Educational technology

Educational technology is the “study and ethical practice of facilitating learning and improving performance by creating, using, and managing appropriate technological processes and resources”. [1]

Educational technology is the use of both physical and educational theoretics. It encompasses several domains, including learning theory , computer-based training, online learning, and, where mobile technologies are used, m-learning . [2] In this paper,

  • Educational approaches to learning
  • educational technology as technological tools and media That assist in the communication of knowledge, and Its development and Exchange
  • educational technology for learning management systems (LMS), Such As tools for student and curriculum management, and education management information systems (EMIS)
  • educational technology as back office management, Such As Training Management System for logistics and management budget, and Learning Record Store (LRS) for learning data storage and analysis.
  • Educational technology as an educational subject; Such as “Computer Studies” or ” Information and Communications Technology (ICT)”.

An educational technologist is someone who is trained in the field of educational technology. Educational Technologists and Technologists. [3] While the term educational technologist is used Primarily in the United States, learning technologist is Synonymous and used in the UK [4] as well as Canada.

Definition

Richey Develops Educational Technology and the Role of Educational Technologists in Developing and Managing Technological Processes. [5] The Association for Educational Communications and Technology (AECT) denoted instructional technology as “the theory and practice of design, development, utilization, management, and evaluation of processes and resources for learning”. [6] [7] [8] As Such, educational technology Refers to all valid and reliable Applied Education Sciences, Such As equipment, as well as processes and procedures That are derived from scientific research , and in a Given context may refer to theoretical , Algorithmic or heuristic processes: it does not necessarily imply physical technology. Educational technology is the process of integrating technology into education in a positive manner that promotes a more diverse learning environment.

Related terms

Given this definition, educational technology is an inclusive term for both the material tools and the theoretical foundations for supporting learning and teaching . Educational technology is not restricted to high technology. [9] Education technology is anything that enhances classroom learning in the use of blended or online learning. [10]

However, modern electronic educational technology is an important part of society today. [11] Computer-based instruction (CBI), computer-based instruction ( ICT) , information technology and communication technology (ICT) in education, EdTech, learning technology, multimedia learning, technology-enhanced learning , Computer-based training (CBT), computer-assisted instruction or computer-aided instruction (CAI), [12] web-based training (WBT) , Distributed learning, computer-mediated communication , cyber-learning, and multi-modal instruction, virtual education,

Each of these two terms has its own advocates. [13] However, many terms and concepts in educational technology have been defined nebulously; For example, Fiedler ‘s review of the literature of a personal learning environment. [14] Moreover, Moore saw these terminologies as emphasizing particular features such as digitization approaches, components or delivery methods rather than being fundamentally dissimilar in concept or principle. [13] For example, m-learning emphasizes mobility, which allows for altered timing, location, accessibility and context of learning; [15] nevertheless, Its purpose and conceptual principles are those of educational technology. [13]

In practice, as a technology has advanced, the particular “narrowly defined” terminological aspect that was initially emphasized by name has blended into the general field of educational technology. [13] Initially, “virtual learning” as narrowly defined in a semantic sense implied entering an environmental simulation within a virtual world , [16] [17] for example in treating posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). [18] [19] In practice, a “virtual education course” refers to any instructional course in which all, or at least a significant portion, is delivered by the Internet. “Virtual” Is used in that broader way to describe a race that is not taught in a classroom face-to-face but through a substitute mode that can conceptually be associated “virtually” with classroom teaching, which means that people do not have to go to the Physical classroom to learn. Accordingly, virtual education refers to a form of distance learning which is delivered by various methods such as course management applications , multimedia resources, and videoconferencing . [20] Accordingly, virtual education refers to a form of distance learning which is delivered by various methods such as course management applications , multimedia resources, and videoconferencing . [20] Accordingly, virtual education refers to a form of distance learning which is delivered by various methods such as course management applications , multimedia resources, and videoconferencing . [20]

As a further example, ubiquitous learning emphasizes an omnipresent learning medium. [21] Educational content, pervasively embedded in objects, is all around the learner, who may not even be conscious of the learning process: students may not have anything in order to learn, they just have to be there. [21] [22] The combination of adaptive learning , using an individualized interface and materials, which accommodates an individual, who thus receives personally differentiated instruction, with ubiquitous access to digital resources and learning opportunities. , Has been termed smart learning. [23] [24] [25] Smart learning is a component of the smart city concept. [26] [27]

History

Helping people learn in ways that are easier, faster, surer, or less expensive can be traced back to the emergence of very early tools, such as paintings on cave walls. [28] [29] Various types of abacus have been used. Writing slates and blackboards have been used for at least a millennium. [30] From their introduction, books and pamphlets have held a prominent role in education. From the early twentieth century, duplicating machines such as the mimeograph and Gestetner stencil were used to produce short copy runs (typically 10-50 copies) for classroom or home use. The use of instructional media for Purposes Generally is traced back to the first decade of the 20th century [31] with the introduction of educational films (1900s) and Sidney Pressey’s mechanical teaching machine (1920s). The first all- choice , large-scale assessment was the Army Alpha , used to assess the intelligence and more specifically the World War I recruiting skills. Further wide-scale use of technologies employed Was in training soldiers During WWII and after-using movies and other mediated materials, Such As overhead projectors . The concept of hypertext is traced to the description of memex by Vannevar Bush in 1945. S mechanical teaching machines (1920s). The first all- choice , large-scale assessment was the Army Alpha , used to assess the intelligence and more specifically the World War I recruiting skills. Further wide-scale use of technologies employed Was in training soldiers During WWII and after-using movies and other mediated materials, Such As overhead projectors . The concept of hypertext is traced to the description of memex by Vannevar Bush in 1945. S mechanical teaching machines (1920s). The first all- choice , large-scale assessment was the Army Alpha , used to assess the intelligence and more specifically the World War I recruiting skills. Further wide-scale use of technologies employed Was in training soldiers During WWII and after-using movies and other mediated materials, Such As overhead projectors . The concept of hypertext is traced to the description of memexby Vannevar Bush in 1945. I am currently recruiting for military recruitment. Further wide-scale use of technologies employed Was in training soldiers During WWII and after-using movies and other mediated materials, Such As overhead projectors . The concept of hypertext is traced to the description of memex by Vannevar Bush in 1945. I am currently recruiting for military recruitment. Further wide-scale use of technologies employed Was in training soldiers During WWII and after-using movies and other mediated materials, Such As overhead projectors . The concept of hypertext is traced to the description of memex by Vannevar Bush in 1945.

Cooking rods

Slide projectors were widely used during the 1950s in educational institutional settings. Cuisenaire rods were devised in the 1920s and saw widespread use from the late 1950s.

In 1960, the University of Illinois initiated a classroom system based on a computer- based terminology. [32]

In the mid 1960s Stanford University psychology professors Patrick Suppes and Richard C. Atkinson experimented with using computers to teach arithmetic and spelling via Teletypes to elementary school students in the Palo Alto Unified School District in California . [33] [34] Stanford’s Education Program for Gifted Youth is descended from those early experiments.

Multimedia space Moldova Alliance Française.

