Animal Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture

Genetic resources for food and agriculture are a subset of genetic resources (defined by the Convention on Biological Diversity as a genetic material of actual or potential value [1] ) and a specific element of agricultural biodiversity . The term animal genetic resources is often used to refer to the genetic resources of avian and mammalian species used in or potentially used for food and agriculture purposes. [2] [3] The term “animal genetic resources for food and agriculture” is often shortened to “animal genetic resources” or “livestock biodiversity”

Animal genetic resources can be embodied in live populations or in conserved genetic materials such as cryoconserved semen or embryos . The diversity of animal genetic resources includes diversity within species and breedwithin-breed level. [3] There are currently 8,800 different breeds within 38 species of birds and mammals that are currently used for food and agriculture. [3] The main animal species used for food and agriculture production are cattle , sheep , goats , chickens and pigs . In the livestock world, these species are often referred to as ”

History of Animal Genetic Resources

The history of animal genetic resources begins about 12,000 to 14,000 years ago. The domestication of major crops and livestock species in the early neolithic time period changed our human evolution and lifestyles; This ability to control food production leads to major demographic, technological, political and military changes. Consecutively, Thousands of years of natural and human selection, genetic drift , inbreeding , and Crossbreeding -have Contributed to the diversification of animal genetic resources and the variety of environments Increased Production and livestock keeping systems That takes up. [4] Relatively few species have been domesticated; Out of the world ‘ S 148 non-carnivorous species weighing more than 45 kg, only 15 have been successfully domesticated. [5] The proportion of domesticated birds used for food and agriculture is even lower- 10 out of 10,000. The reason for this is that it is rare to find species with all the necessary physiological traits for domestication. These traits include lack of aggression towards humans, a strong gregarious instinct, a “follow the leader” dominance hierarchy, a tendency not to panic when disturbed, Short intervals between births, and large litter size. [5] [5] The proportion of domesticated birds used for food and agriculture is even lower- 10 out of 10,000. The reason for this is that it is rare to find species with all the necessary physiological traits for domestication. These traits include lack of aggression towards humans, a strong gregarious instinct, a “follow the leader” dominance hierarchy, a tendency not to panic when disturbed, Short intervals between births, and large litter size. [5] [5] The proportion of domesticated birds used for food and agriculture is even lower- 10 out of 10,000. The reason for this is that it is rare to find species with all the necessary physiological traits for domestication. These traits include lack of aggression towards humans, a strong gregarious instinct, a “follow the leader” dominance hierarchy, a tendency not to panic when disturbed, Short intervals between births, and large litter size. [5] These traits include lack of aggression towards humans, a strong gregarious instinct, a “follow the leader” dominance hierarchy, a tendency not to panic when disturbed, Short intervals between births, and large litter size. [5] These traits include lack of aggression towards humans, a strong gregarious instinct, a “follow the leader” dominance hierarchy, a tendency not to panic when disturbed, Short intervals between births, and large litter size. [5]

Besides their initial domestication, dispersion and migration of these domesticated species has had an equally important impact on shaping the composition of livestock diversity. The process of migration between regions, and the interchange between populations. In order to look back and determine Where livestock domestication occurred, osteometric information from archaeological sites and ancient livestock DNA studies are useful tools.

Other factors Such As mutations , genetic drift and natural and artificial selection aussi-have played a role in shaping the diversity of livestock populations. As animal populations migrated away from their original sites of domestication, sub-populations were formed through geographic and genetic isolation . Intrabreeding Within These sub-populations entre Individuals That thrived in the local prevailing environmental circumstances (and THUS Were better to reliably reproduce) Contributed to the formation of separate groups of animals, Known As breeds . This isolation of sub-populations allows the simultaneous increase in diversification between these sub-populations and increase in uniformity within them. Human intervention through artificial selection of animals with desirable characteristics. Examples of traits that have been deliberately selected for humans include growth rate, milk or egg production, coat color, meat quality, and age of maturity, among many others. The process of artificial selection has been the main reason for the evolution of production and production. [6] Overall, selection, whether it be natural or artificial, Generally results in Reduced genetic variation. Coat color, meat quality, and age of maturity, among many others. The process of artificial selection has been the main reason for the evolution of production and production. [6] Overall, selection, whether it be natural or artificial, Generally results in Reduced genetic variation. Coat color, meat quality, and age of maturity, among many others. The process of artificial selection has been the main reason for the evolution of production and production. [6] Overall, selection, whether it be natural or artificial, Generally results in Reduced genetic variation.

