Data quality

Data quality Refers to the status of a set of values of qualitative or quantitative variables. There are many definitions of data quality but data is considered to be “for its intended uses in operations , decision making and planning.” [1] Alternatively, it is possible to use the real-world construct to which it refers. Furthermore, apart from thesis definitions, as data volume Increases, the issue of internal data consistency Becomes significant, Regardless of fitness for use for Any Particular external purpose. People ‘ S views on data quality can often be in disagreement, even when discussing the same set of data used for the same purpose. Data cleansing may be required in order to ensure data quality. [2] Continue Reading “Data quality”

National Transportation for Intelligent Transportation System Protocol

The National Transportation System for Intelligent Transportation System Protocol ( NTCIP ) is a family of standards designed to achieve interoperability and interchangeability between computers and electronic traffic control equipment. Continue Reading “National Transportation for Intelligent Transportation System Protocol”

InSync adaptive traffic control system

The InSync adaptive traffic control system , developed by Rhythm Engineering is an intelligent transportation system that allows traffic signals to adapt to actual traffic demand. As of November 2015, InSync is operating in 2,300 traffic signals in 31 states and 160 municipalities in the US Continue Reading “InSync adaptive traffic control system”

Collaborative decision-making software

Collaborative decision-making (CDM) is a software application or module that helps to coordinate and disseminate data and reach consensus among work groups. [1] Increase in the competition of the marketplaces, changing organizational structures and pushing the limits of expectations and emerging new challenges for higher officials to deal with international collaborations are all the influence of globalization on the businesses. [2] The need to deal with multicultural collaborative groups working in distributed environments to recover from uncertainty, indefinite problem. [2] Continue Reading “Collaborative decision-making software”

Transit (satellite)

The Transit System, also known as NAVSAT or NNSS (for Navy Navigation Satellite System ), was the first satellite navigation system to be used operationally. The system has been used by the US Navy to provide accurate information on its polaris ballistic missile submarines , and it was also used as a navigation system by the Navy’s surface ships , as well as for hydrographic survey and geodetic surveying . Transit provided by the Department of National Defense. Continue Reading “Transit (satellite)”

Clock-face scheduling

clock-face schedule or a cyclic schedule is a timetable system that provides a timetable that is purely driven by demand and has irregular headways . The name derives from the fact that departures take place at the same time or times during the day. For example, services with a half-hourly frequency might leave at 5:15, 5:45, 6:15, 6:45, 7:15, 7:45 etc. Continue Reading “Clock-face scheduling”

Phoenix (ATC)

PHOENIX is a multipurpose Radar Data Processing System (RDPS) / Monitoring Data Processing System (SDPS) – aka tracker – used for ATC Many applications in the Deutsche Flugsicherung (DFS), and is Continuously extended and maintained ever since. PHOENIX is also a fundamental component for all future ATM systems in the DFS into the 2020s and part of the DFS initiative for “ATS componentware” in the European SESAR program. Continue Reading “Phoenix (ATC)”

ASTERIX (standard ATC)

ASTERIX (short for All Purpose Structured Eurocontrol Surveillance Information Exchange ) is a standard for the exchange of air traffic services (ATS) information. It is developed and maintained by the European ATS organization Eurocontrol . ASTERIX not only stands for All-Purpose Structured Eurocontrol Surveillance Information Exchange goal aussi Represents a state-of-the-art monitoring data size qui est Nearly adopté being white by the users world community as the universal standard in this domain today. Continue Reading “ASTERIX (standard ATC)”

IPO model

The input-process-output (IPO) model , or input-process-output pattern, is a Widely used approach in systems analysis and software engineering for Describing the structure of an information processing program or other processes. Many introductory programming and systems analysis introduces this as the most basic structure for describing a process. [1] [2] [3] [4] Continue Reading “IPO model”


