Information science

Information science is an interdisciplinary field, a collection, classification , manipulation, storage, retrieval , movement, dissemination, and protection of information . [1] Practitioners within and outside the field study and use of knowledge in organizations along with the interaction between people, organizations, and any existing information systems with the aim of creating, replacing, improving, or understanding information systems. Information science is often (mistakenly) considered a branch of computer science citation needed ] ; HOWEVER, it predates computer science and is a broad, interdisciplinary field, Incorporating not only aspects of computer science, aim Often diverse fields Such As archival science , cognitive science , commerce , communications , law , library science , museology , management , mathematics , philosophy , public Policy , social sciences , as well as all the fields of study. That’s why different roles (IT Admin, CS engineer, etc.).

Information science should not be confused with information theory or library science . Information theory is the study of the types of communications we use, such as verbal, signal transmission, encoding, and others. [2] Information science as an academic discipline is often taught in combination with Library Science and Library Science. Library science as Such Is a field related to the dissemination of information through libraries making use of the principles of information science. Information, communication, protection, communication, communication, communication, communication, Presentation etc. In any possible manner.

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Scope and approach

Science Information Focuses are understanding problems from the perspective of the stakeholders Involved And Then Applying information and other technologies as needed. In other words, it tackles systemic problems first Rather than individual pieces of technology Within That system. In this respect, one can see information science as a response to technological determinism , the belief that technology “develops by its own laws, that it realizes its own potential, limited only by the material resources and the creativity of its developers. Therefore be regarded as an autonomous system controlling and ultimately permeating all other subsystems of society. ” [3]

Many universities have science colleges, departments or schools, and many information-science scholars work in disciplines such as communication , computer science , law , library science , and sociology . Several institutions have formed an I-School Caucus (see List of I-Schools ), but numerous others besides these also have comprehensive information foci.

Within information science, current issues as of 2013 include:

  • Human-computer interaction
  • groupware
  • The semantic web
  • Value-sensitive design
  • Iterative design processes
  • The people people generate, use and find information

Definitions of information science

An early definition of Information science (going back to 1968, the year when the American Documentation Institute is renamed to the American Society for Information Science and Technology ) states:

Operations research, graphic arts, communications, library science, management, and other similar fields. [4] [4] [4] [4] [4] [4] [4] [4] [4]

Some authors use information as a synonym for information science . This is especially true when related to the concept developed by AI Mikhailov and other Soviet authors in the mid-1960s. The Mikhailov school saw informatics as a discipline related to the study of scientific information. [5] Informatics is difficult to precisely define because of the rapidly evolving and interdisciplinary nature of the field. Definitions linking the tools used for academic programs. [6]

Regional differences and international terminology complicate the problem. Some people which? ] “Informatics” today was once called “Information Science” – at least in fields such as Medical Informatics. For example, the term “information science” refers to the term “informatics” emerged:

  • In the United States of America
  • In Britain as a term for a science of information that studies natural, as well as artificial or engineered, information-processing systems

Another term discussed as a synonym for “information studies” is “information systems”. Brian Campbell Vickery ‘s Information Systems (1973) places information systems within IS. Ellis, Allen, & Wilson (1999), on the other hand, provide a bibliometric investigation describing the relationship between two different fields: “information science” and “information systems”.

Philosophy of information

Main article: Philosophy of information

Philosophy of information (PI) studies conceptual issues arising at the intersection of computer science , information technology , and philosophy . It includes the investigation of the conceptual nature and basic principles of information , including its dynamics, utilization and sciences, as well as the elaboration and application of information-theoretic and computational methodologies to its philosophical problems. [7]

Ontology

Main article: Ontology (information science)

In computer science and information science, an ontology formally represents knowledge as a set of concepts within a domain , and the relationships between those concepts. It can be used to reason about the entities within that domain and may be used to describe the domain.

More specifically, an ontology is a model for describing the world, which consists of types, properties, and relationships. Exactly what are the essentials of an ontology. There is a very close resemblance between the real world and the features of the model in an ontology. [8]

In theory, an ontology is a “formal, explicit specification of a shared conceptualization”. [9] An ontology renders shared vocabulary and taxonomy which models a domain with the definition of objects and / or concepts and their properties and relations. [10]

Ontologies are the structural frameworks for organizing information and are used in artificial intelligence , the Semantic Web , systems engineering , software engineering , biomedical informatics , library science , enterprise bookmarking , and information architecture as a form of knowledge representation about the world gold Some Part of it. The creation of domain ontologies is also fundamental to the definition and use of an enterprise architecture framework .