Over the past 250 years the major changes in livestock diversity and creation of formal breeds have happened mainly due to changes that began in England in the late 18th century. These changes have included development of systematic pedigree and performance recording and specific breeding objectives. This led to the fixation of breed-specific traits and to increase in productivity. Some breeds were intrabred as distinct, isolated populations, while many breeds continued to interact with each other as a result of intentional cross-breeding or unintended introgression . Before the end of the 19th century, several breeds had been absorbed by other populations. [7] In the 19th century, railways and steamships increased the long-distance transportation of livestock. After the Second World War, artificial insemination became common in cattle and pig breeding. As a result of these developments, a limited number of transboundary commercial breeds, such as the Holstein cow and Large White pig , have become very widespread and increasingly dominate livestock production globally. [5] Thus, understanding the origins and the history of distribution of livestock are central to maintaining their current utilization and long-term conservation as resources. [8] Such as the Holstein cow and Large White pig , have become very widespread and increasingly dominate livestock production globally. [5] Thus, understanding the origins and the history of distribution of livestock are central to maintaining their current utilization and long-term conservation as resources. [8] Such as the Holstein cow and Large White pig , have become very widespread and increasingly dominate livestock production globally. [5] Thus, understanding the origins and the history of distribution of livestock are central to maintaining their current utilization and long-term conservation as resources. [8]

Benefits and Uses of Livestock Diversity

The genetic diversity of livestock breeds and genetic diversity has a substantial value to society. The different breeds provide a wide range of products and services for the benefit of humankind. The diversity of animal genetic resources can be explored in a variety of environments and underpins the supply of a variety of products and services: from meat , milk and eggs to fuel , manure and draught power . [3]

Diversity and flexibility to change breeding goals. For example, while the Holstein Freisian Cow is widely used for its whole milk production, if cereal feed or demand for low-solid content milk changes, there may be a decrease in the Holstein cows. Different breeds produce specific wool , hairs and leather for clothing, carpets and furniture and are often the basis for traditional garments.

Local breeds that have been developed by a community have a huge cultural significance for that community. Livestock are often a source of wealth and are critical for its maintenance. They appear frequently in art and often play key roles in traditional customs, such as religious ceremonies, sporting events and weddings. Cultural ecosystem services and also recreational hunting. Cultural ecosystem services, including recreational hunting.

Breeds which have been developed in the past have been developed in the past and have been developed to provide ecosystem services , such as landscape management, vegetation control, and promotion of biodiversity, which are critical for maintaining those landscapes. [9] For example, the Engadine sheep , which were near extinction in the 1980s, today help to preserve centuries-old grassland in the Alps by eating invasive shrubs. [10] Grazing livestock also helps sequester carbon by removing plant material and encouraging regrowth and thus the movement of carbon from the air into soil organic matter. [11]

Greater livestock diversity is a good way to meet future challenges, such as climate change . Having access to a variety of livestock traits may allow for greater ability to cope with harsh climates and emerging diseases. Animals with unique adaptive abilities, such as resistance or tolerance to diseases and pests, or ability to thrive. Within the scope of the present invention,

Values ​​of Animal Genetic Resources

“From a formal economic perspective, animal genetic resources can have various different types of value for conservation. These values ​​can be categorized as follows

  • Direct use value – results from benefits obtained from the utilization of animal genetic resources, such as the production of milk or meat.
  • Indirect use value – from the provision of support or protection to other activities, including the provision of regulating and supporting ecosystem services (eg cycling of soil nutrients, seed dispersal, fire control).
  • Option value – results from the potential benefits of having a given resource available for the future; For example, to have an environmental impact assessment.
  • Bequest value – results from benefits that could be obtained from the knowledge that the genetic resource in the future.
  • Existence value – results from the satisfaction of knowing that a given genetic resource exists, even if no other type of value can be derived from it.

Increasing the direct use value will contribute to the economic sustainability of a breed and therefore to the potential for successful conservation activities. ” [12] [13]

Threats to Livestock Diversity

Despite the importance of animal genetic resources and their diversity, their diversity has been continually decreasing over time. For example, the Pantaneiro cattle of Brazil are at risk of extinction. One of the greatest threats to livestock is the production of high-output breeds. [2] Recent molecular studies have revealed that the diversity of today’s indigenous livestock populations in their commercial counterparts. [5] Some other major threats to livestock diversity include climate change, inappropriate development of policies and management strategies, disease outbreaks, armed conflict and various types of natural disasters and emergencies.

Climate change and its impact on livestock is being studied. Changes in climate will have an impact on livestock and food production in many ways. [14] [15] In Africa, different regions are predicted to experience different changes in weather patterns. For example, parts of Madagascar and Mozambique are predicted to have a drier than average rainy season. [16]

Some major disease threats facing include That livestock Currently, rinderpest , foot and mouth disease , and Peste des petits ruminants (PPR), Also Known As sheep and goat plague.

