Intelligent speed adaptation

Intelligent Speed Adaptation (ISA), Also Known As Alerting, and Intelligent Authority, [1] is Any system That Ensures That vehicle speed does not Exceed Safe gold has Legally enforced speed . In case of potential speed, a human driver can be alerted, or the speed reduced automatically.

Intelligent speed adaptation to the required speed. Information can be obtained from the knowledge of the vehicle position, taking into account the speed limits known for the position, and by interpreting road features such as signs. ISA systems are designed to detect and alert a driver when a vehicle has entered a new speed zone. Many ISA systems also provide information about driving hazards (eg, high pedestrian movement areas, railway crossings, schools, hospitals, etc.) and limits enforced by speed and traffic light cameras. The purpose of ISA is to assist the driver to maintain a safe and lawful speed at all times.

Research [2] has found that, in urban areas, the number of crashes causing casualties is doubled for each 5 km / h over the limit. It is estimated that 10% of the casualties could be prevented if it would 10 km / h would obey the speed limits. About 20% of casualties could be prevented if all vehicles complied with the speed limits. Fatalities would be reduced even more.

Speeding over the limit makes up a large proportion of preventable road trauma. Enforcing speed limits strictly enough to eliminate slight overspeed is difficult; ISA helps with this.

Types of ISA (Active / Passive)

The two types of ISA systems differ in passive systems, but they do not necessarily have the same effect. Passive systems of the driver advisory systems: They alert the driver to the fact that they are speeding, provide information to the speed limit, and allow the driver to make a choice on what action should be taken. These systems usually display visual or auditory cues, such as auditory and visual warnings and may include tactile cues such as a vibration of the accelerator pedal. Some passive ISA technology trials have used vehicles to be modified to provide haptic feedback by making the accelerator pedal stiffer when appropriate to alert the driver. Most active ISA systems allow the driver to override the ISA when deemed necessary; [3] . [1] [2] [2] [2] [2] This article is based on the results of the study .

An often unrecognized feature of both active and passive ISA systems is that they can serve as on-board vehicle data recorders, retaining information about vehicle location and performance for later checking and fleet management purposes.

Speed ​​and location determination / verification technology

The speed of the vehicle can be determined by the speed of the vehicle. These are:

  • Position based systems
  • Radio Beacons
  • Optical recognition [4]
  • Dead Reckoning

Position based systems

There are a number of ways in which the network can be configured. Four is the minimum number of required to determine a precise three-dimensional position.

The popularity of in current ISA and in car navigation systems may give the impression that is flawless, but this is not the case. Is subject to a number of fundamental problems.

Radio beacons

Roadside radio beacons, or bollards, work by transmitting data to a receiver in the car. The beacons constantly transmit data that the car-mounted receiver picks up as it passes each beacon. This data could include local speed limits, school zones, variable speed limits, or traffic warnings. If sufficient numbers of beacons were used and were placed at regular intervals, they could calculate vehicle speed based on how many beacons the vehicle passed per second. Beacons could be placed in / on speed signs, telegraph poles, other roadside fixtures, or in the road itself. Mobile beacons could be deployed in order to override fixed beacons for use around scenes, during poor weather, or during special events. Beacons could be linked to a hand computer so that quick changes could be made.

The use of radio beacons is common when ISA systems are used to control vehicle speeds in off-road situations, such as factory sites, logistics and storage centers, etc., where occupational health and safety requirements are very low. The vicinity of workers and in situations of limited or obscured visibility.

Optical recognition systems

So far, this technology has been focused solely on recognizing speed signs [4] or road markings. [5] However, other roadside objects, such as the reflective “cats eyes” that divide lanes could possibly be used. This system is designed to be used in conjunction with a camera system. As the system recognizes a sign, the speed limit is obtained and compared to the vehicle’s speed. The system would use the speed limit from the last sign up until it detects and recognizes a speed sign with a different limit. If speed is not present, the system does not function. This is a particular problem when exiting a side road on a main road, As the vehicle may not pass a speed sign for some distance. Miles Per Hour (MPH) country to a KiloMetres per Hour (KMH) one and vice versa, especially if it is difficult or not possible to adjust the system to use the correct one.