Internavi is a vehicle telematics services offert by the Honda Motor Company to drivers in Japan. In the United States, the service is known as HondaLink, or sometimes MyLink. It provides mobile connectivity for on-demand traffic and information services. The service began August 1997 and was first offered in the 1998 Honda Accord and the Honda Torneo sold only in Japan starting July 1998. The service received a revision to services offered October 2002, adding traffic information delivery capabilities to the Internavi Premium Club, And was optional on most Honda vehicles sold in Japan. Continue Reading “Internavi”

International Society for Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing

The International Society for Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing ( ISPRS ) is an international non-governmental organization that enhances international cooperation between the international organizations and interests in the photogrammetry, remote sensing and spatial information sciences. Established in 1910, ISPRS is the oldest international umbrella organization in its field, which may be summarized as addressing “information from imagery”. ISPRS achieves its aims by: Continue Reading “International Society for Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing”

Structured systems analysis and design method

Structured systems analysis and design method ( SSADM ), originally released as methodology , is a systems approach to the analysis and design of information systems. SSADM was produced for the Central Computer and Telecommunications Agency , a UK government office concerned with the use of technology in government, from 1980 onwards. Continue Reading “Structured systems analysis and design method”

Mobile file management

Mobile file management (MFM) is a kind of information technology (IT) Software That Allows businesses to manage transfers and storage of corporate files and other related items were mobile device , and Allows the business to Oversee user access. Mobile file management software is installed Typically we corporate file server like Windows 2008 , and was mobile device Such as tablet computers and smartphones , eg, Android , iPad , iPhone , etc. Other features include the ability to remotely wipe a lost or stolen device, access, Cache files and store device was mobile and integrate with leading solutions permission like Those from Microsoft ‘s Active Directory . [1] [2] Continue Reading “Mobile file management”

International Journal of Intelligent Information Technologies

The Intelligent Information Technologies is a quarterly peer-reviewed academic journal covering intelligent information technologies , especially agent-based systems. It was established in 2005 and is published by IGI Global . The editor-in-chief is Vijayan Sugumaran ( Oakland University ). Continue Reading “International Journal of Intelligent Information Technologies”

Threat Intelligence Platform

Threat Intelligence Platform (TIP) is an emerging technology discipline Originally pioneered by Greg Martin founder of ThreatStream (Anomali) [1] that helps aggregate organisms, correlate, and analyze threat data from multiple sources in real time to supporting defensive shares. TIPs have evolved to address the growing amount of data generated by a variety of internal and external resources (such as system logs and threat intelligence feeds) and help security teams identify the threats that are relevant to their organization. TIP automated proactive threat management and mitigation. TIP automated proactive threat management and mitigation.

Vulnerability assessment (computing)

Vulnerability assessment is a process of defining, identifying and classifying the security holes in information technology systems. An attacker can exploit a vulnerability to violate the security of a system. Some known vulnerabilities are Authentication Vulnerability, Authorization Vulnerability and Input Validation Vulnerability. [1] Continue Reading “Vulnerability assessment (computing)”

United States v. Ivanov

United States v. Ivanov was an American short-range addressing subject-matter jurisdiction for computer crimes committed by Internet users outside the United States against American businesses and infrastructure. In trial court, Aleksey Vladimirovich Ivanov of Chelyabinsk , Russia was indicted for conspiracy , computer fraud , extortion , and possession of illegal access devices; All crimes committed against the Online Information Bureau (OIB) in Vernon, Connecticut . Continue Reading “United States v. Ivanov”

US Army Information Technology Agency

The United States Army Information Technology Agency (ITA) is one of the administrative service organizations under the Office of the Administrative Assistant to the Secretary of the Army (OAA). [2] OAA has three fundamental functions. The primary mission of the organization is to provide direct support to the Secretary of the Army and other Army political appointees. The second mission is to provide administrative support to the Headquarters, Department of the Army (HQDA). The third mission is to provide base operations to a variety of Army and Department of Defense (DoD) customers. The US Army Resources and Programs Agency (RPA), the US Army Headquarters Services (AHS), the US Army Information Technology Agency (ITA) And the US Army Center of Military History (CMH). These divisions support OAA’s mission of providing excellence in service to the Army in areas of IT, logistics, training, and human resources support. Continue Reading “US Army Information Technology Agency”

