Information society

An information society is a society where the creation, distribution, use, integration and manipulation of information is a significant economic, political, and cultural activity. Its main drivers are digital information and communication technologies , qui-have resulted in an information explosion and Profoundly are changing all aspects of social organization, Including the economy , [1] education , health , warfare , government [2] and democracy . [3] The People who have the means to partake in this form of society are sometimes called digital citizens. This is one of the most widely known and widely acclaimed songs of all time. [4]

The markers of this rapid change may be technological, economic, occupational, spatial, cultural, or some combination of all of these. [5] Information society is seen as the successor to industrial society . Closely related concepts are the post-industrial society ( Daniel Bell ), post-Fordism , post-modern society, knowledge society, telematic society, Revolution Information , liquid modernity , and network society ( Manuel Castells ).

Definition

There is currently no universally accepted concept of what exactly can be termed information society. Most theoreticians agree that a transformation can be seen that started somewhere between the 1970s and today and is changing the way societies work fundamentally. Information technology goes beyond the internet , and there are discussions about how big the influence of specific media or specific modes of production really is. Kasiwulaya and Gomo (Makerere University) alludes that information societies which have intensified their use of IT for economic, social, cultural and political transformation.

In 2005, governments reaffirmed their dedication to the foundations of the Information Society in the Tunis Commitment and outlined the basis for implementation and follow-up in the Tunis Agenda for the Information Society. In particular, the Tunis Agenda of the ICTs for Development and Internet Governance, which could not be resolved in the first phase.

Some people, such as Antonio Negri , characterize the information society as one in which people do immaterial labor. By this, they appear to the production of knowledge or cultural artifacts. One problem with this model is that it ignores the material and essentially industrial basis of the society. However, it does not matter how many people are working. For example, it may be that you have a few star performers, rather than a plethora of non-celebrities, as the work of those performers can be easily distributed, forcing all secondary players to the bottom of the market. It is now commonplace to publish only their best selling authors and to try to avoid the rest-even if they still sell steadily.

Considering That metaphors and technologies of information move forward in a reciprocal relationship, we can describe Some societies (especially the Japanese society ) as an information society Because We think of it as Such As letters. [6] [7]

The growth of information in society

Internet users per 100 inhabitants

The amount of data stored globally has increased greatly since the 1980s, and by 2007, 94% of it was stored digitally. Source

The growth of technological mediated information has been quantified in different ways, including society’s technological capacity to store information, to communicate information, and to compute information. It is estimated that the world’s technological capacity to store information grew from 2.6 (optimally compressed) exabytes in 1986, which is the informational equivalent to less than one 730-MB CD-ROM per person in 1986 295 (optimally compressed) exabytes in 2007. [10] This is the informational equivalent of 60 CD-ROMs per person in 2007 [11] and represents a sustained annual growth rate of some 25%.

The world’s actual combined capacity to exchange information through two-way telecommunication networks Was 281 petabytes of (optimally compressed) information in 1986 471 petabytes in 1993 2.2 (optimally compressed) exabytes in 2000 and 65 (optimally compressed) exabytes in 2007, Which is the informational equivalent of 6 newspapers per person per day in 2007. [11] MIPS in 1986, to 6.4 x 10 ^ 12 MIPS In 2007, experiencing the fastest growth rate of over 60% per year during the last two decades. [10]

James R. Beniger, University of Chicago Press, Chicago, IL, ETATS-UNIS (1984) Theoretical and practical implications of the inanimate The early industrial period (1740-1830) “(p.174)” Even with enhanced feedback control, industry could not have developed without the inputs of the raw materials of production but also as Outputs distributed to final consumption. “(P.175) [4]

Development of the information society model

Colin Clark’s model of an economy undergoing technological change. In later stages, the Quaternary sector of the economic growth.

Fritz Machlup, The Economist . In 1933, Fritz Machlup began studying the effect of patents on research. His work culminated in the study The production and distribution of knowledge in the United States in 1962. This book was widely regarded [12] and was eventually translated into Russian and Japanese . The Japanese have also studied the information society (or jōhōka shakai , 情報 化 社会 ).