Careers

Information scientist

Main article: Information scientist

An information scientist is an individual, usually with a relevant subject or knowledge level, providing information to scientific and technical research staff in a fairly distinct and complementary manner to that of a librarian. The title also

Systems Analyst

Main article: Systems analyst

A systems analyst works on creating, designing, and improving information systems for a specific need. Oftentimes a systems analyst works with a business to evaluate and implement organizational processes and techniques for accessing information in order to improve efficiency and productivity within the business.

Information professional

Main article: Information professional

An information professional is an individual who preserves, organizes, and disseminates information. Information professionals are skilled in the organization and retrieval of recorded knowledge. Traditionally, their work has been done with print materials, but these skills are being increasingly used with electronic, visual, audio, and digital materials. Information professionals in a variety of public, private, non-profit, and academic institutions. Information professionals can also be found within organizational and industrial contexts. Performing roles that include system design and development and system analysis.

History

See also: Information history

Early beginnings

Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz , a German polymath, who wrote in Latin and French. His fields of study were Metaphysics, Mathematics, Theodicy.

Information science, in studying the collection, classification , manipulation, storage, retrieval and dissemination of information in the common stock of human knowledge. Information analysis has-been the carried out by scholars at least as early as the time of the Abyssinian Empire with the emergence of cultural depositories, what is today Known As libraries and archives. [11] Institutionally, information science emerged in the 19th century along with many other social science disciplines. As a science, however, it finds its institutional roots in the history of science , beginning with publication of the first issues of Philosophical Transactions ,

The institutionalization of science occurred throughout the 18th century. In 1731, Benjamin Franklin established the Library Company of Philadelphia , the first library owned by a group of public citizens, which promptly expanded beyond the realms of books and became a center of scientific experiment, and which hosted public exhibitions of scientific experiments. [12] Benjamin Franklin invested in a town in Massachusetts with a collection of books that the town has to offer. [13] Academy of Chirurgia ( Paris ) published Memoirs for Surgeons , generally considered to be the first medical journal, in 1736.

19th century

Joseph Marie Jacquard

By the 19th century the first signs of information science emerged as separate and distinct from other sciences and social sciences in conjunction with communication and computation. In 1801, Joseph Marie Jacquard invented a punched card system to control operations of the weaving loom in France. It was the first use of “memory storage of patterns” system. [14] As chemistry journals Emerged Throughout the 1820s and 1830s, [15] Charles Babbage Developed his “difference engine,” the first step Reviews towards the modern computer, in 1822 and his “analytical engine” by 1834. By 1843 Richard Hoe Developed the Rotary press, and in 1844 Samuel Morse feels the first public telegraph message.

In 1854 George Boole published An Investigation into Laws of Thought …, which lays the foundations for Boolean algebra , which is later used in information retrieval . [16] In 1860 a conference was held at Karlsruhe to discuss the feasibility of establishing a systematic and rational nomenclature for chemistry. The congress did not reach any final results, but several key participants returned home with Stanislao Cannizzaro’s outline (1858), which ultimately convinces them of the validity of his scheme for calculating atomic weights. [17]

By 1865, the Smithsonian Institution was a catalog of current scientific papers, which became the International Catalog of Scientific Papers in 1902. [18] The following year the Royal Society was published in its Catalog of Papers in London. In 1868, Christopher Sholes, Carlos Glidden, and SW Soule produced the first practical typewriter . By 1872 Lord Stephen Baldwin was granted the first US patent for a practical calculating machine that performs four arithmetic functions. [15] Alexander Graham Bell and Thomas Edison invented the telephone and phonograph in 1876 and 1877 respectively, and the American Library Association was founded in Philadelphia. In 1879 Index Medicus was first issued by the Library of the Surgeon General, US Army, with John Shaw Billings as librarian, and later the library issues Index Catalog, which has an international reputation as the most complete catalog of medical literature. [19] With John Shaw Billings as librarian, and later the library issues Index Catalog, which has an international reputation as the most complete catalog of medical literature. [19] With John Shaw Billings as librarian, and later the library issues Index Catalog, which has an international reputation as the most complete catalog of medical literature. [19]

