Information history

Information history may refer to the history of each of the categories listed below (or to combinations of them). It shoulds be reconnu que le understanding of, for example, libraries have information systems only goes back to about 1950. The implementation of the term information things seized systems or societies is a retronym .

The word and concept “information”

The Latin roots and Greek origins of the word “information” is presented by Capurro & Hjørland (2003). [1] References on “training or molding of the mind or character, training, instruction, teaching”, Oxford English Dictionary and other European languages. In the transition from Middle Ages to Modernity the use of the concept of information reflected a fundamental turn in epistemological basis – from “giving a (substantial) form to matter” to “communicating something to someone”. Peters (1988, pp. 12-13) concludes:

Information was readily deployed in empiricist psychology (though it did not matter what other words it used to be) as it seemed to me to describe the mechanics of sensation. But sensation is entirely different from “form” – the one is sensual, the other intellectual; The one is subjective, the other objective. My sensation of things is fleeting, elusive, and idiosynchratic [sic]. For Hume, especially, sensory experience is a swirl of impressions cut off from any sure link to the real world … In any case, the empiricist problematic was how the mind is informed by the sensations of the world. At first informed meant shaped by; Later it came to mean received reports from. As its site of action drifted from cosmos to consciousness, the term ‘ S sense shifted from unities (Aristotle’s forms) to units (of sensation). Information on the use of the term “training”, since empiricism allowed for no preexisting intellectual forms outside of sensation itself. Instead, information cam to refer to the fragmentary, fluctuating, haphazard stuff of sense. Information, like the early modern world in general, shifted from a divinely ordered cosmos to a system governed by the motion of corpuscles. Under the tutelage of empiricism, information gradually moved from structure to stuff, from form to substance, from intellectual order to sensory impulses. [2] Since empiricism allowed for no preexisting intellectual forms outside of sensation itself. Instead, information cam to refer to the fragmentary, fluctuating, haphazard stuff of sense. Information, like the early modern world in general, shifted from a divinely ordered cosmos to a system governed by the motion of corpuscles. Under the tutelage of empiricism, information gradually moved from structure to stuff, from form to substance, from intellectual order to sensory impulses. [2] Since empiricism allowed for no preexisting intellectual forms outside of sensation itself. Instead, information cam to refer to the fragmentary, fluctuating, haphazard stuff of sense. Information, like the early modern world in general, shifted from a divinely ordered cosmos to a system governed by the motion of corpuscles. Under the tutelage of empiricism, information gradually moved from structure to stuff, from form to substance, from intellectual order to sensory impulses. [2] From form to substance, from intellectual order to sensory impulses. [2] From form to substance, from intellectual order to sensory impulses. [2]

In the modern era, the most important influence on the concept of information is derived from the information theory developed by Shannon and others. This theory, however, reflects a fundamental contradiction. Qvortrup (1993) [3] wrote:

Thus, actually two conflicting metaphors are being used: The well-known metaphor of information as a quantity, like water in the waterpipe, is at work, but so is a second metaphor, An information provider, and a forced choice. Actually, the second metaphor implies that the information is not necessarily equal to the information received, because any choice implies a list of possibilities, ie, a list of possible meanings. Here, meaning is involved, thus spoiling the idea of ​​information as a pure “Ding an sich.” Thus, much of the confusion regarding the concept of information seems to be related to the basic confusion of metaphors in Shannon’s theory: Or is information always per se information to an observer? Actually, I do not think that Shannon himself thing one of the two definitions. Logically speaking, his theory implied information as a subjective phenomenon. But this shannon did not seem to fully realize this logical fact. Consequently, it is important to note that, This is the basic, inherent contradiction in Shannon’s information theory. “(Qvortrup, 1993, p.5) (S): (i) the substance of the substance. This is the basic, inherent contradiction in Shannon’s information theory. “(Qvortrup, 1993, p.5) (S): (i) the substance of the substance. This is the basic, inherent contradiction in Shannon’s information theory. “(Qvortrup, 1993, p.5)