Current State of the World’s Animal Genetic Resources

The Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) has taken the initiative and published two global assessments of livestock biodiversity : The State of the World’s Animal Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture (2007) and the Second Report on the State of the World’s Animal Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture (2015). [3]

Although many species and breeds of animals are currently available for food and agriculture production, there is a risk of extinction; 17% of the world’s farm animal breeds are at risk of extinction and 58% are of unknown risk status, meaning that the problem may be underestimated. [3] The genetic resources of genetic resources are also currently shrinking, with rapid and uncontrolled loss of breeds and their often uncharacterized genes. Nearly 100 livestock breeds have gone extinct between 2000 and 2014. [5] With the loss of these breeds comes the loss of their unique adaptive traits, which are often under the control of many different genes and complex interactions between the genotype and the environment. [3] In order to protect these unique traits, and the diversity they allow, collaborative global efforts towards the characterization and management of these genetic resources must be made. Unlike plants, which can be easily conserved in seed banks, a large portion of livestock genetic diversity relies on live populations and their interactions with the environment.

Progress is being made in the characterization and management of animal genetic resources for food and agriculture. Recent advances in molecular genetics and genetic resources. Genetic markers and molecular studies are used to characterize the diversity of the present patterns, including ancestry, prehistoric and historical migrations, admixture , and genetic isolation . [6] Exploration of the past is essential to understanding trends and to better characterize the current state of animal genetic resources. In 2009, six years after completion of the human genome project, Cattle became one of the first livestock species to have a fully mapped genome. [17]

Some general conclusions from recent molecular studies show that individual breeds only differ by typically 40% in total genetic molecular composition; Species differ by about 80% of their genetic material. Additionally, breeds with well-defined and appreciated features tend to be inbred and have low genetic diversity, while non-descript local populations tend to have high molecular genetic diversity. [18]

Management of Animal Genetic Resources

Characterization of Animal Genetic Resources

Characterization of animal genetic resources is a prerequisite for its management. Advances in molecular genetics have provided us with tools to better understand the origins and diversity of diversity. There are many technologies capable of determining genetic profiles, including whole genome sequencing , shotgun sequencing , RNA sequencing and DNA microarray analysis . These techniques allow us to map genomes and then analyze their implications through bioinformatics and statistical analysis. Molecular genetic studies, especially genome-wide association studies and whole-genome sequencing allow adaptive traits to be linked to genomic regions, genes, or even mutations. For example, horn size, meat quality, gait, And prenatal growth in cattle all have single genes found to be responsible for these phenotypic traits. [19]

Specific regions of DNA, such as quantitative trait loci (QTL) , include genes affecting observable traits and thus have statistically detectable associations with these traits. However, DNA polymorphisms are commonly used as markers for genetic diversity studies; Different levels of genetic diversity can be obtained from different kinds of genetic markers. For example, autosomal polymorphisms are used for population diversity estimates, genetic relationships and population genetic admixture , whereas mitochondrial DNA polymorphisms are used to detect geographic regions of domestication, [20] reconstructing migration routes [21] and the number of female founders. [22]Drawing such inferences is possible because mitochondrial DNA sequences are transferred only through egg cells of the female.

Some general conclusions from recent molecular studies show that individual breeds within species show about 1% of the genome, whereas the variation of genetic material between species is about 80%. Additionally, breeds with well-defined and appreciated features tend to be inbred and have low genetic diversity, while non-descript local populations tend to have high molecular genetic diversity. [18]

Sustainable Use of Animal Genetic Resources

There are many forms of livestock-keeping, which all have their own pros and cons in terms of maintaining genetic diversity. Systems range from completely human-controlled to wild. They differ in terms of animal management, animal treatment, environmental impact, and market infrastructure.