In 1971, Ivan Illich published a hugely influential book called, Deschooling Society , in which he envisioned “learning webs” as a model for people to network the learning they needed. The 1970s and 1980s saw notable contributions in computer-based learning by Murray Turoff and Starr Roxanne Hiltz at the New Jersey Institute of Technology [35] as well as developments at the University of Guelph in Canada. [36] In the UK, the Council for Educational Technology supports the use of educational technology,

By the mid-1980s, accessing course content became possible at many college libraries. In computer-based training (CBT) or computer-based learning (CBL), the learning interaction was between the student and computer drills or micro-world simulations.

Digitized communication and networking in education in the mid-1980s. Educational Institutions. The Educational Institutions. Early e-learning systems, based on computer-based learning / training Often replicated autocratic teaching styles whereby the role of the e-learning system Was assumed to be for Transferring knowledge, as Opposed to systems Developed later based one computer collaboratively supported learning (CSCL ), Which encouraged the shared development of knowledge.

Videoconferencing was an important forerunner to the educational technologies known today. This work was especially popular with museum education . Even in recent years, videoconferencing has risen in popularity to reach over 20,000 students across the United States and Canada in 2008-2009. Disadvantages of this form of educational technology are readily apparent: image and sound quality is often grainy or pixelated; Videoconferencing requires setting up a type of mini-television studio within the museum for broadcast; And specialist equipment is required for both the. [38]

The Open University in Britain [36] and the University of British Columbia (where Web CT, now incorporated into Blackboard Inc., was first developed), [39] making heavy use of web- Based training, online distance learning and online discussion between students. [40] Practitioners such as Harasim (1995) [41] put heavy emphasis on the use of learning networks.

With the advent of the World Wide Web in the 1990s, teachers embarked on the method using emerging technologies to employ multi-object oriented sites, which are text-based online virtual reality systems. .

Textbook publishers also explored ways to utilize both the Internet and CD ROM as an extension to traditional learning. In 1994, Simon and Schuster was the first to pioneer in this area, launching the New Media Group through its then Higher-Ed subsidiary Prentice Hall. Among the New Media Group’s members Future Was MP3 Newswire publisher Richard Menta , Whose key project Was the Guest Lecture Series. This series was the first successful delivery of online video to universities. [42] The inaugural lecture was streamed in December 1996 with Harvard physics professor Dr. Eric Mazur presenting on Peer Instruction. [43]

By 1994, the first high school had been founded. In 1997, Graziadei described criteria for evaluating products and developing technologies that include being portable, replicable, scalable, affordable, and having a high probability of long-term cost-effectiveness. [44]

Improved Internet functionality enabled new schemes of communication with multimedia or webcams . The National Center for Education and Training Statistics estimate the number of K-12 students enrolled in distance learning programs by 65 percent from 2002 to 2005, with greater flexibility, ease of communication between teacher and student, and quick read and assignment feedback.

According to a 2008 study conducted by the US Department of Education , during the 2006-2007 academic year about 66% of postsecondary public and private schools. Records show 77% of enrollment in for-credit courses with an online component. [45] In 2008, the Council of Europe passed a statement endorsing e-learning. [46]

Computer-mediated communication (CMC) is between learners and instructors, mediated by the computer. In contrast, CBT / CBL usually means individualized (self-study) learning, while CMC involves educator / tutor facilitation and requires scenario of flexible learning activities. In addition, modern ICT provides education and tools for sustaining learning communities and associated knowledge management tasks.

This article is part of a larger article. [47] [48] Major high-tech companies such as Google, Verizon and Microsoft have funded schools to provide them with the ability to teach their students through technology, in the hope that this would lead to improved student performance. [49]

2015 was the first year that private nonprofit organizations enrolled more students than for-profits, although public universities still enrolled the highest number of online students. In the fall of 2015, more than 6 million students enrolled in at least one online course. [50]

Theory

Various pedagogical perspectives or learning theories may be considered in designing and interacting with educational technology. E-learning theory examines these approaches. These theoretical perspectives are grouped into three main theoretical schools or philosophical frameworks: behaviorism , cognitivism and constructivism .

Behaviorism

This theoretical framework Was Developed in the early 20th century were based animal learning experiments by Ivan Pavlov , Edward Thorndike , Edward C. Tolman , Clark L. Hull , and BF Skinner . Many psychologists use these results to develop theories of human learning, but modern educators generally see behavior as one aspect of a holistic synthesis. Teaching in behaviorism has been linked to training, emphasizing the animal learning experiments. Since then, it has been a matter of learning how to teach people how to train and teach. [51]

BF Skinner wrote Extensively we improvements of teaching based On His functional analysis of verbal behavior [52] [53] and wrote “The Technology of Teaching”, [54] [55] an attempt to dispel the myths Underlying contemporary education as well as Promote His system he called programmed instruction . Ogden Lindsley developed a learning system, known as Celeration, which was based on behavior analysis but which essentially differed from Keller’s and Skinner’s models.

Cognitivism

Cognitive science underwent significant change in the 1960s and 1970s. While retaining the empirical framework of behaviorism , cognitive psychology theories look beyond behavior to explain brain-based learning by considering how human memory works to promote learning. The Atkinson-Shiffrin memory model and Baddeley’s working memory model were established as theoretical frameworks. Computer Science and Information Technology has had a major influence on Cognitive Science theory. The Cognitive Concepts of Working Memory (ICT). Another major influence on the field of Cognitive Science is Noam Chomsky . Today researchers are concentrating on topics like cognitive load , information processing and media psychology . These theoretical perspectives influence instructional design . [56]

Constructivism

Educational psychologists distinguish between several types of constructivism : individual (or psychological) constructivism, such as Piaget’s theory of cognitive development , and social constructivism . This form of constructivismhas a primary focus on how learners construct their own meaning from new information, as they interact with reality and with other learners that bring different perspectives. Constructivist Learning Environments (Termos, 2012 [57]). Under this framework the role of the teacher becomes a facilitator, providing guidance so that learners can construct their own knowledge. Constructivist educators must make sure that the prior learning experiences are appropriate and related to the concepts being taught. Jonassen (1997) suggests “well-structured” learning environments are useful for novice learners and that “ill-structured” environments are only useful for more advanced learners. Educators using a constructivist perspective may emphasize an active learning environment that may be incorporated into the learning environment. Learner centered problem-based learning , project-based learning , and inquiry-based learning , ideally involving real-world scenarios. An illustrative discussion and example can be found in the 1980s deployment of constructivist cognitive learning in computer literacy, which involved programming as an instrument of learning. [58] : 224 LOGO , a programming language, embodied an attempt to integrate Piagetan ideas with computers and technology. [58] [59] Initially there were broad, hopeful claims, including “perhaps the most controversial claim” that would “improve general problem-solving skills” across disciplines. [58] : 238 However, LOGO programming skills did not consistently yield cognitive benefits. [58] : 238 It was “not as concrete” as advocates claimed, it privileged ”

Practice

The extent to qui eLearning assists or replaces other learning and teaching approaches is variable, ranging from none continuum was to fully online distance learning . [62] [63] A variety of descriptive terms have been used (somewhat inconsistently) to categorize the extent to which technology is used. For example, ‘hybrid learning’ or ‘ blended learning ‘ may refer to classroom aids and laptops. [64] [65] [66] ‘Distributed learning’ may describe either the e-learning component of a hybrid approach, Or fully online distance learning environments. [62]

Synchronous and asynchronous

E-learning may be synchronous or asynchronous . Synchronous learning occurs in real-time, with all participants interacting with the same time, while asynchronous learning is self-paced and allows participants to engage in the exchange of ideas or information without the dependency of other participants.