Dead reckoning

Dead reckoning (DR) uses a mechanical system related to the vehicle in order to predict the path taken by the vehicle. By measuring the rotation of the road wheels over time, a fairly accurate estimation of the vehicle’s speed and distance traveled can be made. Dead reckoning requires the vehicle to begin at a known, fixed point. (Eg, accelerometers, flux gate compass, gyroscope). It can also be used to calculate the speed of the steering wheel . By overlaying this path on a digital map, the DR system knows how much the vehicle is, what the local speed limit is, and the speed at which the vehicle is traveling. The system can then be used to provide warnings if the speed limit is exceeded. Some top-end GPS-based navigation systems have a GPS receiver. Dead reckoning is the prone to cumulative measurement errors. These variations in the tyre circumference can be due to wear or variations in tyre pressure due to variations in speed, payload, or ambient temperature. Other measurement errors are accumulated when the vehicle navigates gradually curves that inertial sensors (eg,

Limitations

An initial reaction to the concept of ISA is that it could be negative outcomes, such as driving at the speed limit rather than to the conditions, but numerous ISA trials around the world have shown these are unsubstantiated. [6] A particular issue is that most ISA systems use a speed database based purely on information regarding the maximum speed limit for a roadway or roadway segment. Obviously, many roads have features like curves and gradients where the appropriate speed for a road segment with these features is less than the maximum posted speed limit. Increasingly, road authorities indicate the appropriate speed for such segments through the use of advisory speed. It is acknowledged that the speed limit databases used in ISA systems should ideally take into account the maximum speed limits. The New South Wales ISA trial, underway in the Illwarra region south of Sydney is currently only available.

Some car manufacturers have expressed some of the speed limiters’ take control away from the driver. This is also unsubstantiated, firstly because the ISA systems have a provision for over-ride in the event that the speed is inappropriate and secondly, the claim is somewhat hypocritical given that A driver is a driver.

For some traffic safety practitioners, active intelligent speed adaptation is thought to be an example of ‘hard automation’, an approach to automation that has been widely discredited by the Human Factors community. An inviolable characteristic of human users is that they will adapt to these systems, often in unpredictable ways. Some studies have shown that drivers’ drive up to the limits of the system and drive at the set speed, when compared to when they are in manual control, where they have been shown to slow down. Conversely, the experience of some drivers with driving under an active ISA system has been that they find they can pay more attention to the roadway and road environment as they do not need to monitor the speedometer and adjust their speeds on a continuing basis.

There is also a concern that drivers driving under speed control might accept more risky heads between themselves and vehicles in front and accepts the narrower gaps to join traffic.

Wider aussi criticism comes from the stress focus on speed and That road safety outcomes could be better Achieved by focusing technique driving, situational awareness , and automation that ‘assists’ drivers Rather than ‘force’ em to behave in ways Particular. Intelligent speed adaptation has also been used as an example of a technology which, like speed cameras , can often alienate the driving public and represents a significant barrier to its adoption widespread.

Some studies pre-dates the development of ISA systems qui Indicated That Relatively drivers make little use of the speedometer and INSTEAD use auditory cues (Such As engine and road noise ) to successfully Regulate Their speed. These studies, however, remain unverified. There is an argument in the literature which suggests that it is difficult for drivers to perform. Thus an alternative ‘soft-automation’ approach is simply to re-introduce some of those cues that drivers naturally use to regulate speed (rather than incur the expense and unexpected behavioral adaptations of ISA).

Benefits

RTA (NSW Australia) ISA trials show the benefits of ISA are speed zone compliance and speeding. [7]

A Cost Benefit Analysis of ISA (in Australia) Published in April 2010 by the Center for Automotive Safety Research suggests ISA would reduce injury by 7.7% and save $ 1.226 million per year. These figures were 15.1% and $ 2.240 million for ISA and 26.4% and $ 3.725 million for ISA.

[8]

ISA in the Australian National Road Safety Strategy 2011-2020 [9]

Real and Perceived benefits [10] of ISA are a reduction of accidents Risks citation needed ] and reductions of noise citation needed ] and exhaust emission. [11] [12]

Commercial use

Some road safety researchers are surprised that Australia is leading the world with this technology. Citation needed ] Australia’s advanced commercialization of ISA has in part been underpinned by initiatives from the various state roads authorities, and the inclusion of ISA in the National and State Road Safety Strategies. [13] [14] [15]

SpeedAlert is a passive ISA product marketed by Smart Car Technologies, based in Sydney NSW. It offers full national speed zoning information embedded within a GPS-based navigation system, providing drivers with information on speed limits and vehicle speed, Fleet solution selling for about A $ 200, a free consumer version ‘SpeedAlert Live’ for iPhone was released on 22 July 2012 in the Australian iTunes app store.

SpeedShield is an active ISA product marketed by Automotion Control Systems, based in Melbourne, Vic. It offers a wide range of information and communication technologies, including GPS-based navigation system, providing drivers with information on speed and speed limits. The technology is the transferrable across vehicle manufacturers and models, but must be configured for an individual make and model. As the cost is variable (estimated to be A $ 1-3,000 depending on vehicle type and number of vehicles to be fitted).

Coredination ISA is a passive ISA product marketed by Coredination, based in Stockholm, Sweden. This product is built with a smartphone-application for Android and iPhone. It offers full national speed information, providing drivers with information on speed limits and vehicle speed. The product is very lightweight and no separate hardware or fixed installations are necessary.