European documentation

The discipline of documentation science , which marks the earliest theoretical foundations of modern information science, emerged in the late part of the 19th century in Europe together with more scholarly literature. Many information science historians quote Paul Otlet and Henry La Fontaine as the fathers of information science with the foundation of the International Institute of Bibliography (IIB) in 1895. [20] A second generation of European Documentalists emerged after the Second World War , most notably Suzanne Briet . However, “information science” As well as in the last part of the 20th century. [21]

Documentalists emphasize the use of technology and technology. According to Ronald Day, “As an organized system of techniques and technologies, documentation was understood as a player in the modern development of a global organization. ” [22] Otlet and Lafontaine (who won the Nobel Prize in 1913) not only envisioned later technical innovations but also projected a global vision for information and information technologies that speaks directly to postwar visions of a global information society. Otlet and Lafontaine, International Associations, and Consequently, International Cooperation. These organizations were the foundation of the United Nations and the United Nations . Otlet designed the Universal Decimal Classification , is based Melville Dewey ‘s decimal classification system. [23] The United Nations and the League of Nations . Otlet designed the Universal Decimal Classification , is based Melville Dewey ‘s decimal classification system. [23] The United Nations and the League of Nations . Otlet designed the Universal Decimal Classification , is based Melville Dewey ‘s decimal classification system. [23]

ALTHOUGH he Lived decades before computers and networks Emerged, what he Discussed prefigured what Ultimately est devenu the World Wide Web . His vision of a great network of knowledge Focused on documentation and included the notions of hyperlinks , search engines , remote access, and social networks .

Otlet not only imagined that all the world’s knowledge should be interlinked and made available to anyone, but also proceeded to build a structured document collection. This collection has been standardized in a number of ways. Users of this service were even more likely to produce more than 50 results per search. [23] By 1937 documentation had formally been institutionalized, as evidenced by the American Documentation Institute (ADI),

Transition to modern information science

Vannevar Bush , a famous information scientist, ca. 1940-1944

With the 1950s, we have developed a new method for the literature search and storage and retrieval. As these concepts grew in magnitude and potential, so does the variety of information science interests. By the 1960s and 70s, from the mainframe to micro and microcomputers. Additionally, traditional boundaries among scholars joined to library programs. They furthermore make themselves multidisciplinary by incorporating disciplines in the sciences, humanities and social sciences, as well as other professional programs, such as lawand medicine in their curriculum. By the 1980s, broad databases, Such as Grateful Med at the National Library of Medicine , and user-oriented services such as Dialog and Compuserve , were for the first time accessible by their personal computers. The 1980s also saw the emergence of numerous special interest groups to respond to the changes. By the end of the decade, social media, energy and the environment, and community information systems. Today, information science broadly examines technical bases, social consequences, and theoretical understanding of online databases, widespread use of databases in government, industry, and education, and the development of the Internet and World Wide Web. [24] And user-oriented services such as Dialog and Compuserve , were for the first time accessible by their personal computers. The 1980s also saw the emergence of numerous special interest groups to respond to the changes. By the end of the decade, social media, energy and the environment, and community information systems. Today, information science broadly examines technical bases, social consequences, and theoretical understanding of online databases, widespread use of databases in government, industry, and education, and the development of the Internet and World Wide Web. [24] And user-oriented services such as Dialog and Compuserve , were for the first time accessible by their personal computers. The 1980s also saw the emergence of numerous special interest groups to respond to the changes. By the end of the decade, social media, energy and the environment, and community information systems. Today, information science broadly examines technical bases, social consequences, and theoretical understanding of online databases, widespread use of databases in government, industry, and education, and the development of the Internet and World Wide Web. [24] Were for the first time accessible by their personal computers. The 1980s also saw the emergence of numerous special interest groups to respond to the changes. By the end of the decade, social media, energy and the environment, and community information systems. Today, information science broadly examines technical bases, social consequences, and theoretical understanding of online databases, widespread use of databases in government, industry, and education, and the development of the Internet and World Wide Web. [24] Were for the first time accessible by their personal computers. The 1980s also saw the emergence of numerous special interest groups to respond to the changes. By the end of the decade, social media, energy and the environment, and community information systems. Today, information science broadly examines technical bases, social consequences, and theoretical understanding of online databases, widespread use of databases in government, industry, and education, and the development of the Internet and World Wide Web. [24] By the end of the decade, social media, energy and the environment, and community information systems. Today, information science broadly examines technical bases, social consequences, and theoretical understanding of online databases, widespread use of databases in government, industry, and education, and the development of the Internet and World Wide Web. [24] By the end of the decade, social media, energy and the environment, and community information systems. Today, information science broadly examines technical bases, social consequences, and theoretical understanding of online databases, widespread use of databases in government, industry, and education, and the development of the Internet and World Wide Web. [24]

