Computer-mediated communication

Computer-mediated communication ( CMC ) is defined as any communication that occurs through the use of two or more electronic devices. [1] While the term has traditionally Referred To Those communications That Occur via computer-mediated formats (eg, instant messaging , email , chat rooms , online forums , social network services ) It has aussi beens applied to other forms of text-based Interaction such as text messaging . [2] Research on CMC focuses widely on the social effects of different computer-supported communication technologies.

Scope of the field

Scholars from a variety of fields study phenomenon that can be described under the umbrella term of computer mediated communication (CMC) (see also Internet studies ). For example, Many take a sociopsychological approach to CMC by Examining how humans use “computers” (or digital media ) to manage interpersonal interaction, form and form impressions and Maintain relationships. [3] [4] These studies have often focused on the differences between online and offline interactions, but contemporary research is moving towards the view that CMC should be studied as embedded in everyday life. [5] Another branch of CMC research examined the use of paralinguistic features Such As emoticons , [6] pragmatic rules Such As turn-taking [7] and the sequential analysis and organization of talk, [8] [9] and the various sociolects , Styles , registers or sets of terminology specific to these environments (see Leet). The study of language in these contexts is typically based on computer-mediated discourse analysis. [10] [6] pragmatic rules Such As turn-taking [7] and the sequential analysis and organization of talk, [8] [9] and the various sociolects , styles , registers or sets of terminology specific to thesis environments (see Leet ). The study of language in these contexts is typically based on computer-mediated discourse analysis. [10] [6] pragmatic rules Such As turn-taking [7] and the sequential analysis and organization of talk, [8] [9] and the various sociolects , styles , registers or sets of terminology specific to thesis environments (see Leet ). The study of language in these contexts is typically based on computer-mediated discourse analysis. [10] [8] [9] and the various sociolects , styles , registers or sets of terminology specific to these environments (see Leet ). The study of language in these contexts is typically based on computer-mediated discourse analysis. [10] [8] [9] and the various sociolects , styles , registers or sets of terminology specific to these environments (see Leet ). The study of language in these contexts is typically based on computer-mediated discourse analysis. [10]

The way humans communicate in professional, social, and educational settings varies widely, not only the environment but also the method of communication in which the communication occurs, which in this case is computers or other information and communication technologies ( ICTs ). The study of communication to achieve collaboration -common work products-is termed computer-supported collaboration and includes only some of the issues of other forms of CMC research.

Popular forms of CMC include e-mail , video , audio or text chat (instant messaging), bulletin board systems , list-servs and MMOs . These settings are rapidly changing with the development of new technologies. Weblogs (blogs) have become popular, and the exchange of RSS has become “enabled their own publisher”.

Characteristics

Communication occurring within a computer-mediated format has an effect on many different aspects of an interaction. Training, deception, group dynamics, disclosure reciprocity, disinhibition and special relationship training.

CMC is a synchronicity , persistence or “recordability”, and anonymity . The association of these aspects with different forms of communication varies widely. For example, instant messaging is intrinsically synchronous but not persistent, since one loses all the content when one closes the dialog box unless one has a message log set up or has manually copy-pasted the conversation. E-mail and message boards, on the other hand, are low in synchronicity since response time varies, but high in persistence since messages are sent and received are saved. Properties that separate CMC from other media also include transience, its multimodal nature, and its relative lack of governing codes of conduct. [11] CMC is able to overcome physical and social limitations of other forms of communication and therefore allow the interaction of people who are not physically sharing the same space.

The medium in which people disclose personal information. CMC is marked by higher levels of self-disclosure in conversation as opposed to face-to-face interactions. [12] Self disclosure is any verbal communication of personally relevant information, thought, and feeling which establishes and maintains interpersonal relationships. [13] This is due in part to visual anonymity and the absence of nonverbal cues which reduce concern for losing positive face . According to Walther’s (1996) hyperpersonal communication model , computer-mediated communication is valuable in providing better communication and better first impressions. [3] Moreover, Ramirez and Zhang (2007) indicate that computer-mediated communication allows more closeness and attraction between two individuals than a face-to-face communication. [14] Online print management, self-disclosure, attentiveness, expressivity, composure and other skills. [15] In fact, there is a substantial connection of skills in computer-mediated and face-to-face interaction [16] Even though there is great diversity of online communication tools. Composure and other skills. [15] In fact, there is a substantial connection of skills in computer-mediated and face-to-face interaction [16] Even though there is great diversity of online communication tools. Composure and other skills. [15] In fact, there is a substantial connection of skills in computer-mediated and face-to-face interaction [16] Even though there is great diversity of online communication tools.

Anonymity and in part privacy and security. However, most researchers in the field acknowledge the importance of considering the psychological and social implications of these factors alongside the technical “limitations”.