Government implementation

As of 2013 adoption of the technology being white Was regarded by the European Commission aim being white Was Strongly Opposed by UK Transport secretary , Patrick McLoughlin . A government spokesman describe the proposal as “Big Brother nannying by EU bureaucrats.” [1]

See also

  • Intelligent vehicle technologies
  • Intelligent transportation system
  • Map database management
  • Telematics
  • Advanced Driver Assistance Systems
  • Usage based insurance
  • Traffic sign

External links

  • http://ecomodder.com/forum/showthread.php/diy-smart-cruise-control-30471.html
  • http://www.speedalert.com.au/faqgeneral_1
  • http://users.tpg.com.au/users/mpaine/speed.html
  • http://www.isaweb.be/english/ISA-trials/index.html

References

  1. ^ Jump up to:b “UK fights EU bid to introduce speed limit devices: European road safety rules . The Guardian . Press Association. September 1, 2013 . Retrieved September 1, 2013 .
  2. Jump up^ “Speeding – Did you know?” (PDF) .
  3. Jump up^ Broekx, S. “The European PROSPER-project: Final results of the trial on Intelligent Speed ​​Adaptation (ISA) in Belgium” .
  4. ^ Jump up to:b Eichner, ML, Breckon, TP (June 2008). “Integrated Speed ​​Limit Detection and Recognition from Real-Time Video”. Proc. IEEE Intelligent Vehicles Symposium (PDF) . IEEE. pp. 626-631. Doi : 10.1109 / IVS.2008.4621285 . Retrieved 8 April 2013 .
  5. Jump up^ Kheyrollahi, A., Breckon, TP (2012). “Automatic Real-time Road Marking Recognition Using a Feature Driven Approach” (PDF) . Machine Vision and Applications . Springer. 23 (1): 123-133. Doi : 10.1007 / s00138-010-0289-5 . Retrieved 8 April 2013 .
  6. Jump up^ Vlassenroot, S (2007). “Driving with intelligent speed adaptation: Final results of the Belgian ISA-trial” . Transportation Research Part A Policy and Practice . 41 (3): 267-279. Doi : 10.1016 / j.tra.2006.05.009 .
  7. Jump up^ | Title = RESULTS OF THE NSW INTELLIGENT SPEED TRIAL ADAPTATION – Effects on road safety attitudes, behaviors and speeding – OCTOBER 2010 | Journal = Road Safety Technology Section, NSW Center for Road Safety | Pages = 113 | Year = 2010 | Url =http://www.rta.nsw.gov.au/roadsafety/downloads/isa_trial/isa_trial_final_results.pdf
  8. Jump up^ | Title = Cost Benefit Analysis of Intelligent Speed ​​Assist -April 2010 | Author = S Doecke, JE Woolley | Prepared by = Center for Automotive Safety Research | Commissioned by the Department of Transportation and Main Roads (QLD) | Sponsors = The Office of Road Safety – Department of Premier and Cabinet (WA), Transport Certification Australia and VicRoads | Pages = 1 | Year = 2010 | Url =http://s3.amazonaws.com/zanran_storage/www.tca.gov.au/ContentPages/2505989266.pdf
  9. Jump up^ | Title = Australian National Road Safety Strategy 2011-2020 | Author = Australian Transport Council | Pages = 62 | Year = 2011 | Url = www.atcouncil.gov.au / documents / files / NRSS_2011_2020_15Aug11.pdf
  10. Jump up^ Vlassenroot, S (2006). “Driving with intelligent speed adaptation: final results of the Belgian ISA-trial”. Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice . 41 (3): 267-279. Doi : 10.1016 / j.tra.2006.05.009 .
  11. Jump up^ Int Panis L; et al. (2006). “Modeling of instantaneous traffic emission and the influence of traffic speed limits”. Science of the Total Environment371 (I-3): 270-285. Doi : 10.1016 / j.scitotenv.2006.08.017 .
  12. Jump up^ Int Panis L; et al. (2011). “PM, NOX and CO2 emission reductions from speed management policies in Europe”. Transport Policy . 18 : 32-37. Doi: 10.1016 / j.tranpol.2010.05.005 .
  13. Jump up^ | Title = international conference on Intelligent Speed ​​Adaptation 2009 Sydney | Year = 2009 | Url =http://www.rta.nsw.gov.au/roadsafety/2009_conference.html
  14. Jump up^ | Title = National Road Safety Strategy 2011 – 2020 | Year = 2011 | Url =http://www.infrastructure.gov.au/roads/safety/national_road_safety_strategy/index.aspx
  15. Jump up^ | Title = NSW Draft Road Safety Strategy 2012 – 2020 | Year = page 26 | Year = 2012 | Url =http://www.transport.nsw.gov.au/nsw-road-safety-strategy-2012-2021

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