Floating car data

Floating car data (FCD), also known as floating cellular data , is a method to determine the traffic speed on the road network . It is based on the collection of localization data, speed, direction of travel and time information from mobile phones in vehicles that are being driven. These data are the most important source for traffic information and for most intelligent transportation systems (ITS). This means that every vehicle with its active mobile phone acts as a sensor for the road network. Based on these data, traffic congestion can be calculated, and traffic reports can be rapidly generated.

Floating cellular data

Floating cellular data is one of the methods to collect floating car data. This method uses cellular network data (CDMA, GSM, UMTS, GPRS). No special devices / hardware are necessary: ​​every switched-on mobile phone becomes a traffic probe and is an anonymous source of information. The location of the mobile phone is determined using (1) triangulation or (2) the hand-over data stored by the network operator. As GSM localization is less than GPS based systems, many phones must be tracked and complex algorithms used to extract high-quality data. For example, care must be taken not to misinterpret cellular phones was high speed railway track near the road have incredibly fast journeys along the road. However, the more congestion, The more phones and thus more probes. In metropolitan areas where traffic is most needed the distance between cell sites is lower and thus precision increases. Advantages over GPS-based or conventional methods such as cameras or street embedded sensors include: No infrastructure or hardware in buses or along the road. It is much less expensive, offers more coverage of more streets, it is faster to set up and needs less maintenance. In 2007, GDOT demonstrated in Atlanta that such system can emulate very well roads sensors data for section speeds. Advantages over GPS-based or conventional methods such as cameras or street embedded sensors include: No infrastructure or hardware in buses or along the road. It is much less expensive, offers more coverage of more streets, it is faster to set up and needs less maintenance. In 2007, GDOT demonstrated in Atlanta that such system can emulate very well roads sensors data for section speeds. Advantages over GPS-based or conventional methods such as cameras or street embedded sensors include: No infrastructure or hardware in buses or along the road. It is much less expensive, offers more coverage of more streets, it is faster to set up and needs less maintenance. In 2007, GDOTdemonstrated in Atlanta that such system can emulate very well roads sensors data for section speeds.

Vehicle re-identification

RFID E-ZPass reader attached to the pole and its antenna (right) used in traffic monitoring in New York City by using vehicle re-identification method

Vehicle re-identification methods require sets of detectors mounted along the road. In this technique, a unique serial number for a device in the vehicle is detected and re-identified further down the road. Travel time and speed are calculated by comparing the time at which a specific device is detected by pairs of sensors. Transponders (also referred to as “toll tags”). This can be done using the Media Access Control (MAC) addresses from Bluetooth devices, [1] or using the radio-frequency identification (RFID) serial numbers from Electronic Toll Collection (ETC) transponders.

The ETC transponders, which are uniquely identifiable, may be read not only to toll collection points (eg toll bridges) but also many non-toll locations. This is used as a method to collect traffic flow data (qui est anonymized) for the San Francisco Bay Area ‘s 5-1-1 service. [2]

In New York City ‘s Midtown in Motion program, its adaptive traffic control system also uses RFID readers to track movement of E – ZPass tags as a means of monitoring traffic flow. The data is fed through the government-dedicated broadband wireless infrastructure to the traffic management center to be used in adaptive traffic control of the traffic lights. [3]

Global Positioning System

A small number of cars (typically fleet vehicles such as courier services and taxi drivers) are equipped with a box that contains a GPS receiver . The data is then communicated with the service provider using the regular on-board radio unit or via cellular network data (more expensive).

It is possible that FCD could be used as a monitoring method, although the companies deploying FCD systems provide assurances that all data are anonymous in their systems, or kept sufficiently secure to prevent abuses.

See also

  • Traffic count

References

  1. Jump up^ Tarnoff, Philip John, Bullock, Darcy M, Young, Stanley E, et al. Continuing Evolution of Travel Time,Transportation Research Board Annual Meeting 2009 Paper # 09-2030TRB 88th Annual Meeting Compendium of Papers DVD
  2. Jump up^ FasTrak Application and License Agreement,Toll Tags:section, last subsection:You agree that the Toll Tag may be read to provide anonymous traffic flow data to the Metropolitan Transportation Commission’s ‘511’ project, a real time traffic information service. No information identifying a FasTrak account, person or vehicle using the Toll Tag will be collected by the Metropolitan Transportation Commission or ‘511’.
  3. Jump up^ “New York’s award-winning traffic control system” . ITS International . January-February 2013 . Retrieved 3 May 2014 .

Leave a Comment

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *