Information processing

Information processing is the exchange (processing) of information in Any Manner detectable by year watch . As such, it is a process that describes everything that happens (changes) in the universe , from the falling of a rock (a change in position) to the printing of a text file from a digital computer system. In the latter case, an information processor is changing the form of presentation of that text file. Information processing may more specifically be defined in terms used by, Claude E. Shannon as the conversion of latent information into manifest information (McGonigle & Mastrian, 2011).

In cognitive psychology

Within the field of cognitive psychology , information processing is an approach to the goal of understanding human behavior in relation to how they process the same kind of information as computers (Shannon & Weaver, 1963). It arose in the 1940s and 1950s, after World War II (Sternberg & Sternberg, 2012). The approach treats cognition as essentially computational in nature, with mind being the software and the brain being the hardware . The information processing approach in psychology is closely allied to the computational theory of mind in philosophy; It is also related, though not identical,

Two types

Information processing may be sequential or parallel , either of which may be centralized or decentralized ( distributed ). The parallel distributed processing approach of the mid-1980s became popular under the name connectionism . The connectionist network is made up of different nodes, and it works by a “priming effect,” and this happens when a “prime node activates a connected node” (Sternberg & Sternberg, 2012). Aim “unlike in semantic networks, it is not a single node that has a specific meaning, but rather the knowledge is represented in a combination of differently activated nodes” (Goldstein, as cited in Sternberg, 2012).

Models and theories

There are several proposals or theories that describe the way in which we process information.

Sternberg’s triarchic theory of intelligence

Sternberg’s theory of intelligence is made up of three different components: creative, analytical, and practical abilities (Sternberg & Sternberg, 2012). Creativity is the best way to make a difference. “Sternberg & Sternberg, 2012, p.21).” Practical abilities are used to implement the ideas and persuade others of their value “. In the middle of Sternberg’s theory is cognition and with that information processing. (Sternberg & Sternberg, 2012). In this paper, we present the results of the study. These processes move from higher-order executive functions to lower order functions. (Sternberg & Sternberg, 2012). This paper describes the methodology used to calculate and evaluate the performance of the metacomponents. This theory in action can be explained by working on an art project. First of all, we have a decision on what to draw, then a plan and a sketch. During this process, it is necessary to make the necessary accomplishment. All these steps fall under the metacomponent processing, and the performance component is the art. The knowledge-acquisition portion is the learning or improving skills. (Sternberg & Sternberg, 2012). In this paper, we present the results of the study. This theory in action can be explained by working on an art project. First of all, we have a decision on what to draw, then a plan and a sketch. During this process, it is necessary to make the necessary accomplishment. All these steps fall under the metacomponent processing, and the performance component is the art. The knowledge-acquisition portion is the learning or improving skills. (Sternberg & Sternberg, 2012). In this paper, we present the results of the study. This theory in action can be explained by working on an art project. First of all, we have a decision on what to draw, then a plan and a sketch. During this process, it is necessary to make the necessary accomplishment. All these steps fall under the metacomponent processing, and the performance component is the art. The knowledge-acquisition portion is the learning or improving skills. First of all, we have a decision on what to draw, then a plan and a sketch. During this process, it is necessary to make the necessary accomplishment. All these steps fall under the metacomponent processing, and the performance component is the art. The knowledge-acquisition portion is the learning or improving skills. First of all, we have a decision on what to draw, then a plan and a sketch. During this process, it is necessary to make the necessary accomplishment. All these steps fall under the metacomponent processing, and the performance component is the art. The knowledge-acquisition portion is the learning or improving skills.

Information processing model: the working memory

According to thefreedictionary.com, the definition of information processing is “the sciences concerned with gathering, manipulating, storing, retrieving, and classifying recorded information”. [1] It suggests that for information to be firmly implanted in memory, it must pass through three stages of mental processing; Sensory memory, short-term memory, and long-term memory. An example of this is the working memory model. This includes the central executive, phonologic loop, episodic buffer, visuospatial sketchpad, verbal information, long term memory, and visual information (Sternberg & Sternberg, 2012). The central executive is like the secretary of the brain. It decides what needs attention and how to respond. The central executive then leads to three different subsections. The first is phonological storage, subvocal rehearsal, and the phonological loop. These sections work together to understand words, put the information into memory, and then hold the memory. The result is verbal information storage. The next item is the visuospatial sketchpad. The storage capacity is a stimulus. Finally, there is an episodic buffer. This section is capable of taking information and putting it into long-term memory. It is also possible to take information from the phonological loop and visuospatial sketchpad, combining them with long-term memory to make a unitary episodic representation (Sternberg & Sternberg, 2012). The five senses: visual, auditory, tactile, olfactory, and taste. (Eg, food – taste it, smell it, see it). In general, learning benefits occur when there is a developed process of pattern recognition. The sensory register has a large capacity and its behavioral response is very short (1-3 seconds). Within this model, sensory store and short term memory or working memory has limited capacity. Sensory store is able to hold very limited amounts of time. This phenomenon is very similar to having a picture taken with a flash. For a few brief moments after the flash goes off, the flash seems to be still there. (Sternberg & Sternberg, 2012). However, this is not the place to be. Short term storage holds information for slightly longer periods of time, But still has a limited capacity. According to Linden (2007), “The capacity of STM had initially been estimated at seven times or minus two” items (Miller 1956), which fits the observation from neuropsychological testing that the average digit of healthy adults is about seven And others 2005). However, they are grouped into so-called chunks, using perceptual or conceptual associations between individual stimuli. Its duration is of 5-20 seconds before it is out of the subject’s mind. This is a great place to stay. Images or information based on meaning are stored here as well, but it decays without rehearsal or repetition of such information. On the other hand, Long-term memory has a potentially unlimited capacity (Sternberg & Sternberg, 2012) and its duration is indefinite. Although it is difficult to access, it encompasses everything learned until this point in time. One may become forgetful or feel as if the information is on the tip of the tongue .

Cognitive development theory

Another approach to viewing the ways in qui information is processed in humans Was suggéré by Jean Piaget in what is called Expired the Piaget’s Cognitive Development Theory (Presnell, 1999). Piaget was born in the Netherlands. He identified four different stages between different age brackets by the type of information and by a distinctive thought process. The four stages are: the sensorimotor (from birth to 2 years), preoperational (2-6 years), concrete operational (6-11 years), and formal operational periods (11 years and older). During the sensorimotor stage, newborns and toddlers rely on their senses for information processing to which they respond with reflexes. In the preoperational stage, Children learn through imitation and remain unable to take other people’s point of view. The concrete operational stage is one of the most important factors in solving a problem. The last stage is the formal operational, in which preadolescents and adolescents begin to understand abstract concepts and to develop the ability to create arguments and counter arguments.

Moreover, adolescence is characterized by a series of changes in the biological, cognitive, and social realms. In the cognitive area, it is worth noting that the brain’s prefrontal cortex as well as the limbic system undergoes important changes. The prefrontal cortex is the part of the brain that is active when engaged in complicated cognitive activities such as planning, generating goals and strategies, intuitive decision-making, and metacognition(thinking about thinking). This is consistent with Piaget’s last stage of formal operations (McLeod, 2010). The prefrontal cortex becomes complete between adolescence and early adulthood. The limbic system is the part of the brain that modulates reward sensitivity based on changes in the levels of neurotransmitters (eg, dopamine) and emotions.

In short, cognitive abilities. It is a good opportunity to learn how to improve the quality of life in a child’s life.

In computing

In computing, information processing broadly refers to the use of algorithms to transform data-the defining activity of computers; [2] International Federation for Information Processing ( IFIP ). It is essentially synonymous with the terms data processing or computation , although with a more general connotation. [3]

See also

  • Information processing system
  • Computer data processing
  • Information processing technology and aging

References

  1. Jump up^ “Definition of information processing” . The Free Dictionary . Princeton University. 2012 . Retrieved July 26, 2016 .
  2. Jump up^ Illingworth, Valerie (11 December 1997). Dictionary of Computing . Oxford Paperback Reference (4th ed.). Oxford University Press. p. 241. ISBN  9780192800466 .
  3. Jump up^ Anthony Ralston (2000). Encyclopedia of computer science . Nature Pub. Group. ISBN  978-1-56159-248-7 .

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