Software-defined data center

Software-defined data center ( SDDC ; also: virtual data center VDC) is a marketing term That extends virtualization concepts Such As abstraction, pooling, and automation to all data center resources and services to accomplish achieve IT as a service (ITaaS). [1] In a software-defined data center, “all elements of the infrastructure – networking, storage, CPU and security – are virtualized and delivered as a service.” [2] While ITaaS may represent an outcome of SDDC, SDDC is differently cast by whom? ] To integrators and datacenter builders rather than to tenants. Software awareness in the infrastructure is not visible to tenants. Continue Reading “Software-defined data center”

Scientific Research Group In Egypt

Scientific Research Group in Egypt (SRGE) is a group of young Egyptian researchers established under the chairman of the founder group. Aboul Ella Hassanien (Professor of Information Technology at the Faculty of Computer and Information, Cairo University ). The main target of the group is to establish a common community for sharing common interests. Therefore the research map of the Multidisciplinary Group Consists of research interests Including: Networks , Intelligent Environment , bio-informatics , Chemoinformatics , and information security . [1] Continue Reading “Scientific Research Group In Egypt”

Outline of information technology

The following outline is a summary of the topical guide to information technology:

Information technology ( IT ) – microelectronics based combination of computing and telecommunications technology to treat information , Including in the acquisition, processing, storage and dissemination of vocal, pictorial, textual and numerical information. It is defined by the Information Technology Association of America (ITAA) as “the study, design, development, implementation, support or management of computer-based information systems , particularly software applications and computer hardware.” Continue Reading “Outline of information technology”

Bullying in information technology

As a result of advances in technology, information technology has become a highly important economic sector. Although it is relatively new, this industry still experiences many of the workplace culture problems of older industries. Bullying is common in IT, leading to high sickness rates, low morale , poor productivity and high staff turnover . [1] Deadline-driven project work and stressed-out managers take their toll on IT professionals. [2] Continue Reading “Bullying in information technology”

Digital Researcher

Digital Researcher is a person who uses digital technology Such As computers gold PDAs and the Internet , Especially the World Wide Web , to do research (voir aussi Internet research ). Citation needed ] Digital research differs from Internet research fait que Digital Researchers use the Internet as a research tool Rather than the Internet Itself as the subject of study. Citation needed ] A Digital Researcher seeks knowledge as share of a systematic investigation with the specific intent of publishing research Findings in an online open access journal of gold by other social media information exchange formats. Citation needed ] Continue Reading “Digital Researcher”


E-readiness refers to a country’s capacity and state of readiness to participate in the electronic world . The state of maturity is Commonly Measured by the country’s information communications and technology (ICT) infrastructure and the Ability of government icts and citoyens to please use the positive impacts of ICT for sustainable development . [1] [2] Continue Reading “E-readiness”

Design for All (in ICT)

Design for All in the context of information technology and communications (ICT) is the conscious and systematic efforts to proactively apply principles, methods and tools to Promote universal design in computer -related article Technologies, Including Internet -based technologies, THUS Avoiding the need for a Posteriori adaptations, or specialized design (Stephanidis et al., 2001). [1] Continue Reading “Design for All (in ICT)”

Data loss prevention software

Data loss prevention software Detects potential data Breaches / data ex-filtration transmissions and Prevents Them by monitoring, Detecting and sensitive blocking data while in-use (endpoint shares), in-motion (network traffic), and at-rest (data storage) . In data leakage incidents, sensitive data is disclosed to unauthorized parts by either malicious intent or an inadvertent mistake. Sensitive data includes private or company information, intellectual property (IP), or patient financial information, credit-card data and other information. Continue Reading “Data loss prevention software”