In their seminal book The Study of Information: Interdisciplinary Messages , [4] Machlup and Mansfield (1983) In the social sciences. Machlup (1983, [5], p. 660) disagrees with the use of the concept of information in the context of signal transmission. Information is addressed to human minds and is received by human minds. ” All other senses, including its use with regard to nonhuman organisms as a whole, are according to Machlup,

Hjørland (2007) [6] Describes The fundamental difference objective entre and subjective views of information and Argues que la subjective view has-been supported by, Among Others, Bateson, [7] Yovits, [8] [9] Spang-Hanssen [ 10]Brier, [11] Buckland, [12] Goguen, [13] and Hjørland. [14] Hjørland provided the following example:

A stone on a field could contain different information for different people (or from one situation to another). It is not possible for information systems to map all the possible information for every individual. Nor is any one mapping the one “true” mapping. But they have different educational backgrounds and play different roles in the division of labor in society. A stone in a field represents a geologist, another for the archaeologist. The information from the stone can be mapped into different collective knowledge structures produced by eg geology and archeology. Information can be identified, described, represented in information systems for different domains of knowledge. Of course, There is much uncertainty and difficulty in determining whether or not to do so. Some domains have high degree of consensus and some explicit criteria of relevance. Other domains have different, conflicting paradigms, each containing its own more or less implicate view of the informativeness of different kinds of information sources. (Hjørland, 1997, 111, emphasis in original).

Academic discipline

Information history is an emerging discipline related to, but broader than, library history . An important introduction and review was made by Alistair Black (2006). [15] A prolific scholar in this field is also Toni Weller, for example, Weller (2007, 2008, 2010a and 2010b). [16] [17] [18] [19] As part of her work Toni Weller has argued that there are important links between the modern information age and its historical precedents. [20] [21] [22] A description from Russia is Volodin (2000). [23]

Alistair Black (2006, 445) wrote: “This chapter explores issues of discipline and legitimacy by segmenting information into its various components:

  • The history of print and written culture, including relatively long-established areas, as well as the history of libraries and librarianship.
  • The history of recent information and information technologies, and information science.
  • The history of contiguous areas, such as the history of information society and information infrastructure, and the history of information policy.
  • The history of information as social history, with emphasis on the importance of informal information networks. “

The Norwegian Society for Library and Information Studies), Finland (The Library History Research Group, University of Tamepere), and Norway. Sweden has no official group to the subject, but interest is generated by the existence of a museum of librarianship in Bods, established by the Library Museum Society and directed by Magnus Torstensson. (2006), pp. 447-63. [15] In this paper, we present the results of the study of the ” Bibliotheca Alexandrina, by Bibliotheca Alexandrina, and by Magnus Torstensson. (2006), pp. 447-63. [15] In this paper, we present the results of the study of the ” Bibliotheca Alexandrina, by Bibliotheca Alexandrina, and by Magnus Torstensson. (2006), pp. 447-63. [15] In this paper, we present the results of the study of the “

Journals

  • Information & Culture (previously Libraries & the Cultural Record, Libraries & Culture)
  • Library & Information History (until 2008: Library History, until 1967: Library Association.

Information technology (IT)

The term IT is ambiguous but mostly synonymous with computer technology. Haigh (2011, pp. 432-433) wrote

Information technology now Described the expected convergence of the computing, media, and telecommunications industries (and Their technology) Understood dans le Broader context of a wave of Enthusiasm for the computer revolution, post-industrial society , information society (Webster 1995 [26 ] ), And other fashionable expressions of the belief that new electronic technologies were bringing a profound rupture with the past. As it spreads widely during the 1980s, IT increasingly lost its association with communications (and, alas, any vestigial connection to the idea of ​​anybody actually being informed of anything) to become a new and more pretentious way of saying “computer”. The final step in this process is the recent surge in references to ” Information and communication technologies “or ICTs, a cornering that makes sense only if one assumes that a technology can inform without communicating”. [27]

Some people use the term information technology . [28] This is HOWEVER to use the term as a retronym .