Synchronous learning refers to the exchange of ideas and information with one or more participants during the same period. Examples are face-to-face discussion, online real-time live teacher instruction and feedback, Skype conversations, and chat rooms or virtual classrooms where everyone is online and working collaboratively at the same time. Since students are working collaboratively, synchronized learning helps students create an open mind because they have to listen and learn from their peers. Synchronized learning fosters. [67]

Asynchronous learning can use technologies such as email , blogs , wikis , and discussion boards , as well as web -supported textbooks, [68] hypertext documents, audio [69] video courses, and social networking using web 2.0 . At the professional educational level, training may include virtual operating rooms . Asynchronous learning is beneficial for students who have health problems or who have child care responsibilities. They have the opportunity to complete their work in a low-stress environment. [40] In asynchronous online courses, students proceed to their own pace. If they need to listen to a reading a second time, or think about a question for a while, they may do so without fearing that they will hold back the rest of the class. Through online courses, students can earn their diplomas more quickly, or repeat failed courses without the embarrassment of being in a class with younger students. Students have access to an incredible variety of enriching courses in online learning, and can participate in college courses, internships, sports, or work and still graduate with their class. They may do so without fearing that they will hold back the rest of the class. Through online courses, students can earn their diplomas more quickly, or repeat failed courses without the embarrassment of being in a class with younger students. Students have access to an incredible variety of enriching courses in online learning, and can participate in college courses, internships, sports, or work and still graduate with their class. They may do so without fearing that they will hold back the rest of the class. Through online courses, students can earn their diplomas more quickly, or repeat failed courses without the embarrassment of being in a class with younger students. Students have access to an incredible variety of enriching courses in online learning, and can participate in college courses, internships, sports, or work and still graduate with their class.

Linear learning

Computer-based training (CBT) Refers to self-paced learning activities Delivered was computer or handheld device Such As a tablet or smartphone. CBT initially delivered content via CD-ROM, and typically presented content linearly, much like reading an online book or manual. For this reason, CBT is often used to teach static processes, such as using software or completing mathematical equations. Computer-based training is a web-based training (WBT) that is delivered via Internet using a web browser .

Assessing learning in a CBT can be easily scored by a computer such as drag-and-drop, radio button, simulation or other interactive means. Assessments are easily scored and recorded via online software, providing immediate end-user feedback and completion status. Users are often able to print records in the form of certificates.

CBTs provide learning stimulus beyond traditional learning methodology from textbook, manual, or classroom-based instruction. CBTs can be a good alternative to learning materials since rich media, including videos or animations, can be embedded to enhance the learning.

Help, CBTs pose some learning challenges. Typically, the creation of effective CBTs requires enormous resources. The software for developing CBTs (such as Flash or Adobe Director ) is often more complex than a subject matter expert or teacher is able to use. The lack of human interaction can limit both the type of content that can be presented and the type of assessment that can be performed, and may require supplementation with interactive discussion or other interactive elements.

Collaborative learning

Computer-supported collaborative learning (CSCL) uses instructional methods designed to encourage or require students to work together is learning tasks, Allowing social learning . CSCL is similar in concept to the terminology, “e-learning 2.0” [70] and “networked collaborative learning” (NCL). [71] With Web 2.0 advances, sharing information between multiple people in a network has become much easier and use has increased. [72] : 1 [73] One of the main reasons for its use states that it is a breeding ground for creative and engaging educational endeavors. [72] : 2 Learning takes place through conversations about content and grounded interaction about problems and actions. This collaborative learning is the main source of knowledge and skills. The neologism “e-learning 1.0” refers to direct instruction used in early computer-based learning and training systems (CBL). In contrast To That linear delivery of happy Often Directly from the instructor’s material, CSCL uses social software Such as blogs , social media, wikis , podcasts , cloud-based portals paper (Such As Google Docs and Dropbox ) And discussion groups and virtual worlds such as Second Life . [74] This phenomenon has been referred to as Long Tail Learning. [75] Advocates of social learning claim that one of the best ways to learn something to teach it to others. [75] Social networks have been used to foster online learning communities around subjects as diverse as test preparation and language education . [76] mobile-assisted language learning (MALL) is the use of handheld computers or cell phones to assist in language learning. [75] Advocates of social learning claim that one of the best ways to learn something to teach it to others. [75] Social networks have been used to foster online learning communities around subjects as diverse as test preparation and language education . [76] mobile-assisted language learning (MALL) is the use of handheld computers or cell phones to assist in language learning. [75] Advocates of social learning claim that one of the best ways to learn something to teach it to others. [75] Social networks have been used to foster online learning communities around subjects as diverse as test preparation and language education . [76]mobile-assisted language learning (MALL) is the use of handheld computers or cell phones to assist in language learning.

Collaborative apps allow students and teachers to interact while studying. An example is MathChat, which allows cooperative problem solving and answer feedback. [77] Some apps can also provide an opportunity to revise or learn new topics independently in a simulated classroom environment. A popular example is Khan Academy, [78] which offers material in math, biology, chemistry, economics, history and many others. It has the advantage of blending learning styles as the app offers many videos for visual and auditory learners, as well as exercises and tasks to solve for the kinesthetic learners. Other apps are designed after games, which provide a fun way to revise. When the experience is enjoyable the students become more engaged. Games also usually come with a sense of progression, Which can help keep students motivated and consistent while trying to improve. Examples of educational games are Dragon Box, Mind Snacks, Code Spells and many more. [79]

Classroom 2.0 refers to online multi-user virtual environments (MUVEs) that connect schools across geographical borders. Known as “eTwinning”, computer-supported collaborative learning (CSCL), [80] [81] enhancing educational outcomes citation needed ] and cultural integration . Examples of classroom 2.0 applications are Blogger and Skype. [82]

Further, many researchers distinguish between collaborative and cooperative approaches to group learning. For example, Roschelle and Teasley (1995) argues that “co-operation is accomplished by the division of labor among the participants, as an activity where each person is responsible for a portion of the problem solving” Of participants in a coordinated effort to solve the problem together. ” [83]

Flipped classroom

This is an instructional strategy in which computer-assisted teaching is integrated with classroom instruction. Students are given basic essential instruction, such as readings, before class instead of during class. This frees up classroom time for teachers to more actively engage with learners. [84]

Media

A 2.5m teaching slide rulecompared to a normal sized model

Educational media and tools can be used for:

  • Task structuring support: help with how to do a task (procedures and processes),
  • Access to knowledge bases (help user find information needed)
  • Alternate forms of knowledge representation (multiple representations of knowledge, eg video, audio, text, image, data)

Numerous types of physical media are currently used: [85] [86] digital cameras, video cameras, interactive whiteboard tools, cameras document, electronic media , and LCD projectors. Combinations of these techniques include blogs , collaborative software , ePortfolios , and virtual classrooms .

