Health management system

The health management system (HMS) is an evolutionary medicine regulated by Nicholas Humphrey [1] [2] in which actuarial assessment of fitness and economic-type cost-benefit analysis determines the body’s regulation of its physiology and health . This incorporation of cost-benefit calculations into regulation body Provides a science grounded approach to mind-body phenomena Such As placebos That Otherwise are not explainable by low level, noneconomic, and Purely based feedback homeostatic gold allostatic theories.

  • Many medical symptoms, such as inflammation , fever , breast , sickness behavior , or morning sickness, have an evolutionary function of enabling the body to protect, heal or restore itself from injury , infection or other physiological disruption.
  • The deployment of self-treatments-have costs as well as benefits with the result That Evolution HAS selected management processes in the brain That Such self-treatments are used only When They Provide an overall cost-benefit advantage. The physiological process through top-down regulation .
  • The cost of self-treatment for the elderly and the elderly.

Placebos are Explained as the result of false information about the availability of external treatment and medium That mislead the health management system [3] into not Deploying Evolved self-treatments. This results in the placebo suppression of medical symptoms.

Evolutionary medicine

Since Hippocrates , it has been recognized that the body has self-healing powers ( vis medicatrix naturae ). Modern evolutionary medicine identifies them with physiologically based self-treatments that provide the body with prophylactic , healing, or restorative capabilities against injuries, infections and physiological disruption. Examples include:

  • Immune responses
  • Fever
  • Sickness behavior
  • nausea
  • Morning sickness
  • diarrhea
  • Hypoferremia
  • Depression
  • Bread

These evolved self-treatments deployed by the body are known by humans as unpleasant and unwanted illness symptoms .

Deployment

These self-treatments are suitable to increase an individual’s biological fitness .

Two factors affect their deployment.

First, it is usually advantageous to deploy them on a precautionary basis . [4] As a result, it will often turn out that they have been deployed apparently unnecessarily, though this has in fact been advantageous since in probabilistic terms they have provided an insurance against a potentially costly outcome. As Nesse Rating: “Vomiting, for example, May cost only A Few hundred calories and A Few minutes, whereas not result in vomiting May 5% luck of death” page 77. [4]

Second, self-treatments are costly both in using energy, and also in their risk of damaging the body.

  • Immunity – energy for activating lymphocyte and antibody production, [5] [6] and in the risk of an immune response resulting in an immune related disorder .
  • Fever – energy (each 1 ° C temperature raise in blood Increases energy expenditure by 10-15%. [7] [8] 90% of the total cost of fighting pneumonia goes on Increased body temperature. [6] There est aussi the risk Of hyperpyrexia .
  • Sickness behavior – restricted ability by an animal to drill and defend itself
  • Nausea – loss of food nutrients, and potential risk of aspiration
  • Morning sickness – loss of food nutrients
  • Hypoferremia – impairment in biological processes Needing resulting and iron in iron deficiency anemia
  • Depression – impaired activity and problem solving .
  • Bread – restricted movement and the inability to concentrate

One factor in deployment is low level physiological control by proinflammatory cytokines such as IL-1 triggered by bacterial lipopolysaccharides (LPS).

Another is higher level control in which the brain takes into account what it learns about circumstances and how it makes it well and ill. The immunosuppression and immunosuppression of immunosuppression and immunosuppression in the treatment of the disease . [9] [10] [11] [12] [13] Such a happening both in experimental rodents and humans. [14]

Cost benefit analysis

Economic resource management

Evolution, selon Nicholas Humphrey , HAS selected an internal health management system That uses cost benefit analysis upon whether the deployment of a self-treatment aids biological fitness , and so should be activated.

A specially designed procedure for “economic resource management” which is, I believe, one of the key features of the “natural health-care service” which has evolved in bearings and other animals , Injury, and other threats to our well-being. [1]

An analogy is explicitly made with the health economics consideration.

With the phrase “natural health-care service” I do intend to use the term “natural health-care service” Evoke, at a biological level, all the economic connotations that are so much a part of modern health-care in society. [1]

External medications

External medications will affect the cost benefits of deploying an evolved self-treatment. Some animals use external ones . [15] Wild animals , Including apes , do so in the form of Ingested detoxifying clays , [16] rough leaves That clear gut parasites, [17] and pharmacologically active plants [18] [19] Complementary to this, research finds That animals Have the ability to select and prefer substances that help their recuperation from illness. [20]

Social support

The welfare of social animals (including humans) depends on other individuals ( social buffering ). [21] The actuarial assessments of the costs and benefits of deploying a self-treatment will therefore depend upon the presence, or not, of other individuals. The provision of food, and care during sickness. The present invention relates to a method for the production of foodstuffs.