See also

  • History of computer and video games
  • History of computing hardware (1960s-present)
  • History of computing hardware
  • History of operating systems
  • History of software engineering
  • History of programming languages
  • History of artificial intelligence
  • History of the graphical user interface
  • History of the Internet
  • History of the World Wide Web
  • IT History Society
  • Timeline of computing

Information society

See also: Information Age and Information revolution

“It is said that we do not know what to say, but we do not know what to say.” (Goguen, 1997). [13]

The Danish Internet researcher Niels Ole Finnemann (2001) [29] developed a general history of media. He wrote: “A society can not exist in which the production and exchange of information are of only minor significance. Also be industrial societies. ” He suggested the following media matrix: [30]

  1. Oral cultures based mainly on speech.
  2. Literate cultures: speech + writing (primary alphabets and number systems).
  3. Print cultures: speech + written texts + print.
  4. Mass-media cultures: speech + written texts + print + analogue electric media.
  5. Second-order alphabetic cultures: speech + written texts + print + analogue electric media + digital media.

Information science

See also: Information science § History , Cranfield experiments , Documentation science , and Information scientist

Many information science historians quote Paul Otlet and Henry La Fontaine as the fathers of information science with the foundation of the International Institute of Bibliography (IIB) in 1895 [31] [32] Institutionally, information science emerged in the last part of the 19th century As documentation science in general science in the 1960s.

Heting Chu (2010) in four phases. “The history of IRR is not long.” A retrospective look at the field identified increases in demand, rapid growth, demystification phase, and the networked era .

  1. Increased Demand (1940s-early 1950s) ( Explosion Information )
  2. Rapid Growth (1950s-1980s) (the emergence of computers and systems such as Dialog (online database) )
  3. Demystification Phase (1980s-1990s) (systems developed for end-user searching)
  4. The Networked Era (1990s-Present) (search enginees such as AltaVista and Google )