Intensive Chicken Farming
Industrial livestock production
Industrial livestock production intensive animal farming large-scale, principally landless systems. The animals are separated from the land and their environment is controlled by management interventions. Since a vast majority of consumers demand low-cost products, industrial livestock production has become common. However, there are several issues with industrial livestock production systems including disease, antibiotic use and ethical animal treatment . Living in densely packed cages or small spaces makes animals more prone to disease transmission from one animal to another.
Small-scale livestock production
Small-scale livestock production intents less intensive production cycles, access to outdoors or pasture, typically judicial use of antibiotics, and a connection to local niche markets. This type of livestock production can be maintained in peri-urban and rural settings. There are advantages and disadvantages to each. While it is more difficult to find land for livestock in peri-urban settings, incorporating livestock to small-scale farms can greatly increase the local food supply, reduce garden waste, and provide manure. [23] Peri-urban environments can aussi Provide Excellent foraging for bees , with less exposure to the pests , diseases , and Even pesticides That Can Be Devastating to a colony. [23] Conversely, rural small-scale livestock production is traditionally more common, and allows for larger-scale operations (although much smaller than industrial systems). However, it is important to note that this is not the case. Close rural-urban linkages are important to overcome constraints of feeding scarcity and to better utilize the advantages of each system. [5] Close rural-urban linkages are important to overcome constraints of feeding scarcity and to better utilize the advantages of each system. [5] Close rural-urban linkages are important to overcome constraints of feeding scarcity and to better utilize the advantages of each system. [5]
Mixed Farming
Mixed farming systems. These systems are similar to small-scale systems, but tend to be more rural setting, given the need for larger tracts of land for crop production. As with small-scale livestock production, access to formal markets is critical.
Ranching or grass-based production
These systems revolve around access to privately owned or rented grasslands, which the ruminant livestock feed on. In general, the livestock keeps a fresh and grown grass.
pastoralism
Pastoralism plays an important role in livestock management and food security. This system usually relies entirely on publicly-owned grasslands. Pastoralists move their livestock herds based on the season, which is also known as transhumance . Nomadic pastoralists follow an irregular pattern of movement. Current issues that include pastoralists face conflict over land rights, access to water, limited food resources, integration into global markets, and animal diseases. Climate change has had a negative impact on pastoralists, but evidence suggests that the root causes of land disputes are historical and political, rather than climate-related. [24] Land rights are an issue for pastoralists,

Conservation of Animal Genetic Resources

For some breeds, opportunities for sustainable use are limited. For such breeds, to ensure that their critical genetic diversity is not lost, conservation programs are required. Several approaches for conservation can be applied, Including situ conservation with live animal populations, and ex situ gold cryopreservation Involving the freezing of genetic materials. In many instances, both of these approaches are used in a complementary manner. In order to establish and support these programs, more research on methods and technologies is required.

Many countries are currently using conservation programs for their animal genetic resources, at least for some species and breeds. In situ conservation programs are the most commonly used approach. [3]

Policy for Animal Genetic Resources

The CGRFA, which is a body of FAO. In May, 1997, the CGRFA established an Intergovernmental Technical Working Group on Animal Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture (ITWG-AnGR). [25] The ITWG-AnGR’s objectives are to review the situation and issues related to agrobiodiversity of animal genetic resources for food and agriculture and advise and make recommendations to the Commission. [26] This group works with many partners and countries to produce the First Report on the State of Animal Genetic Resources, (GPA), which provides the basis for the Global Plan of Action for Animal Genetic Resources (GPA). In 2007, the GPA was adopted by 109 countries as the first international framework for the management of livestock biodiversity. [2] The implementation of the GPA is overseen, monitored and evaluated by the CGRFA. The Funding Strategy for the Implementation of the Global Plan of Action for Animal Genetic Resources . [27] [2] The implementation of the GPA is overseen, monitored and evaluated by the CGRFA. The Funding Strategy for the Implementation of the Global Plan of Action for Animal Genetic Resources . [27] [2] The implementation of the GPA is overseen, monitored and evaluated by the CGRFA. The Funding Strategy for the Implementation of the Global Plan of Action for Animal Genetic Resources . [27]

The access and benefit sharing of animal genetic resources ares currently regulated by the Nagoya Protocol is Access and Benefit sharing, qui is an agreement to the 1992 Convention on Biological Diversity. The Nagoya Protocol, which includes the genetic resources for food and agriculture. [28] This protocol may have both positive and negative impacts on the exchange of animal genetic resources between signatory countries.

However, as far as they are concerned, they are not in any way impracticable, as far as they are concerned, as far as they are concerned. Pastoralists , who are valuable players in maintaining livestock diversity.

One example is the use of genetic resources and control their utilization. Patenting of genetic resources is one approach that has been applied. Patenting of animal genetic resources in its late 1990s, focusing on expressed sequence tags (ESTs) and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) with associations with economically important traits. [29] SNPs are important in marker-assisted breeding for the identification of traits such as meat or milk quality. At the same time, patenting activity involving transgenic livestock also increased. However, animal genetic resources declined sharply from 2001, A genetically modified organism has been found to be a genetically modified organism. [29] Trends in genetic sequencing projects in the field of genetic resources management.

Increasingly complex issues are emerging that require balancing the interests of many stakeholders. In a time of rapid and unregulated change, livestock and their products should be used sustainably, developed and ultimately conserved. National planning should integrate “consumer affairs, human health matters, and the management of new biotechnologies, as well as physical and spatial planning of animal production in the context of urban expansion and protected areas.” [2]

There are many online databases for policies, national laws, treaties and regulations on food, agriculture and renewable natural resources, including animal genetic resources. FAOLEX is one of the largest online databases, and is run by FAO.

References

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