The health management system in the presence of such external treatment and social support as one aspect of the circumstances needed to determine whether it is advantageous to deploy or not an evolved self-treatment.

Placebos

False information

All humans societies use external medicines, and some individuals exist that are considered to have special healing knowledge about illnesses and their treatments. Humans are also supportive to those in their group. The availability of these things will affect the benefits of the body deploying its own biological ones. This could be done on the basis of the health and well-being of the patient.

Nicholas Humphrey, Nicholas Humphrey, Nicholas Humphrey, Nicholas Humphrey,

Suppose, for example, a doctor gives someone who is suffering an infection to pill that she is right to believe in an antibiotic: because her hopes will be raised to her health-management strategy – lowering her precautionary defenses in Anticipation of the sickness not lasting long. [1]

The health management system, in other words, when faced with an infection is tricked into making mistaken cost benefit analysis using false information. The effect of self-treatment cease to outweigh its costs. As a result, it is not deployed, and an individual does not experience unwanted medical symptoms.

Lack of harm

Failure to deploy an evolved self-treatment. [4] As Nicholas Humphrey notes:

Many of the health-care measures we have been discussing are precautionary measures designed to protect from dangers that lie ahead in an uncertain future. Pain is a way of making sure you give your body rest just in case you need it. Rationing the use of the immune system is a way of making sure you have the resources to cope with renewed attacks just in case they happen. Your healing systems are basically tending to be cautious, and sometimes over-cautious, as if working on the principle of better safe than sorry. [1]

Therefore, not deploying an evolved self-treatment, and so not having a medical symptom due to placebo false information could be without consequence.

Central governor

The health management system’s idea of a top-down neural control of the body found in the est aussi That idea was central governor Regulates muscle strain to protect the body from the harmful effects (Such As anoxia and hyperglycemia ) of over prolonged exercise.

The idea of ​​a fatigue governor was first proposed in 1924 by the 1922 Nobel prize winner Archibald Hill , [22] and more recently, on the basis of modern research, by Tim Noakes . [23] [24] [25] [26] [27]

Like with the health management system, the central governor shares the idea That much of what is Attributed To low level feedback homeostatic regulation is, in fact, due to top-down control by the brain. The advantage of this top down management is that it can be adjusted to suit the needs of the business. For example, in endurance running, a cost benefit exists between the advantages of continuing to run, and the risk if this is too prolonged that it might harm the body. Being able to regulate fatigue in terms of information about the benefits and costs of continuing exercise would enhance biological fitness.

Low level theories exist that suggest fatigue is due mechanical failure of the exercising muscles (“peripheral fatigue”). [28] However, such low level theories do not explain why running muscle fatigue is affected by information to cost benefit trade offs. For example, marathon runners can carry on running if they are near the finishing line, than far away. The existence of a central governor can explain this effect.

See also

  • Central governor
  • Deployment cost-benefit selection in physiology
  • Evolutionary medicine
  • Health Science
  • Management control system
  • Mind-body
  • Neural top-down control of physiology
  • Placebo effect
  • Psychogenic disease
  • Psychosomatic medicine

