Information and communications technology

Information and communication technology ( ICT ) is an extended term for information technology (IT) which stresses the role of unified communications . [1]

The term ICT est used to Refer to the convergence of audio-visual and phone networks with computer networks through a single cabling or link system. There is a large economic incentives to the merchandise of a single unified system of cabling, signal distribution and management.

However, ICT has no universal definition, as “the concepts, methods and applications involved in ICT are constantly evolving on an almost daily basis”. [2] The broadness of ICT covers, retrieve, manipulate, transmit or receive information electronically in a digital form, eg personal computers, digital television, email, robots. For clarity, Zuppo provided an ICT hierarchy where the levels of the hierarchy “contain some degree of commonality in which the transfer of information and various types of electronically mediated communications”. [3] Skills Framework for the Information Age is one of many models for describing and managing competencies for ICT professionals for the 21st century.

Etymology

Which reflects the addition of computer programming into the curriculum. [8]

” United Nations Information and Communication Technology “, ” United Nations Information and Communication Technologies “, and the Office of Information and Communication Technology. [9]

Monetization

The money spent on IT is currently US $ 3.5 trillion and is currently growing at 5% per year, doubling every 15 years. [10] The 2014 IT budget of US federal government is nearly $ 82 billion. [11] IT costs, as a percentage of corporate income, have grown 50% since 2002, putting a strain on IT budgets. When looking at current companies’ IT budgets, 75% are recurrent costs, used to “keep the lights on” in the IT department, and 25% are cost of new initiatives for technology development. [10]

The average IT budget has the following breakdown: [10]

  • 31% personnel costs (internal)
  • 29% software costs (external / purchasing category)
  • 26% hardware costs (external / purchasing category)
  • 14% costs of external service providers (external / services).

Technological capacity

The world’s technological capacity to store information Grew from 2.6 (optimally compressed) exabytes in 1986 to 15.8 in 1993 over 54.5 in 2000 and to 295 (optimally compressed) exabytes in 2007, and Some 5 zettabytes in 2014. [12] [13 ] This is the informational equivalent to 1.25 stacks of CD-ROM from the earth to the moon in 2007, and the equivalent of 4,500 stacks of printed books from the earth to the sun in 2014. The world’s technological capacity to receive information through one- Way broadcast networks was 432 exabytes of (optimally compressed) information in 1986,715 (optimally compressed) exabytes in 1993, 1.2 (optimally compressed) zettabytves in 2000, and 1.9 zettabytes in 2007. [12] The world’s effective capacity to exchange information through two-way telecommunication networks was 281 petabytes of 1986 471 petabytes in 1993 2.2 (optimally compressed) exabytes in 2000, 65 (optimally compressed) exabytes in 2007, [12] and Some 100 exabytes in 2014. [14] The world’s technological capacity to compute information with humanly guided General- Purpose computers grew from 3.0 × 10 ^ 8 MIPS in 1986, to 6.4 x 10 ^ 12 MIPS in 2007. [12]

ICT sector in the OECD

The Following is a list of OECD countries by share of ICT sector in total value added in 2013. [15]

Rank Country ICT sector in% Relative size
1  South Korea 10.7
2  japan 7.02
3  Ireland 6.99
4  sweden 6.82
5  hungary 6.09
6  United States 5.89
7  Czech Republic 5.74
8  finland 5.60
9  United Kingdom 5.53
10  estonia 5.33
11  Slovakia 4.87
12  germany 4.84
13  luxembourg 4.54
14  Netherlands 4.44
15 switzerland 4.63
16  la France 4.33
17  slovenia 4.26
18  denmark 4.06
19  spain 4.00
20  Canada 3.86
21  italy 3.72
22  Belgium 3.72
23  austria 3.56
24  Portugal 3.43
25  poland 3.33
26  norway 3.32
27  greece 3.31
28  iceland 2.87
29  mexico 2.77

ICT Development Index

The ICT Development Index ranks and compares the level of ICT use and access across the world. [16] In 2014 ITU (International Telecommunication Union) released the latest rankings of the IDI, with Denmark attaining the top spot, followed by South Korea. Australia, Bahrain, Canada, Japan, Macau (China), New Zealand, Singapore, United States of America IDI ranking this year. ” [17]

The WSIS process and ICT development goals

On 21 December 2001, the United Nations General Assembly approved Resolution 56/183, endorsing the holding of the World Summit on the Information Society (WSIS) to discuss the opportunities and challenges facing today’s information society. [18] According to this resolution, the General Assembly is the United Nations Millennium Declaration on the Implementation of the Millennium Development Goals . It also emphasizes a multi-stakeholder approach to achieve these goals, using all stakeholders including civil society and the private sector, in addition to governments.

