was developed on an electric car Ligier at INRIA in the mid-1990s. [1] [3] The underlying technology has been adopted by major automobile manufacturers offering an automatic parking option in their cars today.

The hotel offers a 24-hour front desk service, a hotel safe, currency exchange facilities and lift access. The hotel is located in the heart of the city center, within walking distance of the train station and the airport. [4]

The key idea of ​​automatic parking is to plan and parameterize the basic control profiles of steering angle and speed, in order to achieve the desired shape of the vehicle. The car parking maneuver is Performed as a sequence of controlled motions using data from the sensor as servo systems and range measurements about the environment. The steering and velocity controls are computed in real time and executed. The approach results in various path shapes required to perform parking maneuvers. It was extended to an automatic perpendicular parking on a CyCab electric vehicle in the early 2000s. [5] [6]

In 1992, Volkswagen proposed an automatic parking technology using four-wheel steering in its IRVW (Integrated Research Volkswagen) Futura concept car , allowing it to move sideward for parallel parking. However, no commercial version of this technology was ever offered. [7] The idea of ​​four-wheel steering has been revisited in an electric vehicle ROboMObil of the German Aerospace Center . The vehicle stops in front of an empty parking spot and re-orients its four wheels in the perpendicular direction (leaving rubber marks on the road) to prepare for subsequent sideward motion. [8]

In 2004, a group of Linköping University working with Volvo developed a project Evolve. The Evolve car can automatically perform parallel steering, acceleration and braking of the Volvo S60 . [9]

An automatic parking system uses various methods to detect objects around the vehicle. Sensors installed on the front and rear bumpers can act as both a transmitter and a receiver. These sensors emit a signal that will be reflected back when it encounters an obstacle near the vehicle. Then, the carputer will use the time of flight to determine the position of the obstacle. Other systems use cameras, eg Omniview technology , or radars to detect obstacles and measure the parking space size and distance from the roadside. [10]

An automatic parking system is available. Parking is free of charge. [11]

Commercial systems

In 2003, Toyota began to sell their Japanese Prius hybrid vehicle with an automatic parallel parking capability offered as an option called Intelligent Parking Assist . [12] In 2006, Lexus added a self-parking system to the redesigned Lexus LS sedan; It parks parks as well as angle. In 2009, Ford introduced their Active Park Assist with their Lincoln models; It does parallel parking. [13] In 2010, BMW introduced a system called “parking assistant” on the redesigned 5-series to perform parallel parking. [14]

Up to 2012, automatic parking systems were being developed by several automobile manufacturers. Ford and Lincoln offered active park assist Ford Focus , Fusion , Escape , Explorer and Flex and Lincoln MKS and MKT . Toyota and Lexus had advanced assistant on Toyota Prius V and Lexus LS460 and LS460 L. BMW all-new sixth-generation 3 Series used a system called parking assistant. Audi A6 , Mercedes-Benz aussi offert parking control on Their C-Class , CLS-Class Coupe, M-Class SUV, E-Class , S-Class , GL350 , GL450 SUV (standard we GL550) and R-Class in different prices. [15]

Jeep introduced an automatic parallel and perpendicular parking system, called ParkSense, on its 2014 Cherokee model. [16] Chrysler introduced an all new 2015 200 sedan, offering ParkSense as part of a SafetyTec package. [17]

In 2015, Bosch plans to release a fully automated parking system. This driverless system allows the driver to get out of the car and activate an autonomous parking from a smartphone . The system will calculate a parking maneuver and monitor the surroundings. [18] The parking assistant of BMW i3 can be activated from a smartwatch . [19]

See also

  • Advanced driver-assistance systems
  • Autonomous car (self-driving)
  • Backup collision
  • Backup camera
  • Blind spot monitor
  • Blind spot (vehicle)
  • Car safety
  • Dry steering
  • Intelligent Parking Assist System
  • Intelligent car
  • Parking sensors
  • Rear-view mirror
  • Side-view mirror
  • Sonar
  • Wing mirror

References

  1. ^ Jump up to:a b Paromtchik, Igor; Laugier, Christian (April 1996). “Motion Generation and Control for Parking an Autonomous Vehicle” (PDF) . Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation . Minneapolis, MN, USA. pp. 3117-3122. Doi : 10.1109 / ROBOT.1996.509186 . Retrieved 10 May 2015 .
  2. Jump up^ “Four Wheels On Jacks Park Car” . Popular Science Monthly . September 1934 . Retrieved 9 May 2015 .
  3. Jump up^ Paromtchik, Igor; Laugier, Christian (September 1996). “Autonomous Parallel Parking of a Nonholonomic Vehicle” (PDF) . Proceedings of the IEEE Intelligent Vehicles Symposium . Tokyo, Japan. pp. 13-18. Doi :10.1109 / IVS.1996.566343 .
  4. Jump up^ Paromtchik, Igor; Laugier, Christian (May 1998). “Automatic Parallel Parking and Return to Traffic” . Video Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation . Leuven, Belgium.
  5. Jump up^ Paromtchik, Igor (June 2003). “Planning Control Commands to Assist in Maneuvers” (PDF) . Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Advanced Robotics . Coimbra, Portugal. pp. 1308-1313 . Retrieved 5 May2015 .
  6. Jump up^ Paromtchik, Igor (June 2003). “Planning Control Commands to Assist in Car Maneuvers” . Video presented at the IEEE International Conference on Advanced Robotics . Coimbra, Portugal . Retrieved 5 May 2015 .
  7. Jump up^ “Volkswagen Futura” (video) . 2014 . Retrieved 5 May 2015 .
  8. Jump up^ “A car with space technology – driving with the ROboMObil” (video) . 2013 . Retrieved 1 March 2017 .
  9. Jump up^ “Evolve project on automatic parking” (video) . 2004 . Retrieved 5 May2015 .
  10. Jump up^ Grabianowski, Ed (17 August 2006). “How Self-Parking Cars Work” . Retrieved 5 May 2015 .
  11. Jump up^ Dizikes, Peter (5 November 2010). “AgeLab study: Driver-assistance systems can increase wellness and safety behind the wheel” . MIT News . Retrieved 10 May 2015 .
  12. Jump up^ “Toyota unveils car that parks itself” . CNN International . September 2003 . Retrieved 5 May 2015 .
  13. Jump up^ Mays, Kelsey (15 January 2009). “Up Close: Ford’s Self-Parking System” . Retrieved 9 May 2015 .
  14. Jump up^ Halvorson, Bengt (25 January 2010). “BMW Debuts New Parking Assistant In 2011 5-Series” . Retrieved 9 May 2015 .
  15. Jump up^ Kane, Suzanne (October 2011). “2012 Family Cars with Self-Parking Technology” . Retrieved 6 May 2015 .
  16. Jump up^ Morrison, Jim (15 October 2013). “2014 Jeep Cherokee Park Assist” . Retrieved 9 May 2015 .
  17. Jump up^ “Chrysler Active Park Assist Demo” . 6 November 2014 . Retrieved 9 May 2015 .
  18. Jump up^ “Bosch Fully Automated Parking” . Bosch. 18 February 2015 . Retrieved 18 February 2015 .
  19. Jump up^ Poultney, Leon (17 December 2014). “BMW i3 parks itself at the touch of a smartwatch” . The Sunday Time . Driving.co.uk . Retrieved 9 May2015 .

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