Data library

data library , data archive , or data repository is a collection of numerical and / or geospatial data sets for secondary use in research. A data library is Normally portion of a larger institution (academic, corporate, scientific, medical, Governmental, etc.) Established for research data archiving and data to serve the users of That organization. The CD-ROMs or central server for download. A data library may also maintain subscriptions to licensed data for its users to access. Whether a data library is also considered a data archive may depend on the extent of unique holdings in the collection, Whether long-term preservation services are offered, and whether they serve a broader community. Most public data libraries are listed in the Registry of Research Data Repositories . Continue Reading “Data library”

Electronic assessment

Electronic assessment , Also Known As e-assessment , online assessment , computer assisted / mediated assessment and computer-based assessment , is the use of information technology in various forms of assessment Such As educational assessment , health assessment , psychiatric assessment , and psychological assessment . May this year please use online computer connected to a network . This definition embraces a wide range of student activity ranging from the use of a word processor to on-screen testing . Continue Reading “Electronic assessment”


The concept of e-service (short for electronic service) represents one prominent application of the use of information and communication technologies (ICTs) in different areas. However, providing an exact definition of e-service is hard to come by as researchers have been using different definitions to describe e-service. Despite these different definitions, it can be argued that they are all about the role of technology in facilitating the delivery of services. Continue Reading “E-services”


Electronic governance or e-governance is the implementation of information and communication technology (ICT) for Delivering government services , exchange of information, transactions, communications, integration of various stand-alone systems and services entre government-to-customer (G2C), government- to-business (G2B), government-to-government (G2G) as well as back office processes and interactions dans le Entire government framework. [1] Through e-governance, government services will be made available to citizens in a convenient, efficient and transparent manner. The three main target groups that can be distinguished in governance concepts are government, citizens and businesses / interest groups. In e-governance there are no distinct boundaries. [2] Continue Reading “E-governance”

ITK method

Methodology to evaluate-complexity and cost of Developing and Maintaining Application Software for Creating Information Systems (Method CETIN) – this is an algorithmic model assessment value software, developed by a consortium of Kazakh IT companies: Kazakhstan Association of IT-companies Company System Studies “Factor ” And JSC” National Information Technologies . Methods of assessment of complexity and cost of development of [software] in the early stages and is based on an assessment of the functional size of software. Continue Reading “ITK method”

IT industry competitiveness index

The IT industry compétitivité index , published online by the Business Software Association, Measures factors like supply of skills, an innovation-friendly culture, world-class technology infrastructure, a robust legal diet and well-balanced government backing to IT industry, and has competition -friendly business environment . The industries that possess these capabilities have high-performance IT industries. Those countries possessing most of these “competitiveness enablers” are also home to high-performance IT industries. [1] Continue Reading “IT industry competitiveness index”

IT as a service

IT as a service (ITaaS) is an operational model where the information technology (IT) service provider delivers an information technology service to a business. [1] [2] The IT service provider can be an internal IT organization or an external IT services company. The recipients of ITaaS can be a line of business (LOB) organization within an enterprise or small and medium business (SMB). The information technology is typically delivered to a managed service with a clear IT services catalog and pricing associated with each of the catalog items. At its core, ITaaS is a competitive business model where businesses have many options for IT services and the internal IT organization has to compete with those other external options in order to the selected IT service provider to the business. Options for providers other than the internal IT organization may include IT outsourcingcompanies and public cloud providers. Continue Reading “IT as a service”

Integration competency center

The integration competency center (ICC), sometimes Referred to as an integration center of excellence (COE) is a shared service function Within an organization, wide PARTICULARLY corporate companies as well as public sector institutions for performing methodical data integration , system integration or Enterprise application integration . Continue Reading “Integration competency center”