Information dissemination in the 21st century

Changing definition

Dissemination has unconventional communication of information. With the advent of the internet , and the explosion in popularity of online communities , ” Social Media Has Changed the information landscape in Many respects, and Creates Both new modes of communication and new kinds of information”, [25] changing the interpretation of the Definition of dissemination. The nature of social networks allows for faster diffusion of information through organizational sources. [26] The internet has changed the way we view, use, create, and store information, now it is time to re-evaluate the way we share and spread it.

Impact of social media on people and industry

Social media networks Provide an open information environment for the mass of people Who-have limited time or access to traditional outlets of information dissemination, [26] this is an “increasingly mobile and social world [that] … demands new kinds of skills information “. [25] Social media integration is a useful tool for users and providers. All major news providers-have visibility and an access point through networks Such As Facebook and TwitterMaximizing Their breadth of hearing. Through social media people are directed to, or provided with, information by people they know. The ability to “share, like, and comment on … content” [27] Increase the reach of the farther and wider than traditional methods. People like to interact with information, they enjoy including the people they know in their circle of knowledge. Sharing through social media has become so influential that publishers must “play nice” if they desire to succeed. ALTHOUGH, it is Often Mutually beneficial for publishers and Facebook to “share, promote and uncover new content” [27] to Improve Both basic user experiences. The impact of popular opinion can spread in unimaginable ways. Social media allows interaction through simple to learn and access tools; The Wall Street Journal offers an app through Facebook,

[Edit] Social media

The connections and networks. Social media help information providers learn what is important to people. The connections people have throughout the world allow the exchange of information to an unprecedented rate. It is for this reason that these networks have been realized for the potential they provide. “Most news media monitor Twitter for breaking news”, [26] as well as news anchors frequently request the audience to tweet pictures of events. [27]The users and viewers of the shared information have earned “opinion-making and agenda-setting power” [26] .

Research vectors and applications

This graph shows links between Wikipediaarticles. Information science includes studying how topics relate to each other, and how readers relate concepts to each other.

The following areas are of interest to the investigations and develops.

Information access

Information access is an area of research at the intersection of Informatics , Information Science, Information Security , Language Technology , Computer Science , and Library Science . The objective of this paper is to provide an overview of the information available to users. What about assigning privileges and restrictions to unauthorized users? The extent of accessibility should be defined in the level of clearance granted for the information. Applicable technologies include information retrieval , text mining , text editing , machine translation , And text categorization . In discussion, information access is often defined as to the insurance of free and closed or public access to information and is brought up in discussions on copyright , patent law , and public domain . Public libraries need resources to provide knowledge of information assurance.

Information architecture

Main article: Information architecture

Information architecture (IA) is the art and science of organizing and labeling websites , intranets , online communities and software to support usability. [28] It is an emerging discipline and community of practice focused on bringing together principles of design and architecture to the digital landscape . [29] Typically it Involves a model or concept of information qui is used and applied to activities That require explicit details of complex information systems .

Information management

Main article: Information management

Information management (IM) is the collection and management of information from one or more sources and the distribution of information to one or more audiences. This is a great place to be. Management of the organization and control over the structure, processing and delivery of information. Throughout the 1970s this was a wide range of files, file maintenance, and the life cycle of paper-based files, other media and records. With the proliferation of information technology starting in the 1970s, the job of information management took on a new light and also began to include the field of data maintenance.

Information retrieval

Main article: Information retrieval

Information retrieval (IR) is the area of study Concerned with searching for documents, for information Within documents and for metadata about documents, as well as That of searching structured storage , relational databases , and the World Wide Web . Automated information retrieval systems are used to reduce what has been called ” information overload “. Many universities and public libraries use IR systems to provide access to books, journals and other documents. Web search engines are the most visible IR applications .