2015 is the deadline for achievements of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), which global leaders agreed upon in the year 2000. ” [19]

In education

Today’s society shows the ever-growing computer-centric lifestyle, which includes the rapid influx of computers in the modern classroom.

Information and Communication Technology can contribute to universal access to education, equity in education, the delivery of quality learning and teaching, teachers’ professional development and more efficient education management, governance and administration. DYNAMO takes a holistic and comprehensive approach to promoting ICT in education. Access, inclusion and quality are among the main challenges they can address. The Organization’s Intersectoral Platform for ICT in Education, Communication and Information, Education and Science. [20]

Today

In modern society ICT is ever-present, with over three billion people having access to the Internet. [21] With approximately 8 out of 10 Internet users owning a smartphone, information and data are increasing by leaps and bounds. [22] This rapid growth, especially in developing countries, has led ICT to become a keystone of everyday life, in which life without some facet of technology renders most of the clerical, work and routine dysfunctional tasks. The most recent authoritative data, released in 2014, shows “that Internet use continuing to grow steadily, at 6.6% globally in 2014 (3.3% in developed countries, 8.7% Doubled in five years (2009-2014),

However, hurdles are still at large. In the world’s 42 Least Connected Countries (LCCs), which are home to 2.5 billion people, access to ICTs remains largely out of reach, especially for these Countries’ broad rural populations. ” [23] ICT has now to penetrate the remote areas of some countries, with many developing countries dearth of any type of Internet. It also includes the provision of cellular coverage, and other forms of electronic transmission of data. The latest “Measuring the Information Society Report” cautiously stated that the increase in the aforementioned cellular data coverage is ostensible, as ” Many users have multiple subscriptions, with global growth figures; translating into little real improvement in the level of connectivity of those at the bottom of the pyramid; An estimated 450 million people worldwide living in places that are still out of reach of mobile cellular service. ” [21]

The Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), a global leader in the development of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) , And the new data show ICT progress and highlight remaining gaps. ” [19] continuous ICT to take one new form, with nanotechnology set to usher in a new wave of ICT and electronics gadgets. ICT newest editions into the modern electronic world include smart watches, such as the Apple Watch , smart wristbands such as the Nike + FuelBand , and smart TVs such as Google TV . With desktops soon becoming part of a bygone era, and laptops becoming the preferred method of computing,

Information communication technologies play a role in facilitating accelerated pluralism in new social movements today. Bruce Bimber, “Bringing Bimber to the Process of Outreach and Training” [24] and the term accelerated pluralism to explain this new phenomena. ICTs are tools for enabling social movement leaders and empowering dictators [25] in effect promoting societal change. ICTs can be used to garner grassroots support for a cause of the internet allowing for political discourse and direct interventions with state policy [26] .

See also

  • Information technology portal
  • cloud computing
  • Cognitive infocommunications
  • DICOM
  • Digital divide
  • Example of Information and Communication Technologies for Education
  • Global e-Schools and Communities Initiative
  • Hospital information system
  • Infocommunications
  • Information Age
  • Information and communication technologies for development
  • Information and communication technologies for environmental sustainability
  • Market information systems
  • Mobile Web
  • Picture archiving and communication system
  • 21st century skills