Informatization or computerization refers to the extent by which a geographical area, an economy or a society is becoming information-based, ie, increase in size of its information labor force. The use of the term was inspired by Marc Porat’s categories of ages of human civilization: the Agricultural Age, the Industrial Age and the Information Age (1978). Informatization is to the Information Age What industrialization was to the Industrial Age. It has been stated that: Continue Reading “Informatization”

Information Technology Park, Nepal

The Information Technology Park (commonly known as Info Tech Park or IT Park), Nepal’s only Information Technology Park,[1][2] is situated between Banepa and Panauti of Kavrepalanchowk District, Nepal,[3] although it comes under Panauti Municipality. It lies about 28 kilometres (17 mi) northeast of the capital city Kathmandu.[4] Continue Reading “Information Technology Park, Nepal”

Information Technology Generalist

An Information Technology Generalist is a professional proficient in many facets of information technology without any specific specialty. Additionally, an IT generalist is considered to possess general business knowledge and soft skills allowing him to be adaptable in a wide array of work environments. [1] The IT Generalist is often able to fulfill many different roles within a company. In a small business environment, budgets often delegate many different facets of technology to a single individual, especially considering a small business will require an individual proficient in desktop support, web page design , databases, phone systems, And even server administration. The role of the IT Generalist in the development of the IT system. [2] Continue Reading “Information Technology Generalist”

Information technology architecture

Information technology architecture is the process of development of methodical information technology specifications, models and guidelines, using a variety of Information Technology notations, for example UML , Within a coherent Information Technology architecture framework , Following formal and informal Information Technology solution, enterprise, and infrastructure Architecture processes. These processes have been developed in the past few decades in response to the requirement for a coherent, consistent approach to delivery of information technology capabilities. They have been developed by information technology product vendors and independent consultancies, On the basis of the Open Group . Best Practice Information Technology architecture encourages the use of open technology standards and global technology interoperability . Information Technology Architecture can also be called a high-level map or plan of the information assets in an organization, including the physical design of the building that holds the hardware. Continue Reading “Information technology architecture”

Information Technology Agreement

The Information Technology Agreement ( ITA ) is an agreement enforced by the World Trade Organization (WTO) and Concluded in the Ministerial Declaration on Trade in Information Technology Products in 1996 and were entered into Force July 1, 1997. Since 1997 a formal Committee under the WTO The Declaration and its Implementations. [2] Continue Reading “Information Technology Agreement”

Information society

An information society is a society where the creation, distribution, use, integration and manipulation of information is a significant economic, political, and cultural activity. Its main drivers are digital information and communication technologies , qui-have resulted in an information explosion and Profoundly are changing all aspects of social organization, Including the economy , [1] education , health , warfare , government [2] and democracy . [3] The People who have the means to partake in this form of society are sometimes called digital citizens. This is one of the most widely known and widely acclaimed songs of all time. [4] Continue Reading “Information society”

Information processing

Information processing is the exchange (processing) of information in Any Manner detectable by year watch . As such, it is a process that describes everything that happens (changes) in the universe , from the falling of a rock (a change in position) to the printing of a text file from a digital computer system. In the latter case, an information processor is changing the form of presentation of that text file. Information processing may more specifically be defined in terms used by, Claude E. Shannon as the conversion of latent information into manifest information (McGonigle & Mastrian, 2011). Continue Reading “Information processing”