References

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  2. Jump up^ Humphrey, Nicholas (2004). “The Placebo Effect”. In Gregory, Richard Langton. The Oxford companion to the mind (2nd ed.). Oxford [Oxfordshire]: Oxford University Press. ISBN  0-19-866224-6 .
  3. Jump up^ Selvanski Monsu (December 2012). “Healthcare Management Systems” .
  4. ^ Jump up to:a b c Nesse RM (May 2001). “The smoke detector principle . Ann. NY Acad. Sci . 935 : 75-85. PMID  11411177 . Doi : 10.1111 / j.1749-6632.2001.tb03472.x .
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  11. Jump up^ Oberbeck R, Kromm A, Exton MS, Schade U, Schedlowski M (February 2003). “Pavlovian conditioning of endotoxin-tolerance in rats” . Brain Behav. Immun . 17 (1): 20-7. PMID  12615046 . Doi : 10.1016 / S0889-1591 (02) 00031-4 .
  12. Jump up^ Pacheco-López G, Niemi MB, Kou W, et al. (2004). “Behavioral endocrine immune-conditioned response is induced by taste and superantigen pairing” . Neuroscience . 129 (3): 555-62. PMID  15541877 . Doi : 10.1016 / j.neuroscience.2004.08.033 .
  13. Jump up^ von Hörsten S, MS Exton, Schult M, et al. (May 1998). “Behaviorally controlled effects of Cyclosporin A on the immune system of rats: specific alterations of blood leukocyte numbers and granulocyte function” . J. Neuroimmunol . 85 (2): 193-201. PMID  9630168 . Doi : 10.1016 / S0165-5728 (98) 00011-3 .
  14. Jump up^ Goebel MU, Trebst AE, Steiner J, et al. (December 2002). “Behavioral treatment of immunosuppression is possible in humans” . FASEB J . 16(14): 1869-73. PMID  12468450 . Doi : 10.1096 / fj.02-0389com .
  15. Jump up^ Engel, Cindy (2003). Wild Health: Lessons in Natural Wellness from the Animal Kingdom . Boston: Houghton Mifflin. ISBN  0-618-34068-8 .
  16. Jump up^ Klein N, Fröhlich F, Krief S (April 2008). “Geophagy: soil consumption enhances the bioactivities of plants eaten by chimpanzees”. Naturwissenschaften . 95 (4): 325-31. PMID  18188538 . Doi : 10.1007 / s00114-007-0333-0 .
  17. Jump up^ Fowler A, Koutsioni Y, Sommer V (January 2007). “Leaf-swallowing in Nigerian chimpanzees: evidence for assumed self-medication”. Primates . 48 (1): 73-6. PMID  16897194 . Doi : 10.1007 / s10329-006-0001-6 .
  18. Jump up^ Huffman MA (May 2003). “Animal self-medication and ethno-medicine: exploration and exploitation of the medicinal properties of plants”. Proc Nutr Soc . 62 (2): 371-81. PMID  14506884 . Doi : 10.1079 / PNS2003257 .
  19. Jump up^ Koshimizu K, Ohigashi H, Huffman MA (December 1994). “Use of Vernonia amygdalina by wild chimpanzee: possible roles of its bitter and related constituents”. Physiol. Behav . 56 (6): 1209-16. PMID  7878093 . Doi : 10.1016 / 0031-9384 (94) 90368-9 .
  20. Jump up^ Green KF, Garcia J (August 1971). “Recuperation from illness: flavor enhancement for rats” . Science . 173 (3998): 749-51. PMID  5568508. Doi : 10.1126 / science.173.3998.749 .
  21. Jump up^ Kikusui T, Winslow JT, Mori Y (December 2006). “Social buffering: relief from stress and anxiety” . Philos. Trans. R. Soc. Lond., B, Biol. Sci . 361 (1476): 2215-28. PMC  1764848  . PMID  17118934 . Doi : 10.1098 / rstb.2006.1941 .
  22. Jump up^ Hill AV, Long CN, Lupton H (1924). “Muscular exercise, lactic acid and the supply and utilization of oxygen, Parts I-III” (PDF) . Proc. R. Soc. London . 97 : 438-75.
  23. Jump up^ St Clair Gibson A, Baden DA, Lambert MI, et al. (2003). “The conscious perception of the sensation of fatigue”. Sports Med . 33 (3): 167-76. PMID  12656638 . Doi : 10.2165 / 00007256-200333030-00001 .
  24. Jump up^ Noakes TD, St Clair Gibson A, Lambert EV (February 2005). “From disaster to complexity: a novel model of integrative central neural regulation of effort and fatigue during exercise in humans: summary and conclusions” . Br J Sports Med . 39 (2): 120-4. PMC  1725112  . PMID  15665213 . Doi : 10.1136 / bjsm.2003.010330 .
  25. Jump up^ Noakes TD, Peltonen JE, Rusko HK (September 2001). “Evidence that a central governor regulates exercise performance during acute hypoxia and hyperoxia” . J. Exp. Biol . 204 (Pt 18): 3225-34. PMID  11581338 .
  26. Jump up^ Noakes TD (June 2000). “Physiological models to understand exercise fatigue and adaptations that predict or enhance athletic performance” . Scand J Med Sci Sports . 10 (3): 123-45. PMID  10843507 . Doi :10.1034 / j.1600-0838.2000.010003123.x .
  27. Jump up^ St Clair Gibson A, Lambert ML, Noakes TD (2001). “Neural control of force output during maximal and submaximal exercise”. Sports Med . 31(9): 637-50. PMID  11508520 . Doi : 10.2165 / 00007256-200131090-00001 .
  28. Jump up^ Edwards RHT (1983). “Biochemical bases for fatigue in exercise performance: catastrophe theory in muscular fatigue”. In Knuttgen HG, Vogel JA, Poortmans J. Biochemistry of exercise . Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics. pp. 1-28. ISBN  978-0-608-07112-1 .

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