The issue of technologies and their role in contemporary society have been discussed in the scientific literature using a range of labels and concepts. This section introduces some of them. Ideas of a knowledge or information economy , post-industrial society , postmodern society, network society , the information revolution , informational capitalism, network capitalism, and the like, over-the-have-been debated Several last decades.

Fritz Machlup (1962) introduced the concept of the knowledge industry . He distinguished five sectors of the knowledge sector: education, research and development, mass media, information technologies, information services. Based on this categorization in 1959 29% per cent of the GNP in the USA had been produced in knowledge industries. [13] [ citation needed ]

Economic transition

Peter Drucker has argued that it is a transition from an economy based on knowledge. [14] Marc Porat is a nonprofit organization that is responsible for the production and distribution of information and services. . [15]

GNP as an indicator for the information economy. The OECD has employed Porat’s definition for calculating the share of the economy in the total economy (eg OECD 1981, 1986). GNP is a company that produces, manufactures and sells GNP products. [16]

For Daniel Bell, the number of employees is an indicator of the informality of a society. “A post-industrial society is based on services. (…) What counts is not raw muscle power, or energy, but information. Of tangible goods “. [17]

Alain Touraine, born in 1971 of the post-industrial society. “The passage to postindustrial society takes place in the production of goods and services in the production of goods and services.” Industrial society had transformed the means of production: (…) The decisive point here is that in postindustrial society all of the economic system is the object of intervention of society to itself. Programed society, because this sentence captures its capacities to create models of management, production, organization, distribution, and consumption, In the programmed society also the area of ​​cultural reproduction including aspects such as information, consumption, health, research, education would be industrialized. That modern society is increasing its capacity to act on its own behalf. This makes Touraine’s concept substantially different from that of Daniel Bell who focused on the capacity to process and generate information for efficient society functioning. In the programmed society also the area of ​​cultural reproduction including aspects such as information, consumption, health, research, education would be industrialized. That modern society is increasing its capacity to act on its own behalf. This makes Touraine’s concept substantially different from that of Daniel Bell who focused on the capacity to process and generate information for efficient society functioning. That modern society is increasing its capacity to act on its own behalf. This makes Touraine’s concept substantially different from that of Daniel Bell who focused on the capacity to process and generate information for efficient society functioning. That modern society is increasing its capacity to act on its own behalf. This makes Touraine’s concept substantially different from that of Daniel Bell who focused on the capacity to process and generate information for efficient society functioning.

Lyotard [18] HAS argued That “knowledge HAS Become the principle [ sic ] of power generation over the last FEW decades.” Knowledge would be transformed into a commodity. This article is a summary of the main findings of the Narratives of centralized structures and groups. Lyotard denotes these changing circumstances as postmodern condition or postmodern society.

Similarly to Bell, Peter Otto and Philipp Sonntag (1985). . Radovan Richta (1977) argues that society has been transformed into a scientific civilization based on services, education, and creative activities. This transformation would be the result of a scientific-technological transformation based on technological progress and the increasing importance of computer technology. Science and technology would become immediate forces of production (Aristovnik 2014: 55).

Nico Stehr (1994, 2002a, b) says that in the knowledge society a majority of jobs involves working with knowledge. “Contemporary society can be described as a knowledge society based on the extensive penetration of all spheres of life and institutions by scientific and technological knowledge” (Stehr 2002b: 18). For Stehr, knowledge is a capacity for social action. (Ibid .: 41-46). (1). (1) The term “science and technology” is used to describe and describe the nature and form of science and technology. For Stehr, the economy of a knowledge society is broadly driven not by inputs, but by symbolic or knowledge-based inputs (Ibid .: 67),

Also Alvin Toffler Argues That knowledge is the central resource in the economy of the information society: “In a Third Wave economy, the central resource – a single word Broadly encompassing data, information, images, symbols, culture, ideology, and values – is Actionable knowledge “(Dyson / Gilder / Keyworth / Toffler 1994).