Audio and video

Radio offers a synchronous educational vehicle, while streaming audio over the internet with webcasts and podcasts can be asynchronous . Classroom microphones, often wireless, can enable learners and educators to interact more clearly.

Video Technology [87] HAS included VHS tapes and DVD’s , as well as on-demand and synchronous methods with digital video via server or web-based Options Such As streamed video from YouTube , Teacher Tube , Skype , Adobe Connect , and webcam . Telecommuting can connect with speakers and other experts. Interactive digital video games are being used at K-12 and higher education institutions. [88]

Computers, tablets and mobile devices

Collaborative learning is a group-based learning approach in which learners are mutually engaged in a coordinated fashion to achieve a learning goal or complete a learning task. With recent developments in smartphone technology, the processing capabilities and storage capabilities of modern mobile devices allow for advanced development and use of apps. Many app developers and educators have been exploring smartphone and tablet apps as a medium for collaborative learning.

Microsoft Word, PowerPoint, PDF files, and images. Computers and tablets. Many mobile devices support m-learning .

Mobile devices such as clickers and smartphones can be used for interactive audience feedback feedback. [89] Mobile learning can provide performance support for checking the time, setting reminders, retrieving worksheets, and instruction manuals. [90] [91]

OpenCourseWare (OCW) provides free access to information used in undergraduate and graduate programs. Participating institutions are MIT, [92] [93] Harvard, Yale, Princeton, Stanford, University of Pennsylvania, and University of Michigan. [94]

Google Classroom allows instructors to create, administer, and grade assignments. While Google Classroom ultimately strives to create a paperless learning environment, there are many different types of learner; A classroom project does not work for everyone. Citation needed ]

Social networks

Group webpages, blogs , wikis , and Twitter . [95] [96] [97] Social networking sites are virtual communities for people interested in a particular subject to communicate by voice, chat, instant message, video conference, or blogs. [98]The National School Boards Association found that social networking technologies, and more than 50% talk online about schoolwork. Social networking encourages collaboration and commitment [99] and can be a motivational tool for self-efficacy amongst students. [100] Every student has his or her own learning requirements, and a Web 2.0 educational framework provides enough resources, learning styles, communication tools and flexibility to accommodate this diversity. [101]

Webcams

Webcams and webcasting have enabled virtual classrooms and virtual learning environment . [102] Webcams are also used to counter plagiarism and other forms of academic dishonesty that might occur in an e-learning environment.

Whiteboards

There are three types of whiteboards. [103] The initial whiteboards , analogous to blackboards , date from the late 1950s. The term whiteboard is also used to simulate whiteboards by allowing writing or drawing. This is a common feature of groupware for virtual meeting, collaboration, and instant messaging. Interactive whiteboards to learn to write. The screen markup can be either blank or full screen. Depending on permission settings, this visual learning can be interactive and participatory, including writing and manipulating images on the interactive whiteboard.

Screencasting

Screencasting allows users to share their screens directly from the Internet. [104] The presenter thus has the ability to show their ideas and flow of thoughts rather than simply explain them as simple text content. In combination with audio and video, the educator can mimic the one-on-one experience of the classroom. Learners have an ability to pause and rewind, to review their own pace, something a classroom can not always offer.

Virtual classroom

A virtual learning environment (VLE), also known as a learning platform, simulates a virtual classroom or meetings by simultaneously mixing several communication technologies. For example, web conferencing software such as GoToTraining, WebEx Training, or Adobe Connect to learn and communicate with each other via webcam, microphone, and real-time chatting in a group setting. Participants can raise hands, answer polls or take tests. Students are able to write a text message on the right hand side of the screen. [105]

A virtual classroom provides the opportunity for students to receive direct instruction from a qualified teacher in an interactive environment. Learners can have direct and immediate feedback to their instructor for instant feedback and direction. The virtual classroom provides a structured schedule of classes, which can be useful for students who may find the freedom of asynchronous learning to be overwhelming. In addition, the virtual classroom provides a social learning environment that replicates the traditional “brick and mortar” classroom. Most virtual classroom applications provide a recording feature. Each class is Recorded and Stored was server , qui Allows for instant playback of Any class over the course of the school year. This can be a great help for students to retrieve missed material or review concepts for an upcoming exam. Parents and auditors have the conceptual ability to monitor that they are satisfied with the education the learner is receiving.

In Higher Education Especially, a virtual learning environment (VLE) is Sometimes combined with a management information system (MIS) to create a managed learning environment , qui in all aspects of a course are handled through a consistent user interface Throughout the Institution. Physical universities and newer online academic degrees and certificate programs via the Internet. Some programs require students to expect some campus classes or orientations. Several universities offer online student support services, such as online advising and registration, e-counseling, online textbook purchases, student governments and student newspapers.

Augmented Reality (AR) provides students and teachers the opportunity to create layers of digital information, which includes both virtual and real world elements, to interact with in real time. There are a lot of variations and possibilities.

Media psychology involves the application of theories in psychology to media and is a growing specialty in learning and educational technology.

E-learning authoring tools

E-learning authorization tools are available to create, simulate, or other educational experiences. These tools typically support conventional, multimedia, interactivity, quizzes, and non-linear or adaptive approaches. [106] An example of an e-learning authoring tool is Adobe Captivate .

Typing software

Typing software allows users to practice their typing skills. Some of these programs include Typing Instructor, Typing Master, and Mavis Beacon Keyboarding Kidz.

Learning management system

A learning management system (LMS) is used for delivering, tracking and managing training and education. For example, an LMS tracks attendance, time on task, and student progress. Educators can post announcements, grade assignments, and participate in class discussions. Students can submit their work, read and respond to questions, and take quizzes. [95] An LMS may allow teachers, administrators, students, and permitted additional parties to track various metrics. LMSs for the distribution of information on the Internet. The creation and maintenance of comprehensive learning materials. Effective translation into other languages ​​and cultural contexts. [107]

Internet-based learning management systems include Canvas , Blackboard Inc. and Moodle . These types of LMS allow learners to run a learning system partially or fully online, asynchronously or synchronously . Blackboard can be used for K-12 education, Higher Education, Business, and Government collaboration. [108] Moodle is a free-to-download Open Source Course Management System that provides learning opportunities for both distance learning and learning .

Learning content management system

A learning content management system (LCMS) is software for authorization (shopping, reusable content objects). An LCMS may be solely dedicated to producing and publishing content that is hosted on an LMS, or it can host the content itself. The Aviation Industry Computer-Based Training Committee (AICC) specification provides support for what is hosted separately from the LMS.

Computer-aided assessment

Computer-aided assessment ( e-assessment ) ranges from automated multiple-choice tests to more sophisticated systems. With some systems, feedback can be geared towards a student’s specific mistakes or the computer can navigate the student through a series of questions. Formative assessment sifts out the incorrect answers, and these questions are then explained by the teacher. The learner then practices with slight variations of the sifted out questions. The process is completed by summative assessment .