Language learning

Main article: Language learning software

CMC is widely discussed in language learning because CMC provides opportunities for language learners to practice their language. [17] For example, Warschauer [18] conducted several cases in different language classes. Warschauer [19], which is the subject of the paper. Thus, considerable concern has arisen over the reading and writing research in L2 due to the booming of the Internet.

Benefits

The nature of CMC means that it is easy for individuals to engage in communication with others regardless of time or location. CMC can not be held liable for such factors as geography. [20] In addition, CMC can also be useful for allowing individuals who might be intimidated due to factors like character or disabilities to participate in communication. By calling a person to communicate with a minimal stress. [21] Making an individual comfortable through CMC also plays a role in self-disclosure, which allows a communicative partner to open up more easily and more expressively. When communicating through an electronic medium, Individuals are less likely to engage in stereotyping and are self-conscious about physical characteristics. The role that anonymity plays in online communication can also encourage some users to be less defensive and form relationships with others more rapidly. [22]

See also

  • Emotions in virtual communication
  • Internet relationship

References

  1. Jump up^ McQuail, Denis. (2005). Mcquail’s Mass Communication Theory. 5th ed. London: SAGE Publications.
  2. Jump up^ Thurlow, C., Lengel, L. & Tomic, A. (2004). Computer mediated communication: Social interaction and the internet. London: Wise.
  3. ^ Jump up to:b Walther, JB (1996). Computer-mediated communication: Impersonal, interpersonal, and hyperpersonal interaction. Communication Research, 23, 3-43.
  4. Jump up^ Walther, JB, &Burgoon, JK(1992). Relational communication in computer-mediated interaction. Human Communication Research, 19, 50-88.
  5. Jump up^ Haythornthwaite, C. and Wellman, B. (2002). The Internet in everyday life: An introduction. In B. Wellman and C. Haythornthwaite (Eds.), The Internet in Everyday Life (pp. 3-41). Oxford: Blackwell.
  6. Jump up^ Skovholt, K., Grønning, A. and Kankaanranta, A. (2014), The Communicative Functions of Emoticons in Workplace E-Mails: :-). Journal of Computer-Mediated Communication, 19: 780-797. Doi:10.1111 / jcc4.12063
  7. Jump up^ Garcia, AC, & Jacobs, JB (1999). The eyes of the beholder: Understanding the turn-taking system in quasi-synchronous computer-mediated communication. Research on Language & Social Interaction, 32, 337-367.
  8. Jump up^ Herring, S. (1999). Interactional coherence in CMC. Journal of Computer-Mediated Communication, 4 (4).
  9. Jump up^ Markman, KM (2006). Computer-mediated conversation: The organization of talk in chat-based virtual team meetings. Dissertation Abstracts International, 67 (12A), 4388. (UMI No. 3244348)
  10. Jump up^ Herring, SC (2004). Computer-mediated discourse analysis: An approach to researching online behavior. In: SA Barab, R. Kling, and JH Gray (Eds.), Designing for Virtual Communities in the Service of Learning (pp. 338-376). New York: Cambridge University Press.
  11. Jump up^ McQuail, Denis. (2005). Mcquail’s Mass Communication Theory. 5th ed. London: SAGE Publications.
  12. Jump up^ Jiang, C., Bazarova, N., & Hancock, J. (2011). From perception to behavior: Disclosure reciprocity and the intensification of intimacy in computer-mediated communication. Communication Research, 40, 125-143.
  13. Jump up^ Jiang, C., Bazarova, N., & Hancock, J. (2011). From perception to behavior: Disclosure reciprocity and the intensification of intimacy in computer-mediated communication. Communication Research, 40, 125-143.
  14. Jump up^ Dunn., R., 2013. Identity Theories and Technology. p.30. East Tennessee State University, USA.
  15. Jump up^ Spitzberg, B.”Preliminary Development of a Model and Computer-Mediated Communication (CMC) Competence”.
  16. Jump up^ Bubas, G. & Spitzberg, B.”The relations of communication skills in face-to-face and computer-mediated communication”.
  17. Jump up^ Abrams, Z. (2006). From Theory to Practice:IntraculturalCMC in the L2 Classroom. Book chapter, forthcoming in Ducate, Lara & Nike Arnold (Eds.) Calling on CALL: From Theory and Research to New Directions in Foreign Language Teaching.
  18. Jump up^ Warschauer, M. (1998). Electronic literacies: Language, culture and power in online education. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
  19. Jump up^ Warschauer, M. (2006). Laptops and literacy: learning in the wireless classroom: Teachers College, Columbia University.
  20. Jump up^ Crum,”Advantages and Disadvantages of Computer Mediated Communication”
  21. Jump up^ Lane,”Computer-Mediated Communication in the Classroom: Asset or Liability?”
  22. Jump up^ Schouten, Valkenburg & Peter,”An Experimental Test of Processes Underlying Self-Disclosure in Computer-Mediated Communication”.

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