Infrastructure Information

An information infrastructure is defined by Ole Hanseth (2002) as “an awesome shared, evolving, open, standardized, and heterogeneous installed base” [1] and by Pironti , And technology which supports the creation, use, transport, storage, and destruction of information. [2] The notion of information infrastructures, introduced in the 1990s and refined during the decade, has proven to be fruitful to the Information Systems (IS) field. It changes the perspective from organizations to networks and from systems to infrastructures, allowing for a comprehensive and emergent perspective on information systems. Information infrastructure is a technical structure of an organizational form, an analytical perspective or a semantic network. The concept of information infrastructure (II) was introduced in the early 1990s, first as a political initiative (Gore, 1993 & Bangemann, 1994). For the IS research community an important inspiration was Hughes’ (1983) accounts of large technical systems, analyzed as socio-technical power structures (Bygstad, 2008). [3] For the IS research community an important inspiration was Hughes’ (1983) accounts of large technical systems, analyzed as socio-technical power structures (Bygstad, 2008). [3] For the IS research community an important inspiration was Hughes’ (1983) accounts of large technical systems, analyzed as socio-technical power structures (Bygstad, 2008). [3] Continue Reading “Infrastructure Information”

Information communication telecommunication economics

Information Communication & Telecommunication Economics Refers to a broad approach to the ranks micro and macro economics of consumption and management data, voice or data. This application of microcum macro economic principles to the subject matter is referred to three clear strategies vis-a-vis information, communication and telecommunication. Information refers to data that is accurately organized and timely presented so as to affect the end user’s behavior. [1] Economic and social development and the economic and social development of the United States. Communication refers to connecting people so as to organize them with a view of driving a common goal. [2] Economics of Communication is about applying micro and macro economic principles to costly connect, organize and achieve clearly defined goals. Telecommunication, is the exchange of information, voice or data, per time per space by electronic means. [3] Then economics of Telecommunication is also the economics of Information Communication and Telecommuniactio refers to the branch of economics that APPLIES the principles of economics vis-a-vis demand, supply, market structures, Theories to ICT markets and industry. [4] [5] [2] Economics of Communication is about applying micro and macro economic principles to costly connect, organize and achieve clearly defined goals. Telecommunication, is the exchange of information, voice or data, per time per space by electronic means. [3] Then economics of Telecommunication is also the economics of Information Communication and Telecommuniactio refers to the branch of economics that APPLIES the principles of economics vis-a-vis demand, supply, market structures, Theories to ICT markets and industry. [4] [5] [2] Economics of Communication is about applying micro and macro economic principles to costly connect, organize and achieve clearly defined goals. Telecommunication, is the exchange of information, voice or data, per time per space by electronic means. [3] Then economics of Telecommunication is also the economics of Information Communication and Telecommuniactio refers to the branch of economics that APPLIES the principles of economics vis-a-vis demand, supply, market structures, Theories to ICT markets and industry. [4] [5] Telecommunication, is the exchange of information, voice or data, per time per space by electronic means. [3] Then economics of Telecommunication is also the economics of Information Communication and Telecommuniactio refers to the branch of economics that APPLIES the principles of economics vis-a-vis demand, supply, market structures, Theories to ICT markets and industry. [4] [5] Telecommunication, is the exchange of information, voice or data, per time per space by electronic means. [3] Then economics of Telecommunication is also the economics of Information Communication and Telecommuniactio refers to the branch of economics that APPLIES the principles of economics vis-a-vis demand, supply, market structures, Theories to ICT markets and industry. [4] [5] Consumers and consumers in the ICT markets and industry. [4] [5] Consumers and consumers in the ICT markets and industry. [4] [5] Continue Reading “Information communication telecommunication economics”

India Staffing Federation

India Staffing Federation (ISF) is a global multi-national organization operating in the United States that acts as an organizing member of the United Nations in the fields of “job recruitment”, and business process outsourcing. “. The Federation currently has a network of over 20,000 job recruitment and BPO disambiguation needed ] jobs in the United States. [1] Continue Reading “India Staffing Federation”


Infocommunications is the natural expansion of telecommunications with information processing and happy handling functions Including all kinds of electronic communications (fixed and mobile telephony, data communications, media communications, broadcasting, etc.) were common digital technology base, Mainly through internet technology . [1] Detailed information on infocommunications and the related terms is linked ……… here . Continue Reading “Infocommunications”