Electronic performance support system

An electronic performance support system (EPSS) is, according to Barry Raybould, “a computer-based system that improves worker productivity by providing on-the-job information, advice, and learning experiences.” [111] Gloria Gery, Gloria Gery, Gloria Gery, Gloria Gery, Gloria Gery, Gloria Gery, Gloria Gery, data, images, tools, and assessment and monitoring systems to permit job performance minimum interference with media and by others “. [112] [113]

Training management system

A training management system or training resource management system is a software designed to optimize instructor-led training management. Similar to an enterprise resource planning (ERP), it is a back-office tool, which aims at streamlining every aspect of the training process, planning and budgeting, cost tracking, profitability ), Reporting, and sales for-profit training providers. [114] For example, a training management system can be used to schedule instructors, venues and equipment through graphical agendas, optimize resource utilization, create a training plan and track remaining budgets, generate reports and share data between different teams.

While training management systems focus on managing instructor-led training , they can complete an LMS. ILT and back-office budget planning, logistics and reporting. In this situation, an LMS will manage e-learning delivery and assessment. [115]

Learning objects

Content

Content and design architecture issues include pedagogy and learning object re-use. One approach looks at five aspects: [116]

  • Fact – unique data (eg symbols for Excel formula, or the parts that make up a learning objective )
  • Concept – a category that includes multiple examples (eg Excel formulas, or the various types of instructional design )
  • Process – a flow of events or activities (eg how a spreadsheet works, or the five phases in ADDIE)
  • Procedure – step-by-step task (eg entering a formula into a spreadsheet, or the steps that should be followed within a phase in ADDIE)
  • Strategic principle – a task performed by adapting guidelines (eg doing a financial projection in a spreadsheet, or using a framework for designing learning environments)

Pedagogical elements

Pedagogical elements are defined as structures or units of educational material. They are the educational content that is to be delivered. These units are independent of format, meaning That ALTHOUGH the unit May be Delivered in various ways, the pedagogical structures Themselves are not the textbook, web, video conferencing , Podcast , lesson, assignment, multiple choice questions, quizzes, chat group or a Case study, all of which are possible methods of delivery.

Learning objects standards

Much effort has been put into the technical reuse of electronically based materials and in particular creating or re-using learning objects . These are self-contained units that are properly tagged with keywords, or other metadata , and often stored in an XML file format. Creating a course requires putting together a sequence of learning objects. There are two proprietary and open, non-commercial and commercial, peer-reviewed repositories of learning objects such as the Merlot repository. Sharable Content Object Reference Model (SCORM) is a collection of standards and specifications that apply to certain web-based e-learning.

Settings

Preschool

Various forms of electronic media are a feature of preschool life. [117] Although parents report a positive experience, the impact of such use has not been systematically assessed. [117]

The age when a given child might start using a particular technology as a technological resource to the recipient’s developmental capabilities, such as the age-anticipated internships labeled by Swiss Psychologist, Jean Piaget . [118] Parameters, such as age-appropriateness, coherence with sought-after values, and concurrent entertainment and educational aspects, have been suggested for choosing media. [119]

K-12

E-learning is used by public K-12 schools in the United States as well as private schools. Some e-learning environments take place in a traditional classroom, others allow students to expect classes from home or other rentals. There are several states that are utilizing virtual school platforms for e-learning across the country that continues to increase. For example: Digital technology is becoming increasingly commonplace in K-12 education, and many researchers argue that it will save money and transform schools into more effective institutions. [120] With technology having such a heavy influence in our society it is no doubt that schools are looking into technology to teach students. Meanwhile, despite the effectiveness of computerized education, All-online K-12 schools are proliferating nationwide, and enrollment in online courses is soaring. [120] Technology can make anyone’s life much easier and it is proven that it can help students in an effective way. But in the 21st-century education, computers are increasingly taking on the teachers’ role. [120] Computers can now “hear” students, for example, correct their pronunciation and evaluate their progress over time, says Michael L. Kamil, a professor emeritus at the Stanford University School of Education. [120] Many experts claim that digital education is the future. “If we want to take a look at the 21st century, we need to consider a basic element of public education, Said New York’s Deputy Chancellor of Education John White. [120] And many schools are making a requirement to take an online class. Digital learning has been getting a boost in localities across the nation this year. [120] For example, Idaho became the first state to require high school students to complete two or more courses to receive a diploma. [120] It is no doubt that digital education is increasing in our educational system. Virtual school Enables students to log into synchronous learning or asynchronous learning courses anywhere there is an Internet connection. [120] And many schools are making a requirement to take an online class. Digital learning has been getting a boost in localities across the nation this year. [120] For example, Idaho became the first state to require high school students to complete two or more courses to receive a diploma. [120] It is no doubt that digital education is increasing in our educational system. Virtual school Enables students to log into synchronous learning or asynchronous learning courses anywhere there is an Internet connection. [120] And many schools are making a requirement to take an online class. Digital learning has been getting a boost in localities across the nation this year. [120] For example, Idaho became the first state to require high school students to complete two or more courses to receive a diploma. [120] It is no doubt that digital education is increasing in our educational system. Virtual school Enables students to log into synchronous learning or asynchronous learning courses anywhere there is an Internet connection. Idaho became the first state to require high-school students to complete two or more courses to receive a diploma. [120] It is no doubt that digital education is increasing in our educational system. Virtual school Enables students to log into synchronous learning or asynchronous learning courses anywhere there is an Internet connection. Idaho became the first state to require high-school students to complete two or more courses to receive a diploma. [120] It is no doubt that digital education is increasing in our educational system. Virtual school Enables students to log into synchronous learning or asynchronous learning courses anywhere there is an Internet connection.

E-learning is increasingly being white Utilized by students Who May not want to go to traditional brick and mortar schools due to severe allergies or other medical issues, fear of school violence and school bullying and students Whose Parents Would like to homeschool goal do not feel qualified . [121] Online schools provide a quality education for all students. Online charter schools are also limited by rent, income level or class size in the way brick and mortar charter schools are. [122]

E-learning also has been added to the traditional classroom. Students with special skills or interests outside of the available curriculum. [123] Some online institutions connect students with instructors via web conference technology to form a digital classroom.

National private schools also available online. These offer the benefits of e-learning to students in states where chartering is not available. They also allow for greater flexibility and exemption from state testing.