References

  1. Jump up^ Capurro, Rafael & Hjørland, Birger (2003). The concept of information. Annual review of science and technology (343-411). Medford, NJ: Information Today. A retrieved version November 6, 2011 from:http://www.capurro.de/infoconcept.html
  2. Jump up^ Peters, JD (1988). Information: Notes Toward a Critical History. Journal of Communication Inquiry, 12, 10-24.
  3. Jump up^ Qvortrup, L. (1993). The controversy over the concept of information. An overview and a selected and annotated bibliography. Cybernetics & Human Knowing 1 (4), 3-24.
  4. Jump up^ Machlup, Fritz & Una Mansfield (eds.). 1983. The Study of Information: Interdisciplinary Messages. New York: Wiley.
  5. Jump up^ Machlup, Fritz. 1983. “Semantic Quirks in Studies of Information,” pp. 641-71 in Fritz Machlup & Una Mansfield, The Study of Information: Interdisciplinary Messages. New York: Wiley.
  6. Jump up^ Hjørland, B. (2007). Information: Objective or Subjective / Situational ?. Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology, 58 (10), 1448-1456.
  7. Jump up^ Bateson, G. (1972). Steps to an ecology of mind. New York: Ballantine.
  8. Jump up^ Yovits, MC (1969). Information science: Toward the development of a true scientific discipline. American Documentation (Vol 20, pp. 369-376).
  9. Jump up^ Yovits, MC (1975). A theoretical framework for the development of information science. In International Federation for Documentation. Study Committee on the Theoretical Basis of Information. Meeting (1974: Moscow) Information science, its scope, objects of research and problems: a report of the FID Study Committee on the Theoretical Basis of Information 24-26 April 1974, Moscow 90-114). FID 530. Moscow: VINITI
  10. Jump up^ Spang-Hanssen, H. (2001). How to teach about information. Human IT, (1), 125-143. Retrieved May 14, 2007, fromhttp://www.hb.se/bhs/ith/1-01/hsh.htm
  11. Jump up^ Brier, S. (1996). Cybersemiotics: A new interdisciplinary approach to information and knowledge management. Journal of Documentation, 52 (3), 296-344.
  12. Jump up^ Buckland, M. (1991). Information and information systems. New York: Greenwood Press.
  13. ^ Jump up to:b Goguen, JA (1997). Towards a social, ethical theory of information. In G. Bowker, L. Gasser, L. Star, & W. Turner, Erlbaum (Eds.), Beyond the Great Divide (Social Science Research, Technical Systems and Cooperative Work, pp. 27-56). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum. Retrieved May 14, 2007, from http://cseweb.ucsd.edu/~goguen/ps/sti.pdf
  14. Jump up^ Hjørland, B. (1997). Information seeking and subject representation. An activity-theoretical approach to information science. Westport: Greenwood Press.
  15. ^ Jump up to:b Black, A. (2006). Information history. Annual Review of Information Science and Technology, 40, 441-473.
  16. Jump up^ Weller, Toni (2007). Information history: its importance, relevance and future. ASLIB Proceedings, 59 (4-5), 437-448.
  17. Jump up^ Weller, Toni (2008). Information History-An Introduction: Exploring an Emergent Field. Oxford: Chandos Publishing.
  18. Jump up^ Weller, Toni (2010a), An Information History Decade: A Review of the Literature and Concepts, 2000-2009, Library & Information History, 26 (1), 83-97.
  19. Jump up^ Weller, Toni (Ed) (2010b), Information History in the Modern World: Histories of the Information Age, Palgrave Macmillan
  20. Jump up^ Weller, Toni (June 2010), ‘The Victorian Information Age: Nineteenth Century Answers to Today’s Information Policy Questions’, History & Policy.
  21. Jump up^ Bowlby, Chris (November 2010), ‘The Victorians were every bit as inquisitive as us’, BBC History Magazine. http://www.historyextra.com/feature/victorians-were-every-bit-inquisitive-us
  22. Jump up^ Weller, Toni (2012), ‘The Information State: A Historical Perspective on Surveillance’ in Lyon, Haggerty & Ball (Eds), Routledge Handbook of Surveillance Studies
  23. Jump up^ Volodin, BF (2000). History of librarianship, history history, or information history: A view from Russia. Library Quarterly, 70 (4), 446-467.
  24. Jump up^ Haigh, Thomas (2001b). Inventing information systems; 1950-1968, The Systems and the Computer. Business History Review, 75 (1), 15-61.
  25. Jump up^ Leavitt, HJ & Whisler, TL (1958). Management in the 1980s. Harward Business Review, 36 (6), 41-48.
  26. Jump up^ Webster, F. (1995). Theories of the information society. New York: Routledge.
  27. Jump up^ Haigh, Thomas (2011). The history of information technology. Annual Review of Information Science and Technology, 45, 431-487.
  28. Jump up^ Butler, Jeremy G. (1997). A History of Information Technology and Systems. http://www.tcf.ua.edu/AZ/ITHistoryOutline.htm
  29. Jump up^ Finnemann, Niels Ole (2001). The Internet-A New Communicational Infrastructure. Manuscript for the 15th Nordic Conference on Media and Communication Research, “New Media, New Opportunities, New Societies”, University of Iceland in Reykjavik, Iceland, August 11th-13th, 2001. Tilgængelig:https://web.archive.org/ web / 20040328165322 / http: //cfi.imv.au.dk/pub/skriftserie/002_finnemann.pdf
  30. Jump up^ Gleick, James (2011). The Information: A History, a Theory, a Flood. New York: Pantheon Books.
  31. Jump up^ Rayward, WB (1994). International federation for information and documentation. In WA Wiegand, & DG David Jr. (Eds.), The encyclopedia of library history (pp. 290-294). New York: Garland Publishing, Inc.
  32. Jump up^ Hahn, Trudi Bellardo & Buckland, Michael (eds.). (1998). Historical studies in information science. Medford, NJ: Information Today, Inc.
  33. Jump up^ Chu, Heting (2010). ‘Information Representation and Retrieval in the Digital Age’, Second Edition. Medford, NJ: Information Today

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