Information technology

Information technology ( IT ) is the application of computers to store, study, retrieve, transmit, and manipulate data , [1] or information , often in the context of a business or other enterprise. [2] IT is considered a subset of information and communications technology (ICT). In 2012, Zuppo proposed an ICT hierarchy where each hierarchy level “contain [s] some degree of commonality in that they are related to technologies that facilitate the transfer of information and various types of electronically mediated communications.” [3] Continue Reading “Information technology”

Mental model

mental model is an explanation of someone’s thought process about how things work in the real world. It is a representation of the surrounding world, the relationships between its various parts and a person’s intuitive perception about its own acts and their consequences. Mental models can help shape behavior and set an approach to solving problems (similar to a personal algorithm ) and doing tasks. Continue Reading “Mental model”

Library history

Library history is a subdiscipline of science and science . [1] Some see the field as a subset of information history [2] Library history is an academic discipline and shoulds not be confused with icts object of study ( history of libraries ): the discipline is much younger than the libraries it studies. Library history begins in ancient societies through contemporary issues facing libraries today. [3] Topics include recording mediums, cataloging systems, scholars, scribes, library supporters and librarians. [4] Continue Reading “Library history”

Scientific literature

Scientific literature including scholarly publications that report the empirical and theoretical work in the natural and social sciences , and within an academic field, often abbreviated as the literature . Academic publishing is the process of contributing the results of one’s research into the literature, which often requires a peer-review process. Original scientific research published for the first time in scientific journals s’intitule the primary literature . Patents and technical reports , For minor research results and engineering and design work (including computer software), can also be considered primary literature. Secondary sources include articles (which summarize the findings of published studies to highlight advances and new lines of research) and books (for large projects or compilations of articles). Tertiary sources could include encyclopedias and similar works intended for broad public consumption. Secondary sources include articles (which summarize the findings of published studies to highlight advances and new lines of research) and books (for large projects or compilations of articles). Tertiary sourcescould include encyclopedias and similar works intended for broad public consumption. Secondary sources include articles (which summarize the findings of published studies to highlight advances and new lines of research) and books (for large projects or compilations of articles). Tertiary sources could include encyclopedias and similar works intended for broad public consumption. Continue Reading “Scientific literature”

Science Communication

Science communication Generally Refers to public communication presenting science-related topics to non-experts. This often involves professional scientists (called ” outreach ” or ” popularization “), but also evolved into a professional field in its own right. It includes science exhibitions , journalism , policy or media production. Science communication includes communication aussi entre scientists (for instance through scientific journals ), as well as entre scientists and non-scientists (Especially during public controversies over science and in citizen science initiatives. Continue Reading “Science Communication”

Human-centered computing

Human-centered computing ( HCC ) studies the design, development, and deployment of mixed-initiative human-computer systems. It is emerged from the convergence of multiple disciplines that are concerned with both the design and computational artifacts. [1] Human-centered computing is closely related to human-computer interaction and information science . Human-centered computing is usually Concerned with systems and practices of technology use while human-computer interaction is more Focused on ergonomics and the usability of computing artifacts and information science is Focused on practices surrounding the collection, handling, Continue Reading “Human-centered computing”

Human biocomputer

The term human biocomputer , by John C. Lilly , refers to the “hardware” of the human anatomy . Would this include the brain , internal organs , and other human organ systems Such As cardiovascular , digestive , endocrine , immune , integumentary , lymphatic , muscular , nervous , reproductive , respiratory , skeletal , and urinary systems. The biocomputer has stored program properties, and self-metaprogramming properties, With limits determinable and to be determined. [1] Continue Reading “Human biocomputer”