Virtual education in K-12 schooling Often Refers to virtual schools , and in Higher Education to virtual universities . Virtual schools are “cyber charter schools ” [124] with innovative administrative models and course delivery technology. [124]

Higher education

Online college course enrollment has seen a 29% increase in enrollment with nearly one third of all college students, or an estimated 6.7 million students are currently enrolled in online classes. 126] In 2009, 44 percent of post-secondary students in the USA were taking some of their courses online, which was projected to rise to 81 percent by 2014. [127]

Although a large proportion of for-profit higher education institutions now offer online classes, only about half of private, non-profit schools do so. Private institutions may become more involved with on-line presentations as the costs decrease. Properly trained staff must also be hired to work with students online. [128] These staff members need to understand the content area, and also be highly trained in the use of the computer and Internet. Online education is rapidly increasing, and online doctoral programs have even developed at leading research universities. [129]

ALTHOUGH open online racing mass (MOOCs) May-have limitations That Preclude em from fully Replacing college education, [130] Such programs-have Significantly expanded. MIT , Stanford and Princeton University . [131]University-level programs, like edX founded by Massachusetts Institute of Technology and Harvard University , offer wide range of disciplines at no charge, while others allow students to audit a fee for accreditation. MOOCs have not had a significant impact on higher education and declined after the initial expansion, But in some form. [132]

Private organisms aussi offer classes, Such As Udacity , with free computer science classes, and Khan Academy , with over 3,900 free micro readings available via YouTube . Distocted Open Collaborative Course (DOCC) sees itself as a counter-movement to MOOC, emphasizing decentralized teaching. [133] University of the People is a non-profit accredited online university. Coursera offers online courses. According to Fortune magazine, over a million people worldwide have enrolled in free online courses. [134]

Corporate and professional

Companies with spread out distribution chains use e-learning for staff training and development and to bring customers the latest information about product Developments . Continuing professional development (CPD) can deliver regulatory compliance updates and staff development of valuable workplace skills. For scoring systems, we have developed a methodology for evaluating and evaluating the performance of mobile devices. [135]

Public health

There is an important need for public health providers. [136] Providers have indicated the need for automatic notification of the latest research, a single searchable information portal, and access to gray literature . [137] The Maternal and Child Health (MCH) Library is funded by the US Maternal and Child Health Bureau to screen the latest research and develop automatic notifications to providers through the MCH Alert. Another application in public health is the development of mHealth (use of mobile telecommunication and multimedia into global public health). MHealth has been used to promote prenatal and newborn services, with positive outcomes. In addition, “Health systems have implemented mHealth programs to provide emergency medical responses, point-of-care support, health promotion and data collection.” [138] In low and middle income countries, mHealth is most frequently used as a remedy to promote adherence and gather data. [139] MHealth is most frequently used as a remedy for adherence and gather data. [139] MHealth is most frequently used as a remedy for adherence and gather data. [139]

ADHD

There HAS aussi beens is growing interest in e-learning as a beneficial educational method for students with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). With the growing popularity in e-learning among K-12 and higher education, the opportunity to take online classes is becoming increasingly important for students of all ages. [140] However, students with ADHD and special needs face different learning demands compared to the typical developing learner. ADHD in the last decade among children and adults. [141] Compared to the traditional face-to-face classroom, e-learning and virtual classrooms require a higher level of executive functions, which is the primary deficit associated with ADHD. [142] Although ADHD is not specifically named in the Rehabilitation Act of 1973, students with ADHD who have symptoms that interferes with their learning or ability may be eligible for assistive technology. Some examples of the resources that can help interest students and adults with ADHD consist of, computer software, brain games, timers, calendars, voice recognition devices, screen magnifiers, and talking books. [143] Screen magnifiers, and talking books. [143] Screen magnifiers, and talking books. [143]

Wolf lists 12 executive post-secondary education education: plan, set goals, organize, initiate, sustain attention / effort, flexibility, monitor, use feedback, structure, manage time, manage materials, and follow through. [144] These skills, along with strong independent and self-regulated learning, are especially pronounced in the online environment and as many ADHD students suffer from a deficit in one or more of these executive functions. The current e-learning approach. [145] [146]

Some-have Noted That current e-learning models are Moving Towards Applying a constructivism learning theory [147] That emphasizes a learner-centered environment [148] and postulates That Everyone Has the Ability to construct Their Own knowledge and meaning through a process of problem solving And discovery. [149] ADHD learners; These principles include active learning, self-monitoring, motivation, and strong focus. [147]

Despite the limitations, students with special needs, including ADHD, have expressed an overall enthusiasm for e-learning and have identified a number of e-learning The ability to work with an independent pace and spend extra time formulating thoughtful responses in class discussions; Help in understanding course reading / content; Ability to review lectures multiple times; And enhanced access to and communication with the course instructor. [145] [150]

Disabilities

The design of e-learning platforms in ways That enable universal access care from HAS RECEIVED Several directions, Including the World Wide Web Consortium ‘s Web Accessibility Initiative (WAI). WAI provides universal formatting standards for websites so they can remain accessible to people with disabilities. For example, developing or adopting e-learning materials can enable accessibility for people with visual impairment . [151] [152] The Perkins School for the Blind offers learning resources tailored for the visually impaired, including webcasts, webinars, downloadable science activities, and an online library that has access to over 40,000 resource materials on blindness and blindness. [153]

Online education can be a promising alternative for students with physical and sensory disabilities because they get to work at their own pace and in their own home. However, not all online programs are equal to their resources for students with disabilities. Students with disabilities who wish to enroll in online education should either be able to advocate for themselves and their own rights or have a person who is willing to advocate for them. The American with Disabilities Act, which states that it should not be deemed necessary for the purpose. “Haynie”, “Haynie”, “Haynie” and “Haynie”.

Identity options

Educational technology, particularly in online learning environments, can allow students to use real identity, pseudonym, or anonymous identity during classroom communication. Advantages in anonymizing race, age, and gender are increased student participation [155] and increased cross-cultural communication. [156] Risks include increased cyberbullying, and aggressive or hostile language. [156] [157 ]

Benefits

Effective technology use deploys multiple evidence-based strategies (eg adaptive content, frequent testing, immediate feedback, etc.), as do effective teachers. [159] Using computers or other forms of technology can give students practice on core and skills while performing other tasks. [159] [160] Through the use of educational technology, education is able to be individualized for each student allowing for better differentiation and allowing students to work for mastery at their own pace. [161]

Modern educational technology, including full degree programs. [162] It Enables better integration for non-full-time students, PARTICULARLY in continuing education, [162] and Improved interaction entre students and instructors. [163] Learning material can be used for long distance learning and are accessible to a wider audience. [164] Course materials are easy to access. [165] In 2010, 70.3% of American households had access to the internet. [166] In 2013, according to the Canadian Radio-Television and Telecommunications Commission, 79% of homes have access to the internet. [167] Students can access and engage with numerous online resources at home. Using online resources such as Khan Academy or TED Talks can help students spend more time on specific aspects of what they may be learning in school, but at home. Schools like MIT have made some race free online. [168] Although some aspects of a classroom setting are missing by using these resources, they are helpful to add additional support to the educational system. The necessity to pay for transportation to the educational facility is removed. Using online resources such as Khan Academy or TED Talks can help students spend more time on specific aspects of what they may be learning in school, but at home. Schools like MIT have made some race free online. [168] Although some aspects of a classroom setting are missing by using these resources, they are helpful to add additional support to the educational system. The necessity to pay for transportation to the educational facility is removed. Using online resources such as Khan Academy or TED Talks can help students spend more time on specific aspects of what they may be learning in school, but at home. Schools like MIT have made some race free online. [168] Although some aspects of a classroom setting are missing by using these resources, they are helpful to add additional support to the educational system. The necessity to pay for transportation to the educational facility is removed. They are helpful tools to add additional support to the educational system. The necessity to pay for transportation to the educational facility is removed. They are helpful tools to add additional support to the educational system. The necessity to pay for transportation to the educational facility is removed.