An information retrieval process begins when a user enters a query into the system. Queries are for information purposes , for example search engines. In retrieval a query does not uniquely identify a single object in the collection. Instead, several objects may match the query, perhaps with different degrees of relevancy .

An object is an entity that is represented by information in a database . User queries are matched against the database information. Depending on the application the data objects may be, for example, text documents, images, [30]audio, [31] mind maps [32] or videos. Often the documents are not kept or stored directly in the IR system, but are represented in the system by document surrogates or metadata.

Most IR systems compute a numeric score on how well each object in the database match the query, and rank the objects according to this value. The top ranking objects are then shown to the user. The process may then be iterated if the user wishes to refine the query. [33]

Information seeking

Main article: Information seeking

Information seeking is the process or activity of attempting to obtain information in both human and technological contexts. Information retrieval (IR).

Much library and information science (LIS) research has focused on the information-seeking practices of practitioners within various fields of professional work. Studies have been carried out in the information-seeking behaviors of librarians, [34] academics, [35] medical professionals, [36] engineers [37] and lawyers [38] (among others). Much of this research has been done on the work done by Leckie, Pettigrew (now Fisher) and Sylvain, who in 1996 conducted an extensive review of the LIS literature on professionals’ information seeking. The authors proposed an analytic model of professionals’ information seeking behavior, intended to be generalizable across the professions, (SARS) in the area. The model was intended to “prompt new insights … and give rise to more refined and applicable theories of information seeking” (1996: 188). The model has been adapted by Wilkinson (2001) which proposes a model of the information seeking of lawyers.

Information society

Main article: Information society

An information society is a society where the creation, distribution, diffusion, utilization, integration and manipulation of information is a significant economic, political, and cultural activity. The aim of an information society is to gain competitive internationally, through IT in a creative and productive way. The knowledge economy is the economic counterpart, whereby wealth is created through the economic exploitation of understanding. People who have the means to partake in this form of society are sometimes called digital citizens .

Basically, an information society is the means of getting information from one place to another (Wark, 1997, p.22). As technology has become more advanced over time, we have the ability to share information with each other.

Information society theory, the question of which key concepts should be used for characterizing contemporary society, and how to define such concepts. It has become a specific branch of contemporary sociology.

Knowledge representation and reasoning

Knowledge Representation (KR) is an area of artificial intelligence research at avocation Representing knowledge in symbols to Facilitate inferencing from Those knowledge Elements, Creating New Elements of Knowledge. The KR can be made to be independent of the underlying knowledge model or knowledge base system (KBS) such as a semantic network . [39]

Knowledge Representation (KR) is a method for the determination of the value of a given object. A symbol vocabulary and a system of logic are combined to enable inferences about Elements in the KR to create new KR awards. Logic is used to supply formal semantics of how the functions of the KR system should be applied to the symbols. Logic is also used to define how to process and reshape the knowledge. Examples of operators and operations include, negation, conjunction, adverbs, adjectives, quantifiers and modal operators. The logic is interpretation theory. These elements-symbols, operators, and interpretation theory-are what give sequences of symbols into a KR.

See also

  • Outline of information science
  • Outline of information technology
  • Outline of library science
  • Journal of Information Technology (JASIST)

References

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  36. Jump up^ Davies, K .; Harrison, J. (2007). “The information-seeking behavior of doctors: A review of the evidence”. Health Information & Libraries Journal . 2 : 78-94. Doi : 10.1111 / j.1471-1842.2007.00713.x .
  37. Jump up^ Robinson, MA (2010). “An empirical analysis of engineers’ information behaviors”. Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology . 61 (4): 640-658. Doi : 10.1002 / asi.21290 .
  38. Jump up^ Kuhlthau, CC; Tama, SL (2001). “Information search process of lawyers: A call for ‘just for me’ information services”. Journal of Documentation . 57(1): 25-43. Doi : 10.1108 / EUM0000000007076 .
  39. Jump up^ “Knowledge representation in RDF / XML, KIF, Frame-CG and Formalized-English”, Philippe Martin, Distributed System Technology Center, QLD, Australia, July 15-19, 2002

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