At the end of the twentieth century, the concept of the network society gained importance in information society theory. For Manuel Castells , pervasiveness, flexibility, and convergence a central feature of the information technology paradigm (2000a: 69ff). “One of the key features of an informal society is the networking logic of its basic structure, which explains the use of the concept of ‘network society'” (Castells 2000: 21). “As an historical trend, dominant functions and processes in the Information Networks constitute the new social morphology of our societies, and the diffusion of networking logic,

Jan Van Dijk (2006) defines the network society as a “social formation with an infrastructure of social and media networks. “(Van Dijk 2006: 20). For the first time, Van Dijk has been working on the development of the social networking system. Darin Barney uses the term for characterizing societies that exhibit two fundamental characteristics: The first is the presence in those societies of sophisticated – almost exclusively digital – technologies of networked communication and information management / distribution, which form the basic infrastructure mediating an increasing array of social, political and economic practices. (…) The second, arguably more intriguing, characteristic of network societies is the reproduction and institutionalization throughout (and between) those societies of networks as the basic form of human organization and relationship across a wide range of social, political and economic configurations and associations ” [19] Political and economic practices. (…) The second, arguably more intriguing, characteristic of network societies is the reproduction and institutionalization throughout (and between) those societies of networks as the basic form of human organization and relationship across a wide range of social, political and economic configurations and associations ” [19] Political and economic practices. (…) The second, arguably more intriguing, characteristic of network societies is the reproduction and institutionalization throughout (and between) those societies of networks as the basic form of human organization and relationship across a wide range of social, political and economic configurations and associations ” [19]

Reviews

The post-modern society, postindustrial society, and so on. That has been voiced by the scholars who have created a new type of society. (Webster 2002a: 259). “If there is a problem, then it should be done. Critics such as Frank Webster argues that these approaches as a discontinuity, as if contemporary society had 100 or 150 years ago. Such assumptions would have an ideological character because they could do nothing about the political realities (kasiwulaya 2002b: 267).

These critics argue that contemporary society is a capitalist society that is oriented towards the accumulation of economic, political, and cultural capital . They acknowledge that information society theories stresses some important new qualities of society (notably globalization and informatization). Critics such as Webster insist on the continuities that characterise change. In this way, the capitalist capitalism of the 19th century, corporate capitalism in the 20th century, and informational capitalism for the 21st century (kasiwulaya 2006).

For describing contemporary society based on a dialectic of the old and the new, continuity and discontinuity, other critical scholars have suggested several terms like:

  • And cultural system and has been mediated by cyberspace as a tool of global coordination and communication. Economic, political, and cultural space have been restructured; They have become more fluid and dynamic, have enlarged their borders to a transnational scale, and handle the inclusion and exclusion of nodes in flexible ways. These networks are complex due to the high number of nodes (individuals, enterprises, teams, political actors, etc.) that can be involved and the high speed at which is produced and transported within them. Goal global network capitalism is based on structural inequalities; It is made up of the centralized areas of the economy, Political, and cultural capital (property, power, definition capacities). This segmentation is an expression of the overall competitive character of contemporary society. “(Fuchs 2008: 110 + 119).
  • digital capitalism (Schiller 2000 aussi see Peter Glotz ): [20] “Directly networks are generalizing the social and cultural ranks of the capitalist economy as never before” (Schiller 2000: xiv)
  • (Dawson / John Bellamy Foster, 1998: 63sq), and the results of a study of the relationship between capitalization and capitalization.
  • High-tech capitalism [21] or informatic capitalism (Fitzpatrick 2002) – to focus on the computer as a guiding technology that has transformed the productive forces of capitalism and has a globalized economy.