Students appreciate the convenience of e-learning. [169]

According to James Kulik, who studies the effectiveness of computers used for instruction, students usually learn more in less time when receiving more computer-based classes. [170] Students can independently solve problems. [163] There are no intrinsic age-based restrictions on difficulty level, ie students can go at their own pace. Students editing their written work on word processors improve the quality of their writing. According to some studies, the students are better at critiquing and editing written work that is exchanged over a computer network with students they know. [165] Studies completed in “computer intensive” Co-operative and higher-order learning, writing skills, problem solving, and using technology. [171] In addition, attitudes towards technology as a learning tool by parents, students and teachers are also improved.

Employers’ acceptance of online education has risen over time. [172] More than 50% of Human Resource Managers SHRM surveyed for an August 2010 report said that if a candidate was a candidate for a job, Through an online or a traditional school. Seventy-nine percent said they had employed a candidate with an online degree in the past 12 months. However 66% said candidates who get degrees on a job candidate with traditional degrees. [172]

The use of educational apps has positive effect on learning. Pre- and post-tests reveal the achievement gap between struggling and average students. [173] Some educational apps improve group work by allowing students to receive feedback on answers and promoting collaboration in solving problems, examples of these apps can be found in the third paragraph. The benefits of app-assisted learning have been exhibited in all ages groups. Kindergarten students that use iPads show much higher rates of literacy than non-users. Medical students at University of California Irvine that utilized 23% higher on national exams than previous classes that did not. Mobile devices and apps have also been shown to assist in the education of disabled students, with one study reporting increased commitment and accelerated understanding and learning. [174]

Aparicio, Bacao & Oliveira [175] model explains more than 66% of the variation of the perceived Performance and satisfaction, and to individualism / collectivism. Latest studies on e-learning success determinants demonstrate that students with high grait levels (stamina, perseverance and consistency of interest) achieve better results in learning. [176]

Some experts believe that students have grown up with technology and therefore can use it creatively if properly facilitated by teachers. [177] Many educators argue that students will abuse the technology if allowed to use it in class; Johnson states in his article “Taming the Chaos” about handling technology in the classroom. He explains what he is doing and what he wants to do. [178]

Disadvantages

Many US states spend large sums of money on technology. However, as of 2013 , we did not have any information about the outcome. [179]

New technologies are often accompanied by unrealistic hype and promise regarding their transformative power to change education for the better or in the best educational opportunities to reach the masses. Examples include silent film, broadcast radio, and television, none of which have maintained much of a foothold in the daily practices of mainstream, formal education. [180] Technology, in and of itself, does not necessarily result in fundamental improvements to educational practice. [181] Learner’s interaction with technology-not the technology itself. It needs to be recognized as “ecological” rather than “additive” or “subtractive”. In this ecological change, one significant change will create total change.

According to Branford et al., “Technology does not guarantee effective learning”. [183] A University of Washington study of infant vocabulary shows that it is slipping due to educational baby DVDs. Published in the Journal of Pediatrics, a 2007 University of Washington study on the vocabulary of babies surveyed over 1,000 parents in Washington and Minnesota. The study found that for every one hour babies 8-16 months of age watched DVDs and Videos they knew 6-8 fewer of 90 common baby words than the babies that did not watch them. Andrew Meltzoff, who is the author of the book ” The babies are not going to get the same linguistic experience. Dr. Dimitri Chistakis, another surveyor reported that the evidence is mounting that baby DVDs are of no value and may be harmful. [184] [185] [186] [187]

Adaptive instructional materials tailor questions to each student’s ability and calculate their scores, but this encourages students to work individually rather than socially or collaboratively (Kruse, 2013). Social relationships are important but high-tech environments may compromise the balance of trust, care and respect between teacher and student. [188]

Massively open online shopping (MOOCs), but are still popular in the developing countries. One of the stated goals of MOOCs is to provide less fortunate populations (ie, in developing countries) an opportunity to experience races with US-style content and structure. However, research shows only 3% of the registrants are from low-income countries. [189] MOOCs also implied that certain curriculum and teaching methods were superior and could eventually wash out (or possibly wash out) local educational institutions, cultural norms and educational traditions. [190]

With the Internet and social media, using educational apps makes the students highly susceptible to distraction and sidetracking. Even though it would be a detrimental. Another disadvantage is increased potential for cheating. Smartphones can be very easy to hide and use inconspicuously, especially if their use is normalized in the classroom. These disadvantages can be managed with strict rules and regulations on mobile phone use.

Over-stimulation

Electronic devices such as cell phones and computers. Michel Rich, an associate professor at Harvard Medical School and Executive Director of the Center on Media and Child Health in Boston, said of the digital generation, “Their brains are rewarded not for staying on task, but for jumping to the next thing.” Worry is we’re raising a generation of kids in front of screens that are bracing to be wired differently. ” [191] Students have always faced distractions; Computers and cellphones are a particular challenge because the stream of data can interfere with focusing and learning. Although these technologies affect adults too, Young people may be more influenced by it as their developing brains can easily become habituated to switching tasks and become unaccustomed to sustaining attention. [191] Too much information, coming too rapidly, can overwhelm thinking. [192]

Technology is “rapidly and profoundly altering our brains.” [193] High exposure levels stimulate brain cell alteration and release neurotransmitters, which causes the strengthening of some neural pathways and weakening of others. This leads to heightened stress levels on the brain that, at first, boost energy levels, goal, over time, actually increase memory, odd cognition, lead to depression, alter the neural circuitry of the hippocampus, amygdala and prefrontal cortex. These are the brain regions that control mood and thought. If unchecked, the underlying structure of the brain could be altered. [191] [193] Over-stimulation due to technology may begin too young. When children are exposed before the age of seven, important developmental tasks may be delayed, And bad learning habits might develop, which “deprive children of the exploration and play that they need to develop.” [194] Media psychology is an emerging specialty field that embraces electronic devices and the sensory behaviors occurring from the use of educational technology in learning.

Sociocultural criticism

According to Lai, “the learning environment is a complex system where the interplay and interactions of many things impact the outcome of learning.” [195] When technology is used in an educational setting, the pedagogical setting changes in that technology-driven teaching can change the entire meaning of an activity without adequate research validation. If technology monopolizes an activity, students can begin to develop the sense that “life would scarcely be thinkable without technology.” [196]

Leo Marx considered the word “technology” itself as problematic, [197] susceptible to reification and “phantom objectivity”, which considers the human condition. Technology ultimately comes down to affecting the relations between people, but this notion is obfuscated when technology is treated as an abstract notion of devoid of good and evil. Langdon Winner is the author of the article “Langdon Winner”. On “use” All rights reserved. [196] : ix-39 These criticisms would have us not ask, “How do we maximize the role or advancement of technology in education?”, But rather, “What are the social and human consequences of adopting any particular technology?”