References

  1. Jump up^ {{cite web | Url =http://itknowledgeexchange.techtarget.com/modern-network-architecture/cloud-network-architecture-and-ict/| Title = Cloud network architecture and ICT – Modern Network Architecture | Author = Murray, James | Publisher =TechTarget| Website = ITKnowledg ref>“Information and Communication Technology from” . FOLDOC . 19 September 2008.
  2. Jump up^ “ICT – What is it?” . Www.tutor2u.net . Retrieved 1 September 2015 .
  3. Jump up^ Zuppo, Colrain M. “Defining ICT in a Boundaryless World: The Development of a Working Hierarchy” (PDF) . International Journal of Managing Information Technology (IJMIT). p. 19 . Retrieved 13 February2016 .
  4. Jump up^ https://www.computer.org/web/pressroom/framework
  5. Jump up^ William Melody et al., “Information and Communication Technology: Social Science Research and Training: A Report by the ESRC”,ISBN 0-86226-179-1, 1986. Roger Silverstone et al., ” Listening to a long conversation an ethnographic approach to the study of information and communication technologies in the home, “Cultural Studies, 5 (2), 204-227 pages 1991.
  6. Jump up^ The Independent ICT in Schools Commission, Information and Communication Technology in UK Schools: An Independent Inquiry , 1997. Impact noted in Jim Kelly,What the Web is Doing for Schools, Financial Times, 2000.
  7. Jump up^ Royal Society,Shut down or restart? The way forward for computing in UK schools, 2012, page 18.
  8. Jump up^ Department for Education, “National curriculum in England: computing programs of study” .
  9. Jump up^ United Nations Office of Information and Communication Technology,About
  10. ^ Jump up to:a b c “IT Costs – The Costs, Growth And Financial Risk Of Software Assets” . OMT-CO Operations Management Technology Consulting GmbH . Retrieved 26 June 2011 .
  11. Jump up^http://www.whitehouse.gov/sites/default/files/omb/assets/egov_docs/2014_budget_priorities_20130410.pdf
  12. ^ Jump up to:a b c d “The World’s Technological Capacity to Store, Communicate, and Compute Information” , Martin Hilbert and Priscila López (2011), Science (journal) , 332 (6025), 60-65; See also “free access to the study” and “video animation” .
  13. Jump up^ “Information in the Biosphere: Biological and Digital Worlds,”Gillings, MR, Hilbert, M., & Kemp, DJ (2016),Trends in Ecology & Evolution, 31 (3), 180-189; Free access to the articlehttp://escholarship.org/uc/item/38f4b791
  14. Jump up^ [http: // 10.1016 / j.telpol.2016.01.006 “The Domestically installed bandwidths among 172 countries for 1986-2014”, Martin Hilbert (2016) ,Telecommunication Policy; Free access to the articlehttp://escholarship.org/uc/item/2jp4w5rq
  15. Jump up^ “Figure 1.9 Share of ICT sector in total value added, 2013”. Doi :10.1787 / 888933224163 .
  16. Jump up^ “Measuring the Information Society” (PDF) . International Telecommunication Union. 2011 . Retrieved 25 July 2013 .
  17. ^ Jump up to:a b “ITU releases annual global ICT data and ICT Development Index country rankings – librarylearningspace.com” . Retrieved 1 September2015 .
  18. Jump up^ “Basic information: about wsis” . International Telecommunication Union. 17 January 2006 . Retrieved 26 May 2012 .
  19. ^ Jump up to:a b “ICT Facts and Figures – The world in 2015” . ITU . Retrieved 1 September 2015 .
  20. Jump up^ “ICT in Education” . Unesco . Unesco . Retrieved 10 March 2016 .
  21. ^ Jump up to:a b “ITU releases annual global ICT data and ICT Development Index country rankings” . Www.itu.int . Retrieved 1 September 2015 .
  22. Jump up^ “Survey: 1 In 6 Internet Users Own A Smartwatch Gold Fitness Tracker” . ARC . Retrieved 1 September 2015 .
  23. Jump up^ “ITU releases annual global ICT data and ICT Development Index country rankings” . Www.itu.int . Retrieved 1 September 2015 .
  24. Jump up^ Bimber, Bruce (1 January 1998). “The Internet and Political Transformation: Populism, Community, and Accelerated Pluralism”. Polity. 31 (1): 133-160. JSTOR  3235370 . Doi : 10.2307 / 3235370 .
  25. Jump up^ Hussain, Muzammil M .; Howard, Philip N. (March 1, 2013). “What Best Explains Successful Protest Cascades? ICTs and the Fuzzy Causes of the Arab Spring” . International Studies Review . 15 (1): 48-66. ISSN  1521-9488 . Doi : 10.1111 / misr.12020 .
  26. Jump up^ Kirsh, David (2001). “The Context of Work”. Human Computer Interaction .

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