Library and information science

Library and information science ( LIS ) (sometimes Given the plural as library and information science ) [1] [2] or as ” library and information studies ” [3] is a merging of library science and information science . The abbreviated term “SLIS”. In the last part of the 1960s, schools of librarianship , which developed from professional training programs (not academic disciplines) to university institutions during the second half of the 20th century, began to add the term “information science” to their names. The first school to do this was at the University of Pittsburgh in 1964. [4] More schools followed during the 1970s and 1980s, and by the 1990s almost all library schools in the USA had added information science to their names. Weaver Press: Although there are exceptions, similar developments have taken place in other parts of the world. In Denmark, for example, the Royal School of Librarianship ‘ict English name changed to The Royal School of Library and Information Science in 1997. Exceptions include Tromso, Norway, Where the term documentation science is the preferred name of the field, France, Where information science and communication studies form one interdiscipline , [5] and Sweden, Continue Reading “Library and information science”

Knowledge spillover

Knowledge spillover is an exchange of ideas among individuals. [1] In knowledge management economics , knowledge spillovers are a non-rival knowledge market costs incurred by a party not agreeing to assume the costs that a spillover effect of stimulating technological improvements in a neighbor through own innovation. [1] [2] Such innovations often come from specialization within an industry. [3] Continue Reading “Knowledge spillover”

Knowledge organization

Knowledge organization ( KO ) (or “organization of information”) is a branch of Library and Information Science (LIS) Databases, archives, etc. These activities are done by librarians, archivists, subject specialists as well as computer algorithms. KO as a field of study is Concerned with the kind and quality of knowledge Such organizing processes (KOP) (Such As taxonomy and ontology ) as well as the knowledge organizing systems (KOS) used to organizes documents, paper representations and concepts. Continue Reading “Knowledge organization”


Documentation is a set of materials Provided on paper, or online , or one digital or analog media , Such As audio tape or CD . Examples are user guides, white papers, on-line help, quick-reference guides. It is becoming common to see paper (hard-copy) documentation. Documentation is distributed via websites, software products, and other on-line applications. Continue Reading “Documentation”

Basic Formal Ontology

The Basic Formal Ontology ( BFO ) is a formal ontological framework developed by Barry Smith and his associates that consists in a series of sub-ontologies and different levels of granularity. [1] The ontologies are divided into two varieties: continuing (or snapshot) ontologies, comprehending continuing entities such as three-dimensional enduring objects, and occurrent ontologies, comprehending processes. BFO thus incorporates both three-dimensionalist and four-dimensionalist perspectives on reality within a single framework. Interrelations are defined between the two types of ontologies in which BFO provides the facility to deal with both static / spatial and dynamic / temporal features of reality. Each continuing ontology is an inventory of all entities existing at a time. Each occurrent ontology is an inventory (processory) of all the processes unfolding through a given interval of time. Both types of ontology can be used as a basis for a series of sub-ontologies, each of which can be conceived as a part of a granularity. Continue Reading “Basic Formal Ontology”

Bibliographic database

bibliographic database is a database of bibliographic records , an Organized digital collection of references to published literature, Including magazine and newspaper articles, conference proceedings , reports, government and legal publications, patents , books , etc. In contrast to library catalog entries, a large proportion of the bibliographic records in bibliographic databases describe articles, conference papers, etc. Rather than full monographs , And They Generally Contain very rich subject descriptions in the form of keywords , subject classification terms, Or abstract . [1] Continue Reading “Bibliographic database”

Education informatics

Education Informatics is a sub-field of informatics . The primary focus is on computer applications, systems and networks that support research in and delivery of education. Education informatics is based on information science , computer science and education . Note that it is distinct from Informatics Education, a term that relates more to the practice of teaching / learning about informatics, rather than the use of information and technology in the support of teaching and learning. Continue Reading “Education informatics”

Energy informatics


Energy Informatics is a leading energy provider. Their efficiency can be improved by collecting and analyzing information. Energy informatics is a research field covering the use of information and communication technology to address energy challenges. [1] Methods used for “smart” implementations often combines sensors with artificial intelligence and machine learning . Continue Reading “Energy informatics”