Other scholars prefer to speak of information capitalism (Morris-Suzuki 1997) or informational capitalism ( Manuel Castells 2000, Christian Fuchs 2005, Schmiede 2006a, b). Manuel Castells sees informationalism as a new technological paradigm (he speaks of a mode of development) by “information generation, processing, and transmission” which have become the fundamental sources of productivity and power (Castells 2000: 21). The “most decisive historical factor accelerating, channeling and shaping the information technology paradigm, and inducing its associated social forms, was / is the process of capitalist restructuring from the 1980s, so that the new techno-economic system can be adequately capitalism ” (Castells 2000: 18). (Castells, 2000: 500). In this paper, we present a new model of the social morphology of society. Nicholas Garnham [22] is critical of Castells and argues that the latter is technologically deterministic because Castells points out that its approach is based on a dialectic of technology and society in which technology embodies society and society uses technology (Castells 2000: 5sqq). But Castells also makes clear that the rise of a new “mode of development” is shaped by capitalist production, ie by society, which implies that it is not only the driving force of society. (Castells, 2000: 500). In this paper, we present a new model of the social morphology of society. Nicholas Garnham [22] is critical of Castells and argues that the latter is technologically deterministic because Castells points out that its approach is based on a dialectic of technology and society in which technology embodies society and society uses technology (Castells 2000: 5sqq). But Castells also makes clear that the rise of a new “mode of development” is shaped by capitalist production, ie by society, which implies that it is not only the driving force of society. (Castells, 2000: 500). In this paper, we present a new model of the social morphology of society. Nicholas Garnham [22] is critical of Castells and argues that the latter is technologically deterministic because Castells points out that its approach is based on a dialectic of technology and society in which technology embodies society and society uses technology (Castells 2000: 5sqq). But Castells also makes clear that the rise of a new “mode of development” is shaped by capitalist production, ie by society, which implies that it is not only the driving force of society. Nicholas Garnham [22] is critical of Castells and argues that the latter is technologically deterministic because Castells points out that its approach is based on a dialectic of technology and society in which technology embodies society and society uses technology (Castells 2000: 5sqq). But Castells also makes clear that the rise of a new “mode of development” is shaped by capitalist production, ie by society, which implies that it is not only the driving force of society. Nicholas Garnham [22] is critical of Castells and argues that the latter is technologically deterministic because Castells points out that its approach is based on a dialectic of technology and society in which technology embodies society and society uses technology (Castells 2000: 5sqq). But Castells also makes clear that the rise of a new “mode of development” is shaped by capitalist production, ie by society, which implies that it is not only the driving force of society.

Antonio Negri and Michael Hardt argue that contemporary society is an empire that is by a singular global logic of capitalist domination that is based on immaterial labor. With the concept of immaterial labor Negri and Hardt introduces ideas of information society discourse into their Marxist account of contemporary capitalism. Immaterial plowing would be labor, which creates immaterial products, such as knowledge, information, communication, a relationship, or an emotional response “(Hardt / Negri 2005: 108, cf. also 2000: 280-303) , Knowledge (Hardt / Negri 2000: 290). There would be two forms: intellectual labor that produces ideas, symbols, codes, texts, linguistic figures, images, etc .; And affective labor, happiness, satisfaction, excitement, passion, joy, sadness, etc. (Ibid.).

( David Harvey, 1989). This paper describes the dynamics of capital accumulation and the emergence of a flexible regime of accumulation. . They warn That new technologies are embedded into societal Antagonisms That causes structural unemployment , rising poverty, social exclusion , the deregulation of the welfare state and of labor rights , the Lowering of wages, welfare, etc.

Concepts such as knowledge society, information society, network society, informational capitalism, postindustrial society, transnational network capitalism, postmodern society, etc. Show that there is a vivid discussion in contemporary sociology on the character of contemporary society and the role that technologies, information, communication, and co-operation play in it. Citation needed ] Information society theory and the role of information technology in society. It has become a specific branch of contemporary sociology.

Second and third nature

Information society is the means of getting information from one place to another (Wark, 1997, p.22). As technology has advanced so too has the way people have adapted in sharing this information with each other.

“Second nature” refers to a group of experiments that have been made over by culture (Wark, 1997: 23). They then get remade into something else that can then take on a new meaning. As a society we transform this process so it becomes something natural to us, ie second nature. So, by following a particular pattern created by culture we are able to recognize how we use and move information in different ways. (Wark, 1997, p.21), which is based on the results of a study conducted by a group of researchers. ).

However, through the process of sharing information vectors have enabled us to spread information even further. Through the use of these vectors information is able to move and then separate from the initial things that enable them to move (Wark, 1997: 24). From here, something called “third nature” has developed. An extension of second nature, third nature is in control of second nature. It expands on what second nature is limited by. It has the ability to mold information in new and different ways. So, third nature is able to ‘speed up, proliferate, divide, mutate, and beam in on us from elsewhere (Wark, 1997, p.25). It aims to create a balance between the boundaries of space and time (see second nature). This can be seen through the telegraph, (Wark, 1997, p.26). It is also the case that, As a result different vectors of people have the ability to not only shape culture but create ultimately shape society.

(Wark, 1997, p.28). The results of this study are summarized in the following table.

Sociological uses

In sociology , informational society refers to a post-modern type of society. Theoreticians like Ulrich Beck , Anthony Giddens and Manuel Castells argue that since the 1970s a transformation from an industrial society to a global society has happened. [23]

As steam power Was the technology standing behind industrial society, so information technology is seen as the catalyst for the exchange in work organization, societal structure and politics Occurring in the late 20th century.

In the book Future Shock , Alvin Toffler used the phrase super-industrial society to describe this type of society. Other post-industrial society and post-modern industrial society with similar meaning.

Related terms

A number of terms in current use of the emerging global economic order. The information society intends to be the most encompassing in that a economy is a subset of a society. The information age is somewhat limiting, in which it refers to a 30-year period between the widespread use of computers and the knowledge economy , rather than an emerging economic order. The knowledge era is about the nature of the content, not the socioeconomic processes by which it will be traded. The computer revolution , and knowledge revolution to specific revolutionary transitions, rather than the end to which we are evolving.

  • The information economy and the knowledge economy EMPHASIZE the happy or intellectual property That Is being white year traded through market information or knowledge market , respectivement. Electronic commerceand electronic business emphasizes the nature of transactions and running a business, respectively, using the Internet and World-Wide Web . The digital economy focuses on trading bits in cyberspace rather than atoms in physical space. The network economy stresses that businesses will work collectively in webs or as part of business ecosystems rather than as stand-alone units. Social networking refers to the process of collaboration on massive, global scales. The internet economy focuses on the nature of markets.
  • Knowledge services and knowledge value in a context. Knowledge services integrals Knowledge management , Within a knowledge organization , That’s trades in a Knowledge Market . In order to receive more knowledge, surveillance is used. Drones as a tool in order to gather knowledge on other individuals. Although seemingly synonymous, each term conveys more than nuances or slightly different views of the same thing. Each term represents one attribute of the likely nature of economic activity in the emerging post-industrial society. Alternatively, the new economic order will incorporate all of the above plus other attributes that have not been fully emerged.
  • In connection with the development of the information society, Appeared information pollution , Evolving information ecology – information associated with hygiene . [24]

Intellectual property considerations

One of the central paradoxes of the information society is that it makes information easily reproducible, leading to a variety of freedom / control related to intellectual property . Essentially, business and capital, whose place becomes that of producing and selling information and knowledge, it seems to require control over this new resource. However, such control may be technically and socially problematic.

Respond to this issue of the Digital Millennium Copyright Act in the United States (and similar legislation elsewhere) which make copy protection (see DRM ) circumvention illegal, to the free software , open source and copyleftmovements, which seek to encourage and disseminate the “Freedom” of various information products (traditionally both as “gratis” or free of cost, and liberty, as in freedom to use, explore and share).

Caveat: Information society is often used by politicians meaning something like “we all do internet now”; The sociological term information society (or informational society) has some deeper implications about change of societal structure.