Winner viewed as a “form of life” that not only a human activity, but also a powerful force in reshaping that activity and its meaning. [196] : ix-39 For example, the use of robots in the industrial workplace may increase productivity, but they also radically change the process of production itself, which is redefining what is meant by “work” in such a setting. In education, standardized testing has arguably redefined the notions of learning and assessment. We rarely explicitly reflect on how strange a notion it is that a number between, say, 0 and 100 can accurately reflect a person’s knowledge about the world. According to Winner, the recurring patterns in everyday life tends to become an unconscious process that we learn to take for granted. Winner writes,

By far the greatest latitude of choice exists a very particular instrument, system, or technique is introduced. Because the original commitments are made, the original flexibility vanishes for all practical purposes. In that sense technological innovations are similar to legislative acts or political foundations that establish a framework for public order that will endure over many generations. (P.29)

When adopting new technologies, there may be one best chance to “get it right.” Seymour Papert (pp. 32-30): “The best way to get a QWERTY keyboard is to use the QWERTY keyboard. [198] The QWERTY arrangement of letters on the keyboard was originally chosen, not because it was the most efficient for typing, but because they were prone to jam when adjacent keys were struck in quick succession. The QWERTY scheme is the only way to make a living.

Neil Postman is the author of a series of articles on the use of the term “culture of classifications”. [182] Regarding the computer’s impact on education, Postman writes (p.19):

What we need to know about the computer has nothing to do with its efficiency as a teaching tool. We have the opportunity to learn more about the concept of learning and how to use it in conjunction with television.

There is an assumption that technology is inherently interesting so it must be helpful in education; Based on research by Daniel Willingham, that is not always the case. He argues that it is not necessary to use the medium in a beneficial way. [199]

Digital divide

Main article: Digital divide

The concept of the digital divide is a gap between those who have access to digital technologies and those who do not. [200] Access may be associated with age, gender, socio-economic status, education, income, ethnicity, and geography. [200] [201]

Data protection

According to a report by the Electronic Frontier Foundation , large amounts of personal data are collected by electronic devices in the United States. Often more information than necessary is collected, uploaded and stored indefinitely. Aside name and date of birth, this information can include the child’s browsing history, search terms, location data, contact lists, as well as behavioral information. [202] : 5 Parents are not informed or, if informed, have little choice. [202] : 6 According to the report, this constant monitoring resulting from educational technology can “warp children’s privacy expectations, lead them to self-censor, and limit their creativity.” [202] :

Teacher training

Since technology is not the end goal of education, but rather a means by which it can be accomplished, educators must have a good grasp of the technology and its advantages and disadvantages. Teacher training for effective integration of classroom technology. [203]

The evolving nature of technology may unsettle teachers, who may experience themselves as perpetual novices. [204] Finding quality materials to support classroom objectives is often difficult. Random professional development days are inadequate. [204]

According to Jenkins, “Rather than dealing with each other in isolation, we would prefer to take an ecological approach, thinking about the interrelationship among different communication technologies, the cultural communities that grow up around them, and the activities they support.” [201] Jenkins also suggested that the traditional school curriculum guide students to train students to be autonomous problem solvers. [201] However, today’s workers are increasingly asked to work in teams, drawing on different sets of expertise, and collaborating to solve problem. [201] Learning styles and the methods of collecting information have evolved, and ”

Assessment

There are two distinct issues of assessment: the assessment of educational technology [201] [207] and assessment with technology. [208]

Assessments of educational technology-have included the Follow Through project.

Educational assessment with technology may be either formative assessment or summative assessment . Instructors use both types of assessment to understand student progress and learning in the classroom. Technology has helped teachers create better assessments to help understand where students are having trouble with the material are having issues.

Formative assessment is more difficult, as the perfect form is continuous and allows the students to show their learning in different ways depending on their learning styles . Technology has helped some teachers make their formative assessments better, especially through the use of classroom response systems (CRS). [209] A CRS is a tool in which the students each have a handheld device that partners up with the teacher’s computer. The instructor then asks multiple choice or true or false questions and the students answer on their device. [209] Depending on the software used, the answers may then be shown on a graph so students and teacher can see the percentage of students who give each answer and the teacher can focus on what went wrong.

Summative assessments are more common in classrooms and are usually set up to be more easily graded, as they take the form of tests or projects with specific grading schemes. One of the most important aspects of this study is the ability to provide information on how to give feedback. When students get these responses, they are able to know how they are doing in the class which can help them to improve or give them confidence that they are doing well. [211] Technology also allows for different kinds of summative assessment, such as digital presentations, videos, or anything else the teacher / students may come up with, which allows students to learn more effectively.

Electronic assessment uses information technology . It encompasses several potential applications, which may be teacher or student oriented, including educational assessment throughout the continuum of learning, such as computerized classification testing , computerized adaptive testing , student testing , and grading an exam. E-Marking is an activity LED look étroitement related to other e-assessment activities Such As e-testing, or e-learning qui are student led. E-marking the markers to mark a scanned script or online response on a computer screen rather than on paper.

E-marking, with e-marking applications, and video submissions for performance examinations. E-marking software is used by individual educational institutions and can also be rolled out to the participating schools of awarding organizations. E-marking has been used to mark many well-known high-stakes examinations, which in the United Kingdom include A levels and GCSE exams, and in the US includes the SAT test for college admissions. Ofqualreports that e-marking is the main type of marking used for general qualifications in the United Kingdom.

In 2007, the International Baccalaureate implemented e-marking. In 2012, 66% of nearly 16 million exam scripts were “e-marked” in the United Kingdom. [212] Ofqual reports that in 2015, all key stage 2 tests in the United Kingdom will be marked onscreen.

In 2014, the Scottish Qualifications Authority (SQA) announced that most of the National 5 question papers would be e-marked. [213]

In June 2015, the Odisha state government in India announced that it planned to use e-marking for all II papers from 2016. [214]

Analytics

The importance of self-assessment through tools made available on Educational Technology platforms has been growing. Self-assessment in education and training in the field of education and training. [215] [216] One of the unique tools for self-assessment made possible by education technology is Analytics. Analytics is a collection of data on the students’ activities on the learning platform, drawn into meaningful patterns that leads to a valid conclusion, usually through the medium of data visualization such as graphs.

Expenditure

The five key sectors of the e-learning industry are consulting, content, technologies, services and support. [217] Worldwide, e-learning was estimated in 2000 to be over $ 48 billion according to conservative estimates. [218]Commercial growth has been brisk. [219] [220] In 2014, the trade worldwide market activity Was Estimated at $ 6 trillion venture capital over the past five years, [219] : 38 with self-paced learning Generating $ 35.6 trillion in 2011. [219] : 4 North American E-learning software $ 23.3 billion in revenue, with a 9% growth rate in cloud-based authoring tools and learning platforms. [219] : 19

Careers

Educational technologists and psychologists apply basic education and psychological research into an evidence-based applied science (or a technology) of learning or instruction. In this paper, we describe the psychological, psychological, and psychological aspects of psychology in the field of psychology. of educational, instructional or human performance technology or instructional design . In training , technical instructioners , technical trainers , Technical communication and professional communication specialists, technical writers , and of course primary school and college teachers of all levels. The transformation of educational technology from a cottage industry to a profession is discussed by Shurville et al. [221]

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