See also

  • Digital Transformation
  • Digital Dark Ages
  • Digital addict
  • Digital phobic
  • Information history
  • Information industry
  • Information Revolution
  • Network society
  • Noogenesis
  • Simon Buckingham and unorganisation
  • Surveillance capitalism
  • The Information Society (journal)
  • World Summit on the Information Society (WSIS)
  • Yoneji Masuda

References

  1. Jump up^ Hilbert, M. (2015). Digital Technology and Social Change Freely available at:https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=xR4sQ3f6tW8&list=PLtjBSCvWCU3rNm46D3R85efM0hrzjuAIg
  2. Jump up^ Hilbert, M. (2015). Digital Technology and Social Changehttps://www.youtube.com/watch?v=KKGedDCKa68&list=PLtjBSCvWCU3rNm46D3R85efM0hrzjuAIgfreely available at:https://canvas.instructure.com/courses/949415
  3. Jump up^ Hilbert, M. (2015). Digital Technology and Social Change Freely available at:https://canvas.instructure.com/courses/949415
  4. ^ Jump up to:a b Beniger, James R. (1986). The Control Revolution: Technological and Economic Origins of the Information Society . Cambridge, Mass .: Harvard University Press.
  5. Jump up^ Webster, Frank (2002). Theories of the Information Society . Cambridge: Routledge.
  6. Jump up^ James Boyle, 1996, 6
  7. Jump up^ Kasiwulaya and Walter, Makerere University. Makerere University Press.
  8. Jump up^ “Individuals using the Internet in 2005 to 2014”, Key ICT indicators for Developed and developing countries and the world (totals and penetration rates), International Telecommunication Union (ITU). Retrieved May 25, 2015.
  9. Jump up^ “Internet users per 100 habitants in 1997 to 2007”, ICT Data and Statistics (IDS), International Telecommunication Union (ITU). Retrieved May 25, 2015.
  10. ^ Jump up to:a b c “The World’s Technological Capacity to Store, Communicate, and Compute Information” , Martin Hilbert and Priscila López (2011), Science (journal) , 332 (6025), 60-65; Free access to the article via here: martinhilbert.net/WorldInfoCapacity.html
  11. ^ Jump up to:a b “video on The World’s Technological Capacity to Store, Communicate, and Compute Information from 1986 to 2010
  12. Jump up^ Susan Crawford: “The Origin and Development of a Concept: The Information Society”. Bull Med Libr Assoc. 71 (4) October 1983: 380-385.
  13. Jump up^ Machlup, Fritz (1962). The Production and Distribution of Knowledge in the United States . Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
  14. Jump up^ Peter Drucker(1969)The Age of Discontinuity. London: Heinemann
  15. Jump up^ Marc Porat(1977) The Information Economy. Washington, DC: US ​​Department of Commerce
  16. Jump up^ Karl Deutsch (1983) Soziale und politische Aspekte der Informationsgesellschaft. In: Philipp Sonntag (Ed.) (1983) Die Zukunft der Informationsgesellschaft. Frankfurt / Main: Haag & Herchen. pp. 68-88
  17. Jump up^ Daniel Bell(1976) The Coming of the Post-Industrial Society. New York: Basic Books, 127, 348
  18. Jump up^ Jean-François Lyotard(1984)The Postmodern Condition. Manchester: Manchester University Press, 5
  19. Jump up^ Darin Barney(2003) The Network Society. Cambridge: Polity, 25sq
  20. Jump up^ Peter Glotz(1999) Die beschleunigte Gesellschaft. Kulturkämpfe im digitalen Kapitalismus. München: Kindler.
  21. Jump up^ Wolfgang Fritz Haug(2003) High-Tech-Kapitalismus. Hamburg: Argument.
  22. Jump up^ Nicholas Garnham(2004) Information Society Theory as Ideology. In: Frank Webster (Ed.) (2004) The Information Society Reader. London: Routledge.
  23. Jump up^ Grinin, L.2007. Periodization of History: A theoretic-mathematical analysis. In: History & Mathematics . Moscow: KomKniga / USSR. P.10-38. ISBN 978-5-484-01001-1.
  24. Jump up^ Eryomin AL Information ecology – a viewpoint// International Journal of Environmental Studies. – 1998. – Vol. 54